Chapter 30 The Cold War and Decolonization, 1945-1975
Terms in this set (42)
The Cold War
- What were the major threats to world peace during the Cold War?
- The United Nations was created to manage international disputes and facilitate decolonization and development.
- The United States developed the Marshall Plan to aid European recovery from the devastation of World War II.
- The Cold War was a confrontation between two military alliances, NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and two distinct economic systems, capitalism and communism.
- The United States and the Soviet Union avoided a direct conflict, but the Cold War led to wars in Korea and Vietnam.
- The development of nuclear weapons made the Cold War a threat to the survival of the human race and led to nonproliferation treaties.
Decolonization and Nation Building
- How were the experiences of Asia, Africa, and Latin America similar in this period?
- Independence in India and Pakistan led to war over Kashmir, which has continued to cause conflict.
- Algeria gained independence from France after a long and violent revolution.
- West African colonies eventually gained independence from Great Britain and France through negotiation, but the Belgian Congo fell under the power of a dictator.
- In southern African colonies, large white settler populations resisted independence, and whites in South Africa instituted the system of segregation called apartheid.
- In Latin American nations economic nationalists sought to reduce or eliminate the economic influence of the United States.
- The CIA interfered forcefully in Guatemala, and its attempt to do the same in Cuba helped lead to the Cuban missile crisis; meanwhile, Castro created a socialist economy.
Beyond a Bipolar World
- How did the rivalry between the Cold War superpowers affect the rest of the world?
- After decolonization new nations organized the "nonaligned movement" to assert a middle ground between the Cold War rivals.
- After World War II Japan followed the capitalist industrial model while China under Mao tried and failed to industrialize using mass mobilizations and central planning.
- Israel's military victories over its Arab neighbors in 1967 and 1973, while expanding the nation's borders, initiated an enduring cycle of regional tensions and violence between Israelis and Palestinians.
- OPEC's 1973 embargo of oil shipments to nations that supported Israel soon led to steep price increases and a massive redistribution of wealth to oil-producing countries.
- During the 1970s young people provided crucial leadership to a worldwide movement to conserve natural resources and protect the environment.
Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.
The ideological struggle between communism (Soviet Union) and capitalism (United States) for world influence. The Cold War came to an end when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Organization formed in 1949 as a military alliance of western European and North American states against the Soviet Union and its east European allies.
The 1955 treaty binding the Soviet Union and countries of eastern Europe in an alliance against the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loan to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
U.S. program to support the reconstruction of western Europe after World War II. By 1961 more than $20 billion in economic aid had been dispersed.
European Economic Community (Common Market)
An organization promoting economic unity in Europe, formed in 1957 by consolidation of earlier, more limited, agreements. With the addition of many new nations it became the European Union (EU) in 1993.
Conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea that came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with North Korea.
Conflict pitting North Vietnam and South Vietnamese guerrillas against the South Vietnamese government, aided after 1961 by the United States.
Cuban missile crisis
Brink-of-war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over the latter's placement of nuclear-armed missiles in Cuba.
Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries.
Developing countries that announced their neutrality in the Cold War.
Term applied to a group of developing countries who professed nonalignment during the Cold War.
Cultural Revolution (China)
Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Organization formed in 1960 by oil-producing states to promote their collective interest in generating revenue from oil.
In response to the United States and western Europe creating NATO, the USSR created
the Warsaw Pact.
During the Cold War years, the United Nations
was seldom able to forestall or quell international conflicts.
Between 1948 and 1952, the Marshall Plan
helped to rebuild the economic infrastructure of western Europe.
By the early 1970s, it was apparent that the USSR's command economy
was unable to meet the demand for consumer goods at home.
The U.S. policy of lending direct military support to any nation that was fighting a communist subversion
was designed to help Greece and Turkey resist Soviet military pressure.
In the Korean War, the United States limited its military action to the Korean peninsula because
it feared that attacking China would encourage the Soviet Union to enter the war as China's ally.
President Kennedy decided to become involved in the war in Vietnam
because he feared that a communist success in Vietnam would alter the balance of power in Southeast Asia.
The space race began with
the launching of Sputnik in 1957.
Bangladesh separated from Pakistan in 1971 because
the two nations were linguistically different.
France opposed Algerian independence primarily because
Unlike Kwame Nkrumah, Jomo Kenyatta
was jailed because the British feared he would cause a revolt.
The policy of racial separation in South Africa
was called apartheid.
The following is indicative of the dependency of Latin America on the U.S. economy in the twentieth century.
The United Fruit Company
Those nations that openly states they did not want to be on either side in the Cold War were called
In 1958, under Mao Zedong, China launched the Great Leap Forward, which was designed to
vault China into the ranks of the world's industrial powers.
Analyze the continuities and changes in the role of international organizations from 1945 to 1975.
Compare the process of nation building in Africa to the process of nation building in Asia.
Understand the rise of global institutions following World War II.
Be able to discuss how the Cold War created new political alliances.
Be able to compare different types of twentieth-century warfare.
Be prepared to compare different types of independence struggles.
The anti-apartheid movement is a good example of a twentieth-century struggle against the existing political order.
Be able to discuss the role of the nonaligned nations during the Cold War.