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Body Fluid Regulation and Excretory Systems
Terms in this set (35)
Amino groups removed from amino acids form ___________ by the addition of a third hydrogen ion. Excreted by most fishes and other aquatic animals whose gills and skin surfaces are in direct contact with the water of the environment
Much less toxic than ammonia and can be excreted in a moderately concentrated solution. This allows body water to be conserved, an important advantage for terrestrial animals with limited access to water. (Sharks, mammals)
Synthesized by a long, complex series of enzymatic reactions the requires expenditure of even more ATP than does urea synthesis. _____ ______ is not very toxic, and is poorly soluble in water (advantage if water conservation is needed). In insects reptiles, and birds
(Of ammonia) requires a lot of fluid to keep its toxicity under control
Contain a cluster of beating cilia that looks like a flickering flame under the microscope. The beating of the cilia propels fluid through the excretory tubules and out of the body; rids body of excess water and wastes
Excretory structures in earthworms in each body segment
In insects. Uric acid is transported from hemolymph into these tubes, and water follows a salt gradient. Water and other "goodies" are reabsorbed at the rectum, but the uric acid leaves the body at the anus
Most vertebrates can _____________, or maintain particular ion concentrations in their blood. This is essential to maintain homeostasis.
Bean-shaped, reddish-brown organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located on either side of the vertebral column just below the diaphragm, in the lower back, where they are partially protected by the lower rib cage
Kidneys produces _______, and it is conducted from the body by the other organs in the urinary system
Each kidney is connected by a ________, a duct that takes urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
Stores urine until it is voided from the body through the single urethra
Outer region of a kidney with a somewhat granular appearance
Consists of six to ten cone-shaped renal pyramids that lie on the inner side of the renal cortex
The hollow, innermost part of the kidney. Urine collects here and is then carried into the bladder by a ureter
Hard granule of phosphate, calcium, protein, or uric acid that forms in the renal pelvis. Many are passed unnoticed, while other larger ones can block the renal pelvis or ureter, causing intense pain and damage
Produce urine; some are located primarily in the renal cortex, but others dip down into the renal medulla. Each is made of several parts
The blind end of a nephrite is pushed in on itself to form a cup like structure called the _____ ______. The outer layer is constructed of squamous epithelial cells; the inner layer is composed of specialized cells that allow easy passage of molecules
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Leads from the glomerular capsule, is lined by cells with many mitochondria and tightly packed microvilli
Loop of the Nephron
Squamous epithelium appears here. The _____ ___ ____ ________ has a descending limb and an ascending limb
Distal Convoluted Tubule
This follows the loop of the loop of the nephron
Several distal convoluted tubules enter one _________ ____. It transports urine down through the renal medulla and delivers it to the renal pelvis
Each arteriole, called an afferent arteriole, divides to form a capillary bed, the __________, which is surrounded by the glomerular capsule. Drains into an efferent arteriole, which branches into a second capillary bed around the tubular parts of the nephron.
Lead to venues that join to form veins leading to the renal vein, a vessel that enters the inferior vena cava
Three Processes of Urine Formation
1. Glomerular filtration at the glomerular capsule;
2. Tubular reabsorption at the convoluted tubules; and
3. Tubular secretion at the convoluted tubules
The movement of small molecules across the glomerular wall into the glomerular capsule as a result of blood pressure
Essentially protein free, but otherwise it has the same composition as blood plasma. (Analogy: your mother randomly picking things up from your messy room)
Substances move across the walls of the tubules into the associated peritubular capillary network. Na+ ions are pumped into the peritubular capillary. (Analogy: you go to reclaim the "goodies" that your mother took)
Substances such as uric acid, ammonia, and penicillin are eliminated y tubular secretion. Helps to rid the body of potentially harmful compounds that were not first filtered into glomerulus. (Analogy: Your mother goes back into your room and throws a moldy piece of pizza into the trash)
Stimulates the stem cells in the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells
Water passes through water channels, called ____________.
Released by the posterior lobe of the pituitary; plays a role in water reabsorption at the collection duct. When ADH is present, more water is absorbed, and there is decreased amount of urine. The contrapositive is also true.
An enzyme that changes angiotensinogen (a large plasma protein produced by the liver) into angiotensin I. Later, angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II, a powerful vasoconstrictor that stimulates adrenal glands.
Hormone that promotes the excretion of potassium ions and the reabsorption of sodium ions at the distal convoluted tubule. This reabsorption of Na+ ions is followed by the reabsorption of water. Blood volume and pressure increase
Atrial Natriuretic Hormone
Hormone secreted by the atria of the heart when cardiac cells are stretched due to increased blood volume. ANH inhibits the secretion of renin by the juxtaglomerular apparatus and the secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex. Blood volume and blood pressure decrease at its excretion.
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