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Dental Assisting Chapter 1-12 Final Exam Review

STUDY
PLAY
Embryology
The study of prenatal development
Histology
The study of the structure and function of the tissues at the microscopic level
What are the stages of development?
Preimplantation, embryonic, and fetal period.
What is the first signs of tooth development found in the anterior mandibular region of the developing embryo?
When the embryo is about 5-6 weeks old
During prenatal tooth development,What is the genetic factor that is most often of concern?
tooth and jaw size
the process of laying down new bones?
Deposition
What is the 3 primary periods of odontogenesis?
Growth, Calcification, and Eruption
enamel forming cells
Ameloblasts
the movement of the teeth into their functional positions in the oral cavity
Eruption
a permanent tooth that replaces a primary tooth
Succedaneous
the portion of the tooth that is covered with enamel
anatomical crown
every tooth is divided into
crown and root
the tapered end of each root tip
apex
What is the living tissue of the tooth, made up of blood vessels and nerves?
Pulp
continuous with tissues of the periapical area via and apical foramen
Radicular pulp
the relationship within the periodontium
periodonal ligaments connect the cementum and alveolar bone
the extension of the bone of the mandible and maxilla that support the teeth in their functional positions in the jaws
Alveolar Process
the cell that helps in the process of laying down new bone
osteoblast
embedded portion of the periodontal ligament fibers that connect the cementum of the tooth and bone
Sharpey's fibers
tissue that covers the inside of the cheeks, vestibule, lips, soft palate, and ventral surface of the tongue
lining
tough, light pink keratinized tissue that covers the hard palate and includes the attached gingiva
masticatory mucosa
If a pregnant patient has to have dental e-rays taken, the safest time to take the x-ray is after
ninth week of pregnancy
the embryonic layer tooth enamel is formed from
ectoderm
any disruption during the formation and fusing of the palate could result in
cleft lip & palate
primary dentition begin to form during
fourth month of gestation
the teeth develop in this order
mandibular anterior then maxilary anterior
the development of a supernumerary (extra) tooth is considered to be an
anomaly
a developmental disturbance that is a genetic factor where there is absence of one or more teeth
anodontia
drugs and alchohol that can cause birth defects
Teratogen
the mother's dental health during pregnancy is considered to be
an environmental factor
process of tooth formation
odontogenesis
a stage of development where each tooth develops from its own tooth bud
Bud stage
the last tooth buds to develop are
permanent third molars
permanent teeth that are not permanent molars that begins to form at 12-14 weeks of gestation
succedaneous
the odontoblasts form ________ during the bell stage of tooth development.
Dentin
basic shape and size of each tooth is established during this process
morphodifferentiation
the first primary teeth to erupt into the mouth
mandibular anterior
normal process of shedding or losing primary teeth
exfoliation
the rooth of the tooth is covered with
cementum
the coloring of enamel are caused by
the color of the dentin beneath the enamel
makes up the main portion of the tooth structure that extends almost the entire length of the tooth and capable of growht and repair.
dentin
the primary function of cementum is
to anchor the tooth into the bony socket
blood vessels and nerves enter the pulp of the tooth through
apical foramen
the attachment apparatus that retains the tooth in its functional position in the jaw includes
alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligaments
the structure that surrounds, support ad is attached to the teeth
periodontium
During an examination, how can a dentist determine a patient is in the early stage of periodontal disease?
the alveolar crest is flattening out, increasing the distance between the CEJ and the alveolar crest
what is the difference between secondary dentin and tertiary dentin
Secondary dentin forms after the tooth erupts, Tertiary dentin forms as a response to the trauma
the human skull is divided into
cranium and face
there are eight bones in
cranium
the back and base of the cranium
occipital
the bones that form the prominence of the cheek
zygomatic
forms the upper jaw
maxillae
strongest, longest and only movable bone of the face
mandible
second phase in the mouth openning and movement of the TMJ
gliding
the condyloid process of the mandible lies in
the glenoid fossa
habitual grinding of the teeth
bruxism
muscles that work with TMJ to make all the movement of the mandible possible
mastication
a salivary gland located just below and in front of each ear
parotid
artery that is the major blood supply for the face and mouth
External carotid
artery that supplies blood to the mandibular teeth
Inferior alveolar
how how many pairs of cranial nerves are connected to the brain?
12
primary source of innervation for the oral cavity
Trigeminal
innervates the maxillary central, lateral and canine teeth
Anterior superior alveolar
location of the axillary lymph nodes
under the arms
this sinus is locatged within tghe forehead just above the eyes
frontal
the only bone that does not articulate with any other bone
hyoid
the bone that forms the lower jaw
mandible
the bone that forms the upper jaw
maxilla
the natural opening in the bone through which blood vessels and nerves pass
foamen
jagged line where bones articulate and form a joint that does not move
suture
spinal cord passes thru this foramen into the occipital bone
foramen magnum
in which part of the cranium is the external auditory meatus located?
temporal
what facial bone is useful in identifying maxillary radiographs (x-rays)
zygomatic
a large, rounded area on the outer surface of the maxillary bones; area of the posterior teeth
maxillary tuberosity
articulation between the temporal bones and the mandible
TMJ
The protrusion of mandible occurs when the internal/external pterygoid muscles
on both sides contract together
a spasm of the muscles of mastication; most common cause of restricted mandibular movement;
Jaws that "goes out" or "gets stuck"
Trismus
symptoms of Temporomandibular distorders TMD
headache, pain in the neck and with chewing
facial muscle that allows laughing and smiling
zygomatic major
muscle of the floor of the mouth aids during swallowing
styloid
functions of saliva
cleanse oral cavity, aid in digestion and speaking
parotid salivary glands
produces approximately 25% of the total volume of saliva
submandibular salivary gland
produces the largest toal volue of saliva; Wharton's Duct
a Stone that develop in the salivary duct that prevents saliva from flowing into the mouth
sialolith
blood vessel provides the major supply to the face and mouth
External carotid artery
major vein corresponds to common carotid artery and empties blood from upper portion of the body
Internal Jugular
artery that supplies blood to mandibular teeth
Inferior alveolar artery
air filled cavity within a bone
sinus
Which cranial nerve is damaged if there is a permanent paralysis of tongue and lip
Trigeminal
What is the rectangular area between the two ridges running under the nose to the midline of th upper lip?
philtrum
what part of the mandible forms the chin
mental protuberance
the angle at the corner of the mouth
labial commissure
the space between the teeth and the inner mucosal lining of the lips and cheeks
vestibule
a white ridge of raised tissue on the buccal mucosa, extending horizontally at the level where the maxillary/mandibular teeth come together
linea alba
a narrow band of tissue that connects two structures
frenum
_______ frenum passes from the floor of the mouth to the midline of the venrral border of the tongue
lingual
unattached gingiva consists of the tissues from the top of the gingival margin to the
base of the gingival sulcus
the characteristics of a normal gingiva
color varies according to the individual's pigmentation
nasal surfaces of the hard palate are covered with
respiratory mucosa
oral surfaces are covered with
oral mucosa
pear shaped pad of tissue behind the maxillary central incisors
incisive papilla
U shaped projection of tissue at posterior area of soft palate
tonsil
what part of the tongue is the "body"
the anterior two thirds
location of taste buds
In the trough of the vallate papillae, on the fungiform of papillae
what provides a sense of touch for the tongue?
Filiform papilae
the fold of the corner of the eyelids
canthus
A common term for labia
lips
A groove that extends upward between each labial commissure and nasal ala
nasiolabial sulcus
Opening of the Stensen's duct of parotid gland located in buccal mucosa of the cheek?
parotid papilae
What is unattached gingiva
the tissue that surrounds the teeth; it is about 1mm wide and is also called marginal gingiva
the space between the gum and the teeth before the bone starts, where popcorn husks become lodged
gingival sulcus
what is the correct term for the gum tissue that normally extends between the teeth?
both marginal gingiva or Interdental gingiva
The gingiva that extends from the base of the sulcus to the mucogingival juction
attached gingiva
the area inside the dental arches
oral cavity
common name for palate
roof of the mouth
the irregular ridges of the masticatory mucosa that are located behind the maxillary central incisors
rugae
what is a soft palate
the movable posterior third of the palate, posterior to the hard palate; sorpported by fauces and ends with the uvula
Tiny projections located on th dorsum of the tongue
papillae
the fuction of the tongue is to
speak, clean oral cavity and position food while eating
what attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth
lingual frenum
What serve as openings for the submandibular salivary glands?
Two small papillae are located on either side of the lingual frenum under the tongue
Function of taste buds
taste food and sense food temperature
what are the primary tastes that create all flavors of food?
sweet, sour, salty, and bitter
a bony socket that the teeth sits on
alveoli
the cartilagenous projection of the ear that is anterior to the external opening
tragus
FACE
part of the head that is visible from a frontal view, anterior to the ears, and lies between the hairline and the chin
Line where tissue of alveolar membrane meets the attached gingivae
Mucogingival junction
Soft palate on top, posterior of tongue on the bottom, and anterior/posterior fauces
gag reflex
mixed dentition period begins with
eruption of first permanent tooth
how many succedaneous teeth are there?
20
When does permanent dentition period begin?
At about 12 years of age when the last primary tooth is lost
what are the two sections/arches in the mouth
maxillary arch and mandibular arch
the mouth being divided into four sections
quadrants
What does the anterior teeth include?
Incisors and Canines
What are the four types of teeth?
Incisors, Canines, Premolars and Molars
What is the longest teeth in human dentition used for cutting and tearing?
Canines
Which teeth is used for chewing and grinding food?
Molars and premolars
What are the surfaces of the tooth?
mesial, distal, facial, lingual and masticatory
(occlusal or incisal)
Contours of the Teeth
The crown of the tooth narrows towards the cervical line
The area where the mesial/distal surfaces of the tooth touch the adjacent tooth in the arch
contact area
the relationship between the maxillary/mandibular teeth when the jaww are in full closed position.
occlusion
the jaw postion that produces maximal stable contact between th occluding surfaces of the max. and mand. teeth
centric occlusion
the key to Angle's classification system for occlusion and malocclusion
the permanent max first molar
Which tooth numbering system is often used in the US?
Universal/National System
How are the permanent teeth numbered in the Universal system?
1-32
According to the ISO/FDI numbering system, an adult mandibular left first molar would be #
#36
Palmer Notation System (PNS)
Each of the 4 quadrant, and the 2nnd digit indicates the tooth within the quadrant, with numbering from the midline to the posterior.
what is dentition?
the natural teeth in the dental arch
the first set of primary teeth is also referred to as?
deciduous
which permanent teeth are nonsuccedaneous teeth?
molars
which dentition between 6-12 years of age exhibits both primary and permanent teeth in the oral cavity at the same time?
Mixed Dentition
The mandibular arch is movable thru the action of _________?
TMJ
Each quad of the permanent dentition contains ______ teeth; Whereas each quad of the primary dentition contains ___________.
8;5
If the dentition is divided into sextants instead of quads, how many sextants are there in each arch?
3
The posterior teeth include the ________ and ________.
premolars; molars
Which type of tooth is not in the primary dentition but found only in the permanent dentition?
Premolars
How many premolars are there in primary dentition?
4
The terms labial and buccal can be substituted for _____________?
Facial
What are the chewing surface on both anterior and posterior teeth?
masticatory
The 2 surfaces that are proximal surfaces are __________ and ___________?
mesial; distal
How is the anatomic features of the teeth helpful?
To maintain position in dental arch and protect tissues during chewing.
The exact spot where adjacent teeth actually touch each other.
Contact Point
What is the importance of correct contact between adjacent teeth?
prevention of trapped food in between teeth, stabilize dental arch, and protect interproximal gingival tissue from trauma during chewing.
What is the division of the crown of the tooth that is divided crosswide with division of being parallel to occlusal/incisal surface of the tooth?
Occlusal third, middle third and cervical third
What is the standard for normal occlusion?
Centric Occlusion
In the Universal/National System, the primary teeth are identified using _________ and permanent teeth are identified using _________?
Letters A-T and # 1-32
If a dentist us the ISO numbering system and charts # 11, 12, 53, 54 and 18 teeth as being present in the patient's mouth, aproximately how old is the patient?
8-9 years of age
The size, shape, color and position of ___________ teeth determines how a person look.
anterior teeth
The rounded enamel extensions on the incisal ridge of newly erupted central/ lateral incisors are called ____________?
mamelon
Which teeth varies in form more than any other teeth in the mouth?
3rd molars and maxillary lateral incisors
What is the smallest teeth in the permanent dentition?
Mandibular central incisors
Which teeth is the longest in the permanent dentition and ar know as the cornerstone of the dental arches?
Canines
Between the mandibular canine or the maxillary canine, which teeth erupts first?
Mandibular canine
what is a pit?
A pinpoint depression in the occlusal surface of a posterior tooth where two or more grooves meet.
Which premolar has 2 bifurcated roots?
Maxillary first
How are the maxillary 1st and 2nd premolar different?
2nd max premolar has only one root and there fore only one root canal.
how many molars are in the permanent dentition?
twelve (12)
How many roots does the ermanent max. molars have?
three (3)
Which adult teeth is nonsuccedaneous?
Mandibular left 2nd molar
Where is the Cusp of Carabelli found?
Max. 1st molars
Which teeth often appear as a developmental anomaly, differeing in size, shape, contour and relative position?
Max. and Mand. 3rd molars
How are the primary teeth classified in the Universal/National System?
Letters A-T
What are the characteristics of primary dentition?
Large Pulp Chambers
How many molars and premoars does the primary dentiontio have?
8;0
Which teeth is sometimes referred to as the "Wisdom Teeth"?
Third Molars
What is the raised border on the mesial and distal surfaces of the lingual surface of anterior teeth?
Marginal Ridge
What is the Incisal tooth also know as?
Incisal Edge
what is the characteristic of the root of the maxillary central incisor?
Slight distal curvature
What is a common anomaly of the maxillary lateral incisors that is characterized by the tooth being abnormally pointed or tapered in shape?
pegged laterals
An unusually large space between adjacent teeth
Diastema
The bony ridge over the labial portion of the rootes of the canines that help to form the facial contours.
Canine Eminence
Canines are also referred to as:
eyeteeth or cuspids
The area where the cusp ridges converge at a central point on the occlusal surface of posteriior teeth
central fossa
The developmental groove that extends mesiodistally and divides the occlusal table in half
central
How many premolars are there in the permanent dentition?
8
The 1st premolar is posterior to the __ whle the 2nd premolar is anterior to the ___?
canine and first molar
a tooth with a root that is divided into two roots
Bifurcated
What is the difference between maxillary 1st and 2nd premolars?
The cusps of 2nd premolars are not as sharp as the 1st premolars.
the root of the mand. 2nd premolar is __________ than that of a mandibular first premolar.
longer
the root of the mandibular 2nd premolar is ___________ than the root of the maxillary premolars.
shorter
which teeth is used for grinding and chewing
premolars and molars
What is the largest and stronges teeth of the maxillary dentition?
maxillary first molars
There are no _______ in the primary dentition?
premolars