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The study of prenatal development


The study of the structure and function of the tissues at the microscopic level

What are the stages of development?

Preimplantation, embryonic, and fetal period.

What is the first signs of tooth development found in the anterior mandibular region of the developing embryo?

When the embryo is about 5-6 weeks old

During prenatal tooth development,What is the genetic factor that is most often of concern?

tooth and jaw size

the process of laying down new bones?


What is the 3 primary periods of odontogenesis?

Growth, Calcification, and Eruption

enamel forming cells


the movement of the teeth into their functional positions in the oral cavity


a permanent tooth that replaces a primary tooth


the portion of the tooth that is covered with enamel

anatomical crown

every tooth is divided into

crown and root

the tapered end of each root tip


What is the living tissue of the tooth, made up of blood vessels and nerves?


continuous with tissues of the periapical area via and apical foramen

Radicular pulp

the relationship within the periodontium

periodonal ligaments connect the cementum and alveolar bone

the extension of the bone of the mandible and maxilla that support the teeth in their functional positions in the jaws

Alveolar Process

the cell that helps in the process of laying down new bone


embedded portion of the periodontal ligament fibers that connect the cementum of the tooth and bone

Sharpey's fibers

tissue that covers the inside of the cheeks, vestibule, lips, soft palate, and ventral surface of the tongue


tough, light pink keratinized tissue that covers the hard palate and includes the attached gingiva

masticatory mucosa

If a pregnant patient has to have dental e-rays taken, the safest time to take the x-ray is after

ninth week of pregnancy

the embryonic layer tooth enamel is formed from


any disruption during the formation and fusing of the palate could result in

cleft lip & palate

primary dentition begin to form during

fourth month of gestation

the teeth develop in this order

mandibular anterior then maxilary anterior

the development of a supernumerary (extra) tooth is considered to be an


a developmental disturbance that is a genetic factor where there is absence of one or more teeth


drugs and alchohol that can cause birth defects


the mother's dental health during pregnancy is considered to be

an environmental factor

process of tooth formation


a stage of development where each tooth develops from its own tooth bud

Bud stage

the last tooth buds to develop are

permanent third molars

permanent teeth that are not permanent molars that begins to form at 12-14 weeks of gestation


the odontoblasts form ________ during the bell stage of tooth development.


basic shape and size of each tooth is established during this process


the first primary teeth to erupt into the mouth

mandibular anterior

normal process of shedding or losing primary teeth


the rooth of the tooth is covered with


the coloring of enamel are caused by

the color of the dentin beneath the enamel

makes up the main portion of the tooth structure that extends almost the entire length of the tooth and capable of growht and repair.


the primary function of cementum is

to anchor the tooth into the bony socket

blood vessels and nerves enter the pulp of the tooth through

apical foramen

the attachment apparatus that retains the tooth in its functional position in the jaw includes

alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligaments

the structure that surrounds, support ad is attached to the teeth


During an examination, how can a dentist determine a patient is in the early stage of periodontal disease?

the alveolar crest is flattening out, increasing the distance between the CEJ and the alveolar crest

what is the difference between secondary dentin and tertiary dentin

Secondary dentin forms after the tooth erupts, Tertiary dentin forms as a response to the trauma

the human skull is divided into

cranium and face

there are eight bones in


the back and base of the cranium


the bones that form the prominence of the cheek


forms the upper jaw


strongest, longest and only movable bone of the face


second phase in the mouth openning and movement of the TMJ


the condyloid process of the mandible lies in

the glenoid fossa

habitual grinding of the teeth


muscles that work with TMJ to make all the movement of the mandible possible


a salivary gland located just below and in front of each ear


artery that is the major blood supply for the face and mouth

External carotid

artery that supplies blood to the mandibular teeth

Inferior alveolar

how how many pairs of cranial nerves are connected to the brain?


primary source of innervation for the oral cavity


innervates the maxillary central, lateral and canine teeth

Anterior superior alveolar

location of the axillary lymph nodes

under the arms

this sinus is locatged within tghe forehead just above the eyes


the only bone that does not articulate with any other bone


the bone that forms the lower jaw


the bone that forms the upper jaw


the natural opening in the bone through which blood vessels and nerves pass


jagged line where bones articulate and form a joint that does not move


spinal cord passes thru this foramen into the occipital bone

foramen magnum

in which part of the cranium is the external auditory meatus located?


what facial bone is useful in identifying maxillary radiographs (x-rays)


a large, rounded area on the outer surface of the maxillary bones; area of the posterior teeth

maxillary tuberosity

articulation between the temporal bones and the mandible


The protrusion of mandible occurs when the internal/external pterygoid muscles

on both sides contract together

a spasm of the muscles of mastication; most common cause of restricted mandibular movement;
Jaws that "goes out" or "gets stuck"


symptoms of Temporomandibular distorders TMD

headache, pain in the neck and with chewing

facial muscle that allows laughing and smiling

zygomatic major

muscle of the floor of the mouth aids during swallowing


functions of saliva

cleanse oral cavity, aid in digestion and speaking

parotid salivary glands

produces approximately 25% of the total volume of saliva

submandibular salivary gland

produces the largest toal volue of saliva; Wharton's Duct

a Stone that develop in the salivary duct that prevents saliva from flowing into the mouth


blood vessel provides the major supply to the face and mouth

External carotid artery

major vein corresponds to common carotid artery and empties blood from upper portion of the body

Internal Jugular

artery that supplies blood to mandibular teeth

Inferior alveolar artery

air filled cavity within a bone


Which cranial nerve is damaged if there is a permanent paralysis of tongue and lip


What is the rectangular area between the two ridges running under the nose to the midline of th upper lip?


what part of the mandible forms the chin

mental protuberance

the angle at the corner of the mouth

labial commissure

the space between the teeth and the inner mucosal lining of the lips and cheeks


a white ridge of raised tissue on the buccal mucosa, extending horizontally at the level where the maxillary/mandibular teeth come together

linea alba

a narrow band of tissue that connects two structures


_______ frenum passes from the floor of the mouth to the midline of the venrral border of the tongue


unattached gingiva consists of the tissues from the top of the gingival margin to the

base of the gingival sulcus

the characteristics of a normal gingiva

color varies according to the individual's pigmentation

nasal surfaces of the hard palate are covered with

respiratory mucosa

oral surfaces are covered with

oral mucosa

pear shaped pad of tissue behind the maxillary central incisors

incisive papilla

U shaped projection of tissue at posterior area of soft palate


what part of the tongue is the "body"

the anterior two thirds

location of taste buds

In the trough of the vallate papillae, on the fungiform of papillae

what provides a sense of touch for the tongue?

Filiform papilae

the fold of the corner of the eyelids


A common term for labia


A groove that extends upward between each labial commissure and nasal ala

nasiolabial sulcus

Opening of the Stensen's duct of parotid gland located in buccal mucosa of the cheek?

parotid papilae

What is unattached gingiva

the tissue that surrounds the teeth; it is about 1mm wide and is also called marginal gingiva

the space between the gum and the teeth before the bone starts, where popcorn husks become lodged

gingival sulcus

what is the correct term for the gum tissue that normally extends between the teeth?

both marginal gingiva or Interdental gingiva

The gingiva that extends from the base of the sulcus to the mucogingival juction

attached gingiva

the area inside the dental arches

oral cavity

common name for palate

roof of the mouth

the irregular ridges of the masticatory mucosa that are located behind the maxillary central incisors


what is a soft palate

the movable posterior third of the palate, posterior to the hard palate; sorpported by fauces and ends with the uvula

Tiny projections located on th dorsum of the tongue


the fuction of the tongue is to

speak, clean oral cavity and position food while eating

what attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth

lingual frenum

What serve as openings for the submandibular salivary glands?

Two small papillae are located on either side of the lingual frenum under the tongue

Function of taste buds

taste food and sense food temperature

what are the primary tastes that create all flavors of food?

sweet, sour, salty, and bitter

a bony socket that the teeth sits on


the cartilagenous projection of the ear that is anterior to the external opening



part of the head that is visible from a frontal view, anterior to the ears, and lies between the hairline and the chin

Line where tissue of alveolar membrane meets the attached gingivae

Mucogingival junction

Soft palate on top, posterior of tongue on the bottom, and anterior/posterior fauces

gag reflex

mixed dentition period begins with

eruption of first permanent tooth

how many succedaneous teeth are there?


When does permanent dentition period begin?

At about 12 years of age when the last primary tooth is lost

what are the two sections/arches in the mouth

maxillary arch and mandibular arch

the mouth being divided into four sections


What does the anterior teeth include?

Incisors and Canines

What are the four types of teeth?

Incisors, Canines, Premolars and Molars

What is the longest teeth in human dentition used for cutting and tearing?


Which teeth is used for chewing and grinding food?

Molars and premolars

What are the surfaces of the tooth?

mesial, distal, facial, lingual and masticatory
(occlusal or incisal)

Contours of the Teeth

The crown of the tooth narrows towards the cervical line

The area where the mesial/distal surfaces of the tooth touch the adjacent tooth in the arch

contact area

the relationship between the maxillary/mandibular teeth when the jaww are in full closed position.


the jaw postion that produces maximal stable contact between th occluding surfaces of the max. and mand. teeth

centric occlusion

the key to Angle's classification system for occlusion and malocclusion

the permanent max first molar

Which tooth numbering system is often used in the US?

Universal/National System

How are the permanent teeth numbered in the Universal system?


According to the ISO/FDI numbering system, an adult mandibular left first molar would be #


Palmer Notation System (PNS)

Each of the 4 quadrant, and the 2nnd digit indicates the tooth within the quadrant, with numbering from the midline to the posterior.

what is dentition?

the natural teeth in the dental arch

the first set of primary teeth is also referred to as?


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