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How do scientists believe our solar system formed?
Scientists believe the solar system formed form a disc of dust and gas squeezed together and collapsed and gravity pulled it together creating a cloud. The cloud spins faster and faster getting thinner creating the planets and moons.
What does a mass number tell you about an isotope of an atom?
The mass number of an isotope of an atom tells you the amount of protons and neutrons combined are in the nucleus.
What does an atom consist of?
An atom consists of electrons, neutrons, and protons.
Where do you find the protons and neutrons of an atom?
You can find them in the nucleus.
What is the name of the "surface" of the Sun and what features can be found there?
The name of the "surface " of the sun is the photosphere. The features you can find there are sunspots.
What are sunspots and what kinds of effects can they have for us here on Earth?
Sunspots are dark spots on the surface of the sun that appear because the sunspot's temperature is cooler than the surrounding area's temperature. Sunspots create solar storms/solar wind which can effect the ability to use any cellular devices, give us the Auroras, and totally shut down all electricity.
What is fusion and how does it work?
Fusion is when 2 elements collide in extreme heat and pressure in the core of a star and produce a new element and during this some energy is released.
How is fusion related to the Periodic table?
Fusion is related to the periodic table because all the elements in the periodic table were created by fusion.
What are the limits of fusion and when does it stop?
Fusion in the stars is limited by the amount of heat and pressure in the star. The bigger the elements mass, the more heat and pressure is needed because more electrons and protons want to repel off of each other. Fusion in a star stops when iron builds up in its core because the star doesn't have enough heat and pressure to fuse iron.
How does our Sun compare to other stars? (size, temp., age, ect?
The sun is average size, temperature, and is about half way through its life.
What is solar wind and what effects can it have on us here on Earth?
Solar wind is ionized gases that have the power to escape the gravitational pull of the sun and escape into space. Solar wind creates solar storms and solar storms can effect the ability to use any cellular devices, give us the Auroras, and totally shut down all electricity.
How are elements larger than Iron(Fe) created?
Elements bigger than Iron are created when supernova explodes.
How/Why can a light year be used as a distance unit?
A light year is used as a distance unit because when you are measuring things like stars in space they are too far apart to use units like miles.
What factor determines what type of cycle a star will go through during its life?
The stars mass.
How do the most massive stars end their life?
The most massive stars end their lives in supernova.
How do most stars begin their life?
Most stars begin their life as nebulae (cloud of dust and gases) known as a protostar.
What primary type of "fuel" do stars "burn" or fuse as their energy source?
What is the best method for comparing one star's brightness to another?
The best method for comparing one stars brightness to another is comparing one star's absolute magnitude to the other star's absolute magnitude.
How can distance effect apparent and absolute magnitude?
If a star's distance is larger then the apparent magnitude will be dimmer and the absolute magnitude will be brighter. If the star's distance is smaller the apparent magnitude will be brighter and the absolute magnitude will be dimmer.
What is a H-R diagram and what is it used for?
A H-R diagram is shows the relationship between the absolute magnitude and the surface temperature of stars and you used it to learn about the size, temperature, and color of stars.
What type of information does a H-R diagram contain?
The H-R diagram contains absolute magnitude and the surface temperature of stars.
What is the connection between sunspots and solar storms?
Sunspots create solar storms.
What is the big bang theory and what does it have to say about how the universe began?
The big bang theory is a theory about how the universe began and it says the universe was once squished into a tiny space that exploded 13.7 billion years ago.
What did Hubble discover about how distant objects move in space and what theory does this help support?
Hubble discovered the farther the galaxy the faster it's moving this supports the big bang theory.
What is the relationship between the distance to a nearby star and the apparent "jump"?
Parallax: Why does a nearby star appear to "jump" when viewed at different times?
Because the star is viewed in two different positions and the background(the other stars) makes the star look like it moved.
What common types of electromagnetic energy or light do stars give off?
Stars give off ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation.
How are galaxies moving in space when compared to another?
Galaxies are moving away from each other when compared to another.
What can a star's spectrum tell astronomers?
A star's spectrum can tell astronomers what elements are present in that star.
How might a star's spectral lines shift depending on the motion of the star?
If the star is moving towards Earth the spectral lines will move toward the blue end of the spectrum and if the star is moving away from Earth the spectral lines will move toward the red end of the spectrum.
Why do dark lines appear on an absorption spectrum when magnified?
Dark lines appear because of the electrons on the atoms in the star are absorbing visible light leaving the dark lines.
What can the Doppler Effect/redshift tell an astronomers about a star?
The Doppler Effect can tell astronomers which way the star is moving.
How do binary stars orbit around each other?
Binary stars orbit around a center of mass.
How can you the temperature of a star by looking at it's color?
If the star is more red then the temperature is cooler and if the star is more blue the temperature is hotter.
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