Management 2103 Test 2
Terms in this set (133)
Assigned by organizations to accomplish specific goals
Members' overriding purpose for meeting is friendship or a common interest
Basic functions of formal groups
Set of expected behaviors for a particular position.
At the individual level.
Pertain to a specific job or situation
Set of expected behaviors for members of the group as a whole
Keep the group on track
Enable the group to define, clarify, and pursue a common purpose
Examples of Task Roles
Initiator, Information seeker/giver, Opinion seeker/giver, Elaborator, Coordinator, Orienter, Evaluator, Energizer, Procedural technician, Recorder
Keep the group together
Foster supportive and constructive interpersonal relationships
Examples of Maintenance Roles
Encourager, Harmonizer, Compromiser, Gatekeeper, Standard Setter, Commentator, Follower
An attitude, opinion, feeling, or action shared by two or more people that guides behavior.
Apply to group, team, or organizational level
Stages of the Group Development Process
First Stage of the Group Development Process.
Group Members Uncertain about their role.
Mutual Trust is low.
Good deal of holding back to see who is in charge.
Conflict is beneficial and leads to creativity.
Second Stage of the Group Development Process.
Time of testing.
Testing leader's policies and assumptions and how they fit into the power structure.
Subgroups take shape.
Subtle forms of rebellion occur.
Third Stage of the Group Development Process.
A respected member other than the leader, challenges the group to resolve power struggles and questions about authority and power are resolved.
Group becomes cohesive.
Increasing team member interactions and interdependence of work tasks help overcome conflict.
Fourth Stage of the Group Development Process.
Activity is focused on problem solving.
Contributors get work done without hampering others.
Climate of open communication.
Great deal of helping behavior.
Fifth Stage of the Group Development Process.
Work is done.
Group moves on to other things.
Return to independence eased by rituals celebrating "the end" and "new beginnings".
Leaders should emphasize valuable lessons learned
A small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
A group becomes a Team when
Leadership becomes a shared activity.
Accountability shifts from strictly individual to both individual and collective.
The group develops its own purpose or mission.
Problem Solving becomes a way of life, not a part-time activity.
Effectiveness is measured by the group's collective outcomes and products.
Contributes to the team's work.
Constructively interacts with team members.
Keeps team on track.
Expects quality work.
Posses relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) for team's responsibilities.
Characteristics of Team Players
The tendency for individual effort to decline as group size increases
Ways to minimize Social Loafing
Limit group size.
Assure Equity of Effort.
Hold people accountable.
Offer hybrid rewards
Benefits of Team Building
Less Dysfunctional Conflict
Building Effective Teams
Break the ice.
Don't reinvent the wheel.
Communicate a purpose and plan.
Play to strengths.
Clarify Decision Making
Self Managed Teams
Groups of workers who are given administrative oversight for their task domains such as planning, scheduling, monitoring, and staffing.
Occurs when specialists from different areas are put on the same team.
Teams that work together over time and distance via electronic media to combine effort and achieve common goals.
Forms of Trust
Competence Trust (Trust of Capability)
Communication Trust (Trust of Disclosure)
Contractual Trust (Trust of Character)
Characteristics of High-Performing Teams
Aligned on purpose.
Focused on task.
Three C's of Effective Teams
Charters and Strategies (how the team will operate, planned outline of what exactly the team is to do)
Composition (Collection of jobs, personalities, knowledge, skills, abilities, and experience of team members)
Capacity (Important to meet changing demands and to effectively transition members in and out)
Occurs when one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party
Escalation of Conflict Characteristics
Change in Tactics
Number of Issues Grows
Issues move from specific to general
Number of Parties grow
Constructive or cooperative conflict.
Characterized by: Consultative interactions, A focus on the issues, Mutual Respect, Useful give and take
Threatens an organization's interests
Reasons people avoid conflict
Damage or Loss of Relationships
Being seen as selfish
Saying the wrong things
Hurting someone else
Getting what you want
Desired outcomes of conflict management
Based on personal dislike or disagreement
Conflict States (Shared perceptions among members of the team about the intensity of disagreement over either tasks or relationships)
Conflict Processes (Members' interactions aimed at working through task and interpersonal disagreements
How to Handle Intergroup conflict
Work to eliminate specific negative interactions.
Conduct team building.
Encourage and facilitate friendships via social event.
Foster positive attitudes.
Avoid or neutralize negative gossip.
Practice the above-be a role model
Occurs when the demands or pressures from work and family are mutually incompatible.
Policies enable employees to do their work from different locations besides the office
Flexible scheduling, either when work is expected to be completed or during which particular hours of the day.
Any form of socially harmful behavior, such as:
Conflict that raises different opinions regardless of the personal feelings of the managers
Types of Programmed Conflict
Devil's Advocacy (assigning someone the role of critic)
Dialectic Method (fostering a structured debate of opposing viewpoints)
Common Conflict handling styles
Integrating (High concern for others and High concern for self)
Dominating (Low concern for others and High concern for self)
Obliging (High concern for others and Low concern for self)
Avoiding (Low concern for others and Low concern for self)
Compromising (Moderate concern for others and Moderate concern for self)
Benefits of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
Faster, more user-friendly methods of dispute resolution
Third-party, usually a manager, informally urges disputing parties to deal directly with each other in a positive and constructive manner.
Easiest and Least costly form of ADR
A neutral third party acts as a communication conduit between disputing parties.
A panel of trustworthy coworkers, selected for their ability to remain objective, hears both sides of a dispute in an informal and confidential meeting.
May or may not be binding depending on the company
Someone who works for the organization, and is widely respected and trusted, hears grievances on a confidential basis and attempts to arrange a solution.
The mediator, a trained third-party neutral, actively guides the disputing parties in exploring innovative solutions to the conflict
Disputing parties agree ahead of time to accept the decision of a neutral arbitrator in a formal courtlike setting, often complete with evidence and witnesses.
Confidential and binding
Steps to convert enemies to friends
Redirection (Redirect your rival's negative emotions away from you)
Reciprocity (Give before you ask)
Rationality (Clearly and honestly explain your intentions for your actions and your desire to cooperate for mutual benefit.
A give-and-take decision-making process involving two or more parties with different preferences
Basic Types of Negotiation
Distributive (Win-Lose; one person gains at the expense of another)
Integrative (Win-Win; an agreement that is better for both parties)
Added Value Negotiation
The negotiating parties cooperatively develop multiple deal packages while building a productive long-term relationship.
Consists of these steps:
Design Alternative deal Packages
Select a Deal
Perfect the deal
Identifying and choosing alternative solutions that lead to a desired state of affairs
Rational Decision making
Explains how managers should make decisions
1) Identify the problem or opportunity
2) Generate Alternative Solutions
3) Evaluate Alternatives and select a solution
4) Implement and Evaluate the solution
Nonrational Decision Making
Models of decision making that explain how managers actually make decisions
Consists of Normative Model and Intuition Model
Guided by bounded rationality- the notion that decision makers are bounded or restricted by a variety of constraints when making decisions.
Judgements, insights, or decisions that come to mind on their own without explicit awareness of the evoking cues and without explicit evaluation of the validity of these cues.
A judgement that is based on a subconscious integration of information stored in memory.
Part of the Intuition Model
A choice that is based on a familiar situation and a partially subconscious application of previously learned information related to that situation
Part of the Intuition Model
Cognitive shortcuts or biases that are used to simplify the process of making decisions
The decision maker subconsciously decides something even before investigating why it is the right decision and seeks information that supports the decision while discounting information that does not
Overconfident about estimates or forecasts.
Tendency to base decisions on information that is readily available in memory
When people estimate the probability of an event occurring.
Reflects the tendency to assess the likelihood of an event occurring based on one's impressions about similar occurrences.
Occurs when decision makers are influenced by the first information received about a decision, even if it is irrelevant
Occurs when knowledge of an outcome influences our belief about the probability that we could have predicted the outcome earlier
The manner in which a question is posed or framed.
Escalation of Commitment Bias
Refers to the tendency to stick to an ineffective course of action when it is unlikely that the bad situation can be reversed.
Evidence-Based Decision Making (EBDM)
Process of conscientiously using the best available data and evidenece when making managerial decisions
Make a Decision
Part of EBDM where the decision follows directly from the evidence
Part of EBDM where the decision process combines hard, objective facts with qualitative inputs, such as intuition or bargaining with stakeholders
Part of EBDM where the evidence is gathered or modified for the sole purpose of lending legitimacy to a decision that has already been made
Vast quantity of data available for decison making.
Encompasses the collection, sorting, and analysis of that information, and the techniques to do so.
How an individual perceives and comprehends stimuli and the general manner in which he or she chooses to respond to such information based upon two different dimensions, value orientation and tolerance of ambiguity
Decision making style with High tolerance for Ambiguity and deals with Task and Technical concerns.
Careful decision makers, often be autocratic
Decision making style with High tolerance for Ambiguity and deals with Social and People concerns.
Like to consider many options and the future
Decision making style with Low tolerance for Ambiguity and deals with Task and Technical concerns.
Efficient and practical.
Like to focus on facts and are action orientated
Decision making style with Low tolerance for Ambiguity and deals with People and Social concerns.
Most people-orientated, like to avoid conflict
Advantages of Group Decision Making
Greater Pool of Knowledge
Different Approaches to a Problem
Greater Commitment to a Decision
Better Understanding of a Decision Rationale
More Visible Role Modeling
Disadvantages of Group Decision Making
Few People Dominate
A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when members' strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action
Symptoms of Groupthink
Invulnerability (breeds excessive optimism and risk taking)
Inherent morality (encourages the group to ignore ethical implications)
Rationalization (protects personal ideas and assumptions)
Stereotyped view of opposition (Causes group to underestimate opponents)
Self-censorship (stifles critical debate)
Illusion of unanimity (Silence of members interpreted to mean consent)
Peer Pressure (Loyalty of dissenters is questioned)
Mindguards (Self-appointed protectors against adverse information)
Reached when all members can say they either agree with the decision or have had their say and were unable to convince others of their viewpoint.
Everyone agrees to support the outcome
Problem solving techniques
Brainstorming (used to help groups generate multiple ideas and alternatives for solving problems)
Delphi Technique (Group process that anonymously generates ideas or judgements from physically dispersed experts)
Decision Support Systems (DDS, Computer-based interactive systems that help decision makers use data and models to solve unstructured problems)
Creative Performance Behaviors
Problem formulation/definition (The practice of accurately defining the problem will enhance your creativity)
Preparation/information gathering (Reflects the notion that creativity starts from a base of knowledge)
Idea Generation (Making new mental connections regarding the creative task or problem at hand)
Idea evaluation/validation (Selecting the most creative and promising idea from multiple options.
Effectively manage creative performance behaviors.
Create an environment that encourages risk taking.
Develop a peer environment- good of the group is more important than the individual.
Willingness to give feedback.
Hire great people possessing required person factors.
Stay connected with innovations taking place in academia.
The ability to marshal human, informational, and other resources to get something done
Obtain compliance because of formal authority
Has slightly positive effect
Obtain compliance by providing or granting rewards
Has slightly positive effect
Make threats of punishment and deliver actual punishment
Has a slightly negative effect
Have valued knowledge of information over those who need the knowledge or information
Has a generally positive effect
Using one's personal characteristics and social relationships to obtain compliance
Has a generally positive effect
Power associated with a job or a position
Includes Legitimate power, Reward power, and Coercive power
Power independent of a job or a position.
Includes Expert power, Referent Power
Reward power, coercive power, and negative legitimate power tend to
Positive legitimate power, referent power, and expert power tend to
Effort to enhance employee performance, well-being, and positive attitudes by giving employees greater influence and by use of centralized management practices
Based on transferring authority and responsibilities from management to employees.
Effective when shared with those who are competent to do what is necessary
Occurs when employees feel a sense of Meaning, Competence, Self-Determination, Impact at Work
Conscious efforts to affect and change a specific behavior in others. Includes:
Rational Persuasion (Trying to convince someone with reason, logic, or facts)
Inspirational Appeals (Trying to build enthusiasm by appealing to others' emotions, ideals, or values)
Consultation (Getting others to participate in planning)
Ingratiation (Getting someone in a good mood prior to making a request, "brown-nosing")
Personal appeals (Referring to friendship and loyalty when making a request)
Exchange (Making explicit promises and trading favors)
Coalition Tactics (Getting others to support your efforts to persuade someone)
Pressure (Demanding compliance or using intimidation)
Legitimating Tactics (Basing a request on one's authority or right)
Principles of Persuasion
Liking (People tend to like those who like them)
Reciprocity (The belief that both good and bad deeds should be repaid in kind is virtually universal)
Social Proof (People tend to follow the lead of those most like themselves)
Consistency (People tend to do what they are personally committed to do)
Authority (People tend to defer to and respect credible experts)
Scarcity (People want items, information, and opportunities that have limited availability)
Intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups that are not endorsed by or aligned with those of the organization.
Sources of Uncertainty
Vague performance measures
Ill-defined decision processes
Strong individual or group competition
Any type of change
Self-interests are pursued by the individual.
One of the Three levels of Political Action
An informal group bound together by the active pursuit of a single issue.
One of the Three Levels of Political Action
Loose associations of individuals.
People orientated and have broader and longer-term agendas than coalitions.
One of the Three Levels of Political Action
Any attempt to control or manipulate the images related to a person, organization, or idea using speech, behavior, or apperance
Can be made by:
Set an intention
Consider your ornaments
Remember your body speaks
Bust bad moods and bad days
Be interested to be interesting
Favorable Upward Impression Techniques
Can be made by:
Doing only the minimum
Having a negative mindset
Taking no initiative
Waiting until the last minute to deliver bad news
Characteristics of Apologies
Acknowledgment of wrongdoing
Acceptance of responsibility
Expression of regret
Promise the offense will not be repeated
A process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal
The content of the evaluation
The level of the evaluation
The rater's perspective
Leader vs. Manager
Leaders inspire others, provide emotional support, and try to get employees to rally around a common goal. Also play a key role in creating a vision and strategic plan for the organization.
Managers perform functions associated with planning, investigating, organizing, and control. Also are charged with implementing the vision and strategic plan.
Attempts to identify personality characteristics or interpersonal attributes that can be used to differentiate leaders from followers
Trait Approach Attributes
Intelligence (+ task-orientated)
Conscientiousness (+ task-orientated)
Open to Experience (+ task-orientated)
Emotional Stability (+ task-orientated)
Extraversion (+ interpersonal)
Agreeableness (+ interpersonal)
Communication Skills (+ interpersonal)
Emotional Intelligence (+ interpersonal)
Narcissism (- interpersonal)
Machiavellianism (- interpersonal)
Psychopathy (- interpersonal)
Dark Side traits
Narcissism (Self-centered perspective, feelings of superiority)
Machiavellianism (Use of manipulation and cynical view, moral code puts results over principles)
Psychopathy (Lack of concern, lack of remorse or guilt when actions harm others)
Behavioral Styles Approach
Attempts to identify the unique behaviors displayed by effective leaders.
Part of the Behavioral Styles Approach
Ensures that people, equipment, and other resources are used in an efficient way.
Initiating Structure (Leader behavior that organizes and defines what group members should be doing to maximize output)
Transactional Leadership (focuses on clarifying employees' role and task requirements and providing followers with positive and negative rewards contingent on performance)
Part of the Behavioral Styles Approach
Enhances employees' skills and to create positive work relationships
Consideration (Creating mutual respect or trust and focuses on a concern for group members' needs and desires)
Empowering (Extent to which a leader creates perceptions of psychological empowerment in others)
Servant-Leadership (Focuses on increased service to others rather than to oneself)
Passive Leadership (Laissez-faire, represents a general failure to take responsibility for leading)
The effectiveness of a particular style of leader behavior depends on the situation
Fiedler's Contingency Model
Based on the premise that a leader's effectiveness is contingent on the extent to which a leader's style fits or matches characteristics of the situation at hand
Either Task motivated or relationship motivated
Three Dimensions of Situational Control
Part of Fiedler's Contingency Model
Leader-Member relations (reflect the extent to which the leader has the support, loyalty, and trust of the work group)
Task Structure (Amount of structure contained within tasks performed by the work group)
Position Power (The degree to which the leader has formal power to reward, punish, or otherwise obtain compliance fro employees)
Leader behaviors are effective when employees view them as a source of satisfaction or as paving the way for future satisfaction.
Happens when leaders:
Provide guidance and support
Link rewards to goal accomplishment
Situational Theories strategy
1) Identify important outcomes
2) Identify relevant leadership behaviors
3) Identify Situational conditions
4) Match leadership to the conditions at hand
5) Determine how to make the match
Key Leader Behaviors
Inspirational Motivation (Use of charisma, attractive vision of the future)
Idealized influence (sacrificing for the good of the group, being a role model with high ethical standards)
Individualized consideration (pay special attention to needs of followers, find ways for people to develop and grow)
Intellectual stimulation (encourage creativity, innovation, and problem-solving)
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)
Based on the assumption that leaders develop unique one-to-one relationships with each of the people reporting to them
In-group exchange (Creating trust and mutual obligation)
Out-group exchange (Creating formality in expectations and rewards)
Implications of LMX
Expectations (Leaders are expected to establish high performance expectations)
Diversity (Managers need to be careful that they don't create a homogenous work environment)
Initiative (Important to take positive actions at improving a poor LMX)