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1. To shape policy and provide direction to the bureaucracy, the president can issue

executive orders

Under the Articles of Confederation, the bureaucracy consisted of two departments:

Domestic and Foreign Affairs

Firing public-office holders representing a defeated party and replacing them with a victorious party is called

the spoils system

Research by political scientists shows that government agencies are


The Pendleton Act est. the principle of ____ in federal hiring


Calls to reform the bureaucracy were not seriously considered until

the progressive movement

Government differs from business in that:

government is good and business is all about profits

Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act of 2010:

expand Pell Grants

Iron Triangles

are not as powerful as they once were. They are made up of congress, interest groups, and bureaucrats.

The department of Commerce and Labor was est. by the request of President______

Theodore Roosevelt

16th amendment:

it implements a federal income tax, and allows government to grow even more.

If the OMB reviews and approves a final version of regulation what happens next?

it is published in the Federal Register

Most have the ability to make choices regarding the best way to implement congressional intentions. this is called?

Administrative discretion

The president directly appoints nearly ____ people.



are underrepresented in federal workforce

Which government agency is responsible for regulation the safety of toys?

Consumer Product Safety Commission

1939 law prohibited federal employees from becoming directly involved in political campaigns. This is called

Hatch Act

Quasi-Judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties is called?

Administrative Adjudication

Among the tools of judicial oversight of the bureaucracy are:

Issuing Injunctions even before rules are formally promulgated

According to the text, which of the following is NOT responsible for holding the bureaucracy accountable?

Other countries

Environmental Protection Agency is

an independent executive agency

The congressional reaction to the Gulf of Mexico oil spill would Most likely be classified as:

Fire Alarm Oversight

Most federal employees are paid according to what?

General Schedule

The biggest share of state expenditures goes to


Texas's method of financing elementary and secondary public school through a combination of state and local revenue has produced

wide disparities in education spending and as a result a controversy and litigation.

Which of the following public policy areas has become a larger concern due to increases in the Texas population?

Groundwater rights

Which of the following most accurately describes the tax system in Texas?

Among the most regressive in the country

Why did Tx Supreme Court strike down the state's existing public school financing system in Edgewood vs. Kirby?

The existing inequity in school finance violated the Tx Constitution.

Which of the following is suggestive of the unlikeliness of Tx enacting strong new environmental initiatives in the near future?

Arguments by Tx political leaders that federal environmental mandates are no longer needed.

Which of the following best explains why tuition at Texas's public universities has increased so much since 03?

The legislature passed a law that allowed university governing boards to set their own tuition.

What was included in welfare reforms in the 1990s by the US and TX government?

A requirement that welfare recipients receive job training

What did NOT contribute to the late 1980 US district court decision in Ruiz vs. Estelle that the Texas prison system was unconstitutional?

low salaries and poor benefits of prison guards

Why did the state start to look to gambling as a revenue source?

To compensate for declining oil revenues

Public education in Tx is funded by a combination of state and local revenue, with the local source of revenue collected through..

property taxes

Which of the following best summarize the primary purpose behind the welfare reform of the 1990;s?

Moving welfare repents from welfare to work

Texas has "sin taxes" on

cigarettes and alcohol

The authors of the textbook us the words of Thomas Dye to define public policy as

whatever governments chooses to do and not to do

the biggest source of Texas taxpayer dissatisfaction and anger in recent years has been the

local property taxes

Which of the following best describes Texas's efforts to address contemporary public policy challenges facing the state?

Texas has often been reluctant to play an active public policy role and often addresses challenges only when pressured

What best describes the government proviso of health and human services in Texas?


Amendments to the Tx Constitution that allow the state to borrow money to pay for construction projects and to repay the loan with a tax are known as:

General Obligation Bonds

What best describes CHIP?

The legislature has cut funding for the program and many children remain without insurance

The US Supreme Court has engaged in judicial policy making in all of the following areas Except?

Gay Marriage

Justices of the first US Supreme Court took several actions to mold the new nation including?

Refusing to give advice in cases that might later come before the court

Roberts Court initially seemed to be increasingly conservative because of all the following decisions except?

Overturning the District of Columbia's handgun ban.

Appellate courts usually

review the legal procedures of the case.

Federal courts are not considered to be above the political fray for all of the following reasons Except?

Senators play a major role in the selection of potential justices rom their states

The idea that judges should use their power broadly to further justice is called

judicial activism

Why is there an odd number of justice on the Supreme Court

odd number prevents a tie

The 2nd most powerful court in the US is the

US Court of Appeals for the D.C. circuit

The Supreme Court will hear a case if ____ judges vote to do so

4 judges

If a president decides to appoint a federal judge while Congress is in recess. What would be the MOST likely explanation for this decision?

He wants to get around a hostile Senate

How many federal district courts


The strategic model of judicial behavior

accounts for a range of factors that affect judicial behavior

Why did the framers include life tenure for federal judges?

To make judges less likely to be moved by political pressures

The main role of the jury is to

be the ultimate finder of fact

Although judicial review was not mentioned in the Constitution _______ endorsed the idea

Alexander Hamilton

In criminal trial in a state district court in Tx, how many jurors must agree in order to render a verdict?

An unanimous vote of the twelve jurors

A new trial necessary for an appeal from court that is not a court of record, is called

trial de novo.

Assume you want to be a judge in Texas, but you are not a lawyer, nor do you have a degree in law. Which office may you hold?

Constitutional county judge

Who is the current Tx Supreme Court Chief Justice

Wallace Jefferson

Texas is one of only seven states that

employs partisan judicial elections

Which of the is NOT part of the sentencing phase of a capital murder trial?

Deciding on the guilt of innocence of the defendant

Most cases in Texas municipal courts involve?

traffic and parking tickets

Which judges must have at least 10 years of experience and be at least 35 years of age?

Appellate Judges

How was the current structure of the state intermediate courts of appeal determined?

Amendments of the Constitution of 1876

Cases in the intermediate courts of appeals are usually heard by how many justices?


Almost every constitution in tx history provided for

popular election of some judges

Which courts represent the lowest level of the trial system

municipal and justice of the peace courts

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