19 terms

Rocks and Minerals

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rock
A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter
rock cycle
A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
igneous rock
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
lava
Magma that reaches Earth's surface
intrusive
a type of ingneous rock that generally contains large crystals and forms when magma cools slowly beneath Earth's surface.
extrusive
fine-grained igneous rock that forms when magma cools quickly at or near Earth's surface
basaltic
Igneous rock composed mostly of dark colored, dense, minerals containing compounds of iron and magnesium
granitic
describes generally light-colored, silica-rich igneous rock that is less dense than basaltic rock
metamorphic rock
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
foliated
Term used to describe metamorphic rocks whose grains are arranged in parallel layers or bands.
nonfoliated
Describes metamorphic rocks that lack distinct layers or bands
sediment
a residue that settles in the bottom of something
sedimentary rock
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
compaction
the process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight
cementation
The process in which minerals precipitate into pore spaces between sediment grains and bind sediments together to form rock.
metals
Elements that are good conductors of electric current and heat.
ore
a rock that contains a large enough concentration of a mineral making it profitable to mine
deposition
Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations.
erosion
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)
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