69 terms

Government Study Guide

1. To shape policy and provide direction to the bureaucracy, the president can issue
executive orders
Under the Articles of Confederation, the bureaucracy consisted of two departments:
Domestic and Foreign Affairs
Firing public-office holders representing a defeated party and replacing them with a victorious party is called
the spoils system
Research by political scientists shows that government agencies are
The Pendleton Act est. the principle of ____ in federal hiring
Calls to reform the bureaucracy were not seriously considered until
the progressive movement
Government differs from business in that:
government is good and business is all about profits
Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act of 2010:
expand Pell Grants
Iron Triangles
are not as powerful as they once were. They are made up of congress, interest groups, and bureaucrats.
The department of Commerce and Labor was est. by the request of President______
Theodore Roosevelt
16th amendment:
it implements a federal income tax, and allows government to grow even more.
If the OMB reviews and approves a final version of regulation what happens next?
it is published in the Federal Register
Most have the ability to make choices regarding the best way to implement congressional intentions. this is called?
Administrative discretion
The president directly appoints nearly ____ people.
are underrepresented in federal workforce
Which government agency is responsible for regulation the safety of toys?
Consumer Product Safety Commission
1939 law prohibited federal employees from becoming directly involved in political campaigns. This is called
Hatch Act
Quasi-Judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties is called?
Administrative Adjudication
Among the tools of judicial oversight of the bureaucracy are:
Issuing Injunctions even before rules are formally promulgated
According to the text, which of the following is NOT responsible for holding the bureaucracy accountable?
Other countries
Environmental Protection Agency is
an independent executive agency
The congressional reaction to the Gulf of Mexico oil spill would Most likely be classified as:
Fire Alarm Oversight
Most federal employees are paid according to what?
General Schedule
The biggest share of state expenditures goes to
Texas's method of financing elementary and secondary public school through a combination of state and local revenue has produced
wide disparities in education spending and as a result a controversy and litigation.
Which of the following public policy areas has become a larger concern due to increases in the Texas population?
Groundwater rights
Which of the following most accurately describes the tax system in Texas?
Among the most regressive in the country
Why did Tx Supreme Court strike down the state's existing public school financing system in Edgewood vs. Kirby?
The existing inequity in school finance violated the Tx Constitution.
Which of the following is suggestive of the unlikeliness of Tx enacting strong new environmental initiatives in the near future?
Arguments by Tx political leaders that federal environmental mandates are no longer needed.
Which of the following best explains why tuition at Texas's public universities has increased so much since 03?
The legislature passed a law that allowed university governing boards to set their own tuition.
What was included in welfare reforms in the 1990s by the US and TX government?
A requirement that welfare recipients receive job training
What did NOT contribute to the late 1980 US district court decision in Ruiz vs. Estelle that the Texas prison system was unconstitutional?
low salaries and poor benefits of prison guards
Why did the state start to look to gambling as a revenue source?
To compensate for declining oil revenues
Public education in Tx is funded by a combination of state and local revenue, with the local source of revenue collected through..
property taxes
Which of the following best summarize the primary purpose behind the welfare reform of the 1990;s?
Moving welfare repents from welfare to work
Texas has "sin taxes" on
cigarettes and alcohol
The authors of the textbook us the words of Thomas Dye to define public policy as
whatever governments chooses to do and not to do
the biggest source of Texas taxpayer dissatisfaction and anger in recent years has been the
local property taxes
Which of the following best describes Texas's efforts to address contemporary public policy challenges facing the state?
Texas has often been reluctant to play an active public policy role and often addresses challenges only when pressured
What best describes the government proviso of health and human services in Texas?
Amendments to the Tx Constitution that allow the state to borrow money to pay for construction projects and to repay the loan with a tax are known as:
General Obligation Bonds
What best describes CHIP?
The legislature has cut funding for the program and many children remain without insurance
The US Supreme Court has engaged in judicial policy making in all of the following areas Except?
Gay Marriage
Justices of the first US Supreme Court took several actions to mold the new nation including?
Refusing to give advice in cases that might later come before the court
Roberts Court initially seemed to be increasingly conservative because of all the following decisions except?
Overturning the District of Columbia's handgun ban.
Appellate courts usually
review the legal procedures of the case.
Federal courts are not considered to be above the political fray for all of the following reasons Except?
Senators play a major role in the selection of potential justices rom their states
The idea that judges should use their power broadly to further justice is called
judicial activism
Why is there an odd number of justice on the Supreme Court
odd number prevents a tie
The 2nd most powerful court in the US is the
US Court of Appeals for the D.C. circuit
The Supreme Court will hear a case if ____ judges vote to do so
4 judges
If a president decides to appoint a federal judge while Congress is in recess. What would be the MOST likely explanation for this decision?
He wants to get around a hostile Senate
How many federal district courts
The strategic model of judicial behavior
accounts for a range of factors that affect judicial behavior
Why did the framers include life tenure for federal judges?
To make judges less likely to be moved by political pressures
The main role of the jury is to
be the ultimate finder of fact
Although judicial review was not mentioned in the Constitution _______ endorsed the idea
Alexander Hamilton
In criminal trial in a state district court in Tx, how many jurors must agree in order to render a verdict?
An unanimous vote of the twelve jurors
A new trial necessary for an appeal from court that is not a court of record, is called
trial de novo.
Assume you want to be a judge in Texas, but you are not a lawyer, nor do you have a degree in law. Which office may you hold?
Constitutional county judge
Who is the current Tx Supreme Court Chief Justice
Wallace Jefferson
Texas is one of only seven states that
employs partisan judicial elections
Which of the is NOT part of the sentencing phase of a capital murder trial?
Deciding on the guilt of innocence of the defendant
Most cases in Texas municipal courts involve?
traffic and parking tickets
Which judges must have at least 10 years of experience and be at least 35 years of age?
Appellate Judges
How was the current structure of the state intermediate courts of appeal determined?
Amendments of the Constitution of 1876
Cases in the intermediate courts of appeals are usually heard by how many justices?
Almost every constitution in tx history provided for
popular election of some judges
Which courts represent the lowest level of the trial system
municipal and justice of the peace courts