US History 1302 Test 2
Terms in this set (66)
Alliance system pre-WWI
Triple alliance; alliance between Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary
Triple entente;alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia
Known as the kickoff to war. US involvement in WWI was hastened by the Lusitania disaster. The Lusitania was a British passenger liner. A German U-boat sank the British passengers. Americans outraged and public opinion turned against Germany and the central powers.
A telegram from the German foreign minister to the German Minister in Mexico, proposed an alliance with Mexico and a return for their "lost territory" in Tx, Mexico, and Arizona.
A part of the treaty of Versailles that states if you are in the league then you must give aid to any member in need.
The American expeditionary forces;consisted of the United States Armed Forces sent to Europe under the command of General John J. Pershing in 1917 to help fight World War I .
'Black Jack Pershing'
John Pershing was the general in the US army who led the AEF to victory over Germany in WWI.
Having little to do with the political affairs of other nations.
Sold allied forces: dynamite, cannon powder, submarines, copper wire, and other material. Both the Germans and the British imposed naval blockades on each other.
People not involved in the war but kept things running back at home. We're still very vital.
The zone of fighting in the First World War. In which the German armies engages the armies to the west. Ex France and the U.K.
Outlined the principles that Wilson though should shape the post-war peace. Make and create a world where this can not happen again. Most important point; no secret treaties and alliances, freedom of the seas, more free trade, reduction of arms, less colonialism, a League of Nations to promote peace through collective security.
Form of fighting whereby two sides fight each other from opposing trenches
Committee on Public information; the nations 1st propaganda agency to popularize the war.
Espionage Act of 1917
Designed to prevent anti-war protests but went against the spirits of the 1st amendment (freedom of speech).
'Big Four at Versailles Peace Conference'
1. Wilson (US)
2. Clemenceau (France)
3. Lloyd George (England)
4. Orlando (Italy)
They worked out the treaty's details.
Sedition Act of 1918
Focused on disloyal speech, writing, and behavior that might "incite, provoke, or encourage resistance to the U.S., or promote the cause of its enemies".
Eugene V. Debs
Socialist; was accused of espionage and sent to a federal penitentiary for ten years. Repeatedly ran for president as a socialist, he was imprisoned after he gave a speech protesting WWI in violation of the Sedition Act.
War Industry Board
Encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques. Under WIB industrial production and wages increased and union membership increased.
War Labor Board
To deal with disputes between management and Labor president Wilson set up the national war on labor board in 1918.
US as economic power-post WWI
Wealthiest economy in the world.
Reasons we strived:
1.Industrial production of Europe destroyed
2. New techniques for production
3. Increases in salary
Henry Ford perfects the assembly line. Welfare capitalism-happy workers were harder workers.
payment for damages after a war
The Souls of Black Folk
Collection of essays that explore the meaning of being African American in the early 20th century
Booker T. Washington
A former slave. Encouraged blacks to keep to themselves and focus on the daily tasks of survival, rather than leading a grand uprising. Believed that building a strong economic base was more critical at that time than planning an uprising or fighting for equal rights.
Selective Service Act
In May 1917, Congress passed the Selective Service Act, which created a national draft. The act required all men ages 21 to 30 to register for military service at local polling stations. This was the first time the U.S. government had established a draft before entering a war.
Luxury items that the middle class had; electric irons, toasters, hair dryers, fridges.
Disposable Income; this extra money was used for items they couldn't have before.
Automobiles; made it easier for people to live farther from work.
Radio/Advertising; attracted consumers, turned manufacturers to advertising their products, progress in sales, success, and style.
Credit; used to pay for goods on credit and then pay for the debt later.
There were not enough officers to enforce it; the law enforcement was corrupted by organized crime and there were too many Americans who wanted to drink alcohol.
The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria, a member of the Black Hand
A group of about 20,000 army veterans who were hit hard by the depression and wanted what the government owed them for serving and "saving" democracy. They marched to Washington and set up public camps. Thy tried to intimidate congress but Hoover had them removed by the army. This left a negative image on Hoover.
Ku Klux Klan
Against everything that is not white Protestant American. They were a secret militant group in the southern states who lynch, intimidate, and murder everyone who isn't a white Protestant American.
Causes of Great Depression
Agricultural overproduction, industrial overproduction, unequal distribution of wealth, over extension of credit, international economic situation, stocks, loans, etc.
Democratic candidate who won the 1932 election by a landslide. He refused to uphold any of Hoover's policies with the intent on enacting his own. He pledged a present a "New Deal" (its specific meaning ambiguous at the time to the American people) to the American public.
Relief, Recovery, and Reform
Relief; EBRA, FERA, CCC(successful), DWA, CWA
Recovery; NIRA, NRA,
Reform; AAA, TVA, FDIC
1st female cabinet member. In charge of National Industry Recovery Act.
Emergency Banking Act
A government legislation passed during the depression that dealt with the bank problem. The act allowed a plan which would close down struggling banks and reorganize and reopen those banks strong enough to survive.
Hawley Smoot Tariff
The Hawley-Smoot Tariff was enacted in 1930. This treaty raised tariffs on many imported goods. Many American trading partners retaliated in response to this tariff. The Hawley-Smoot Tariff might have even worsened the Great Depression.
Reconstruction finance Corp; U.S. government agency established by Congress to provide financial aid to railroads, financial institutions, and business corporations.
the "Hooverville" was a name given to any shantytowns out of cardboard boxes and metals. This was when Herbert Hoover was president. The term showed the unpopularity of Hoover and the fact that the American public blamed Hoover for the Depression.
African American community during the depression
Africans were hit the hardest during the depression. They turned to self-help as a way to survive.
Nine black boys were accused of raping two white women near Scottsboro, Alabama. Without given a defense lawyer, 8 of the 9 were convicted to death. The communist party supported the boys.
Rise of Communist Party
sees a rise in their capitalism rising in violent terms is not working out for people and states come in and save them so they are pointing out failures of capitalism, so they use their strength to highlight racist issues. So they try to capitalize the failure of capitalism to lure people into their party . So the funded the Scottsboro boys.
Second New Deal
Created by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and expressed in his State of the Union Address in January 1935, the Second New Deal focused on and enlarged the federal program to incorporate the jobless, to help the unemployed receive jobs, to give assistance to the rural poor, organized labor, and social welfare. Roosevelt wanted to levy heavier taxes on the rich, create harder regulations on businesses, and to incorporate social-welfare benefits.
Severe dust storms that damaged the ecology and the agriculture. Caused by severe drought and a failure to apply dry land farming methods to prevent wind erosion.
Safety net for citizens who could not provide for themselves. Provides pensions to 65+, unemployment benefits through payroll tax, federal grants to help the disabled, children of unwed mothers were covered. ADC; aid to dependent children. And national health insurance.
Civilian Conservation Corporation. Very successful. Enlisted men in the age group 17-29 to build highways, national parks, flood projects. Pays $30 but $22 goes back to their family. The men were fed and housed.
NRA-National Recovery Administration
provided financial support to state and local governments and made loans to banks, railroads, mortgage associations and other businesses
This is the term applied to President Roosevelt's first three months in taking office. During this time, FDR had managed to get Congress to pass an unprecedented amount of new legislation that would revolutionize the role of the federal government from that point on. This era saw the passage of bills aimed at repairing the banking system and restoring American's faith in the economy, starting government works projects to employ those out of work, offering subsidies for farmers, and devising a plan to aid in the recovery of the nation's industrial sector.
Agricultural Adjustment Act. Recovery of agriculture. Formed to adjust farmer from overproducing crops. Paid farmers who agreed to reduce production.
Federal Relief Administration. Have money to states and municipalities so they could distribute clothes, food, etc.
The Share the Wealth society was founded in 1934 by the Senator of Louisiana. He called for the confiscation of all fortunes over $5 million and a 100% tax on annual incomes over $1 million. He was assassinated in 1935 and his successor, Gerald K. Smith, lacked the ability to be a strong head of the society
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Insured people's deposits up to $5000.
Securities and Exchange Commission; ensure that there is adequate information in the public domain before a company issues or trades securities.
Federal Housing Administration; Established by FDR during the depression in order to provide low-cost housing coupled with sanitary condition for the poor
Works Progress Administration. Sponsored cultural programs for artists, writers, teachers, and historians. Built roads, dams, schools, and houses. Employed 8.5 million people. Historians collected historical collections of former slaves and elderly natives.
Tennessee Valley Authority. Brought electricity to the poor south.
Emergency Banking Relief Act
EBRA- provided relief to the make and made sure it was stable.
National Industry Recover Act; Francis Perkins was in charge. Regulate industry, establish labor rights, improve working conditions. EX: 40hr work week, minimum weekly wage, and banned child labor.
President during the Great Depression. People look to him for help but he has a hard time. He believed "we are a nation of prosperity".
Federal Trade Commission
Empowered a president appointed position to investigate the activities of trusts and stop unfair trade practices such as unlawful competition, mislabeling, adultery,& bribery.
President FDR designed programs to combat economic depression, enacted a number of social insurance measures, and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the states intervention in the US social and economic life.
18th and 21st Amendments
18th; appeals prohibition
21st; repeals prohibition
Term used to describe the liberated 1920s. Flappers really signified this era by wearing short dresses, cutting their hair short, and drinking and smoking in public. Also jazz music is very popular at this time.
Innovation in film, radio, sports, advertising
The bringing of pictures with sound excited many people. Talking picture "Jazz Singer" stars Rudolph Valentino.
Radio was a popular way that people got their advertisements across to people.
Gave women the right to vote.
Was enacted to carry out prohibition.
Severe drought and a failure to apply dry land farming methods to prevent wind erosion.