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Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide--MC

As a group, male sex hormones are called
The purpose of the counter-current mechanism is to maintain a ____________ medullary interstital fluid to facilitate the reabsorption of water to concentrate urine.
The hormone that stiumulates the secretion of milk from the mammary glands is
The juxtaglomerular apparatus concsists of the juxtagloerular cells and cells of the
macula densa
The left KD is slightly higher than the right KD. Why?
to leave space for the LIV
The intracellular fluid compartment includes all the water and electrolytes enclosed by
cell membranes
Following ovulation the follicular cells of the ovary enlarge to form a structure called the
corpeus luteum
ADH is produced by cells within the
The primary organs of the male reproductive system are the
The triangular area on the internal floor of the UB with an opening at each of its angles is the
The volume of urine produced is regulated mainly by the activity in the distal convoluted tubule and the ______ _______ portions of the renal tubule
collecting duct
Water reabsorption occurs throughout the length of the renal tubule by the process of
The bundles of interlaced muscular fibers in the wall of the UB comprise the ____ _____
detrusor muscle
____ ____ _____ represent the first line of defense against shifts in pH of body fluids
chemical buffer systems
Nephrons whose corpuscles are located close to the renal medulla are called
juxtamedullary nephrons
Active transport of sodium ions at the ____ membrane of the proximal convoluted tubule sets up an osmotic current that facilitates the reabsorption of multiple substances
Intercalated cells of the late distal convoluted tubule secrete ____ into the filtrate
During urine formation some substances move from the plasma in the peritubular capillary into the renal tubule by the process called
The secretion of the seminal vesicles contains ____ that provides an energy source for sperm cells
The primary regulator of water intake is the mechanism of ___
Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form ____
carbonic acid
Uric acid results from the metabolism of ____
nucleic acids
Water obtained as a by-product of the oxidation of various nutrients is called ____
water metabolism
The concentration of calcium ions in extracellular fluid is regulated primarily by a hormone secreted by the ____
parathyroid glands
The concentration of sodium ions in extracellular fluid is regulated primarily by a hormone secreted by the _____
adrenal cortex
The cellular process by which sperm cells and egg cells are formed is called
The culmination of sexual stimulation which is accompanied by a sense of physiological and psychological release is called
In which of the following portions of the nephron is water actively transported?
None--not pct, descending loop of Henle nor collecting duct; it is DCT
The first step in oogenesis is
primary oocyte divides to form a secondary oocyte and a first polar body
The tubular portion of the uterus that extends downward into the upper part of the vagina is the
Severe demands are placed on a persons ability to regulate body temp if body water loss exceeds
Women athletes sometimes experience disturbances in their menstrual cycles because of
decreased synthesis of estrogens
What is the order of structures through which urine flows after its formation in the nephron?
Calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, UB, urethra
When sodium ions are reabsorbed in response to the action of aldosterone, potassium ions are
The amount of testosterone in the blood is increased by
LH causing the interstitial cells to release testosterone
Fertilization normally occurs in the
uterine tube
Which of the following are unpaired in males?
Prostate gland
The reabsorption of glucose occurs through the walls of the
proximal convoluted tubule
Ingestion of excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate to relieve the symptoms of indigestion may lead to
metabolic alkalosis
A pap smear is used to detect the presence of abnormal cells in the
KD stones are least likely to be composed of
Water balance and electrolyte balance are interdependent due to
electrolytes being dissolved in water
The hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of the male secondary sex characteristics is
The juxtaglomerular apparatus regulates the filtration rate by ____ and by ____
vasodilation of the Afferent arteriole; renin-angiotenisin II causing vasoconstriction of the Efferent arteriole
The movement of water and electrolytes between fluid compartments is regulated primarily by
hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure
Osmotic pressure is primarily controlled in the glomerular capsule by
plasma protein concentrations
The structure of the testes can be described as composed of
All; seminiferous tubules, lobules, and seminiferous tubules that unite to form the rete testis which joins the epididymis
A renal corpuscle is a ____ whereas a renal tubule is a ____
tangled cluster of blood capillaries; highly coiled tubule that leads away from the glomerular capsule
Prolonged vomiting in which the ST contents are lost leads to
metabolic alkaldosis
The interstitial cells of the testes produce
male sex hormones
The orgasmic platform forms during the following phase of sexual intercourse
plateau phase
Prolonged diarrhea in which the interstitial secretions are lost excessively leads to
metabolic acidosis
Hyperventilation leads to
respiratory alkadosis
The micturition reflex can be voluntarily controlled by the
cerebral cortex stimulating or inhibiting the external urethral sphincter valve
The hormone aldosterone functions to promote the
reabsorption of sodium
Which of the following would be most helpful in treating hypocalcemia?
Administering high doses of vitamin d
Compared to males, females have
less water and more adipose
An increase in glomerular osmotic pressure will result in ____ the rate of glomerular filtration
a decrease
Respiratory acidosis can be
caused by a decrease in breathing and compensated for by the secretion of more hydrogen ions from the kidneys
The micturition reflex center is located in the
sacral segments of the spinal cord
The acid-base buffer systerms in blood include
all; phosphate, bicarbonate, proteing buffer systems
Compared to males who train for endurance, females
maintain a higher percentage of body fat
Following ovulation, the egg survives for a maximum of
24 hours
If the arteriole that supplies blood to the glomerulus becomes constricted,
the glomerular filtration rate decreases
As a consequence of edema, blood volume
decreases and bp drops
Obstruction of the airways leads to
respiratory acidosis
Edema that accompanies nephrotic syndrome results from
a decreasing concentration of plasma proteins
Cystitis occurs more commonly in women then men because
female urethral pathway is shorter
If the testes fail to descend, male is infertile because sperm cell formation is prevented by
high internal body temp
Diabetes mellitus, in which fatty acids are converted to ketone bodies, leads to
metabolic acidosis
The hormone ADH functions to promote water reabsorption through the walls of the
DCT and collecting duct
The respiratory center is most likely to cause an increase in the breathing rate if the
pH of body fluids is decreasing
The countercurrent mechanism functions primarily in the
loop of Henle
The largest H+ ions are secreted
actively into the proximal convoluted tubule
A decrease in the glomerular hydrostatic pressure of the glomerular capsule will result in ___ the rate of glomerular filtration
a decrease in
The ureter extends downward
behind the parietal peritoneum and joins the UB from below
A person in a moderate environment will lose the most water by means of
Androgens are ___, whereas testosterone is ___
male sex hormones; the most abundant androgen
A renal corpuscle includes the
glomerulus and glomerular capsule
The thirst center is located in the
Water intoxication is
characterized by an increase osmotic concentration of the extracellular fluid compartment
What is the purpose of the countercurrent mechanism in the nephron
It creates a highly concentrated interstitial fluid so that urine can be concentrated by the collecting ducts when they are permeable to water
As a result of very low arterial blood pressure, glomerular hydrostatic pressure
drops and filtration decreases
Of the compartments of the extracellular water, which is the largest?
interstitial fluid
Extracellular fluids are characterized by relatively
high sodium and low potassium concentrations
Osmotic pressure is primarily controlled in the proximal convoluted tubule by
sodium ion concentration
Whenever the plasma glucose concentration exceeds the renal plasma threshold
glucose will appear in the urine
Drinking alcohol produces its diuretic effect by
inhibiting the release of ADH
If glucose is administered intravenously to a ptient with insulin dependent diabetes, the patient will probably develop
In acute glomerulonephritis, the gloerular capillaries tend to become blocked with
antigen-antibody complexes
The renal medulla is composed of ____, whereas the renal cortex is composed of ____
renal pyramids; granular tissue composed of nephron tubules
One of the more common causes of female infertility is failure of ovulation due to hyposecretion of hormones from the
anterior pituitary gland
Which of the following would result in edema?
both low plasma protein concentration and increased venous pressure
Acid-base buffer systems minimize pH changes by
converting strong acids to weak acids
During the act of drinking water, the desire for water is usually inhibited by
distention of the stomach
If the reabsorption of sodium by the renal tubule is inhibited the
all; plasma volume decrease, osmotic pressure of the renal tubular fluid increases, reabsorption of water decreases
Whenever sodium ions are reabsorbed through the wall of the renal tubule by active transport, chloride ions are
reabsorbed by passive transport
Which of the following is water in adult male?
Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex causes sodium ions to be
conserved and water to be conserved
In females, what structure is located immediately anterior to the vagina?
the urethra
The epididymis is ____ and it functions to ___
tightly coiled tube on the outside of the testes; store sperm as they mature
The hormone commonly used to detect if a woman is pregnant is
The epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule are adapted for reabsorption by
having microscopic projections called microvilli
In a male, an indirect inguinal hernia occurs when an intestinal loop protrudes into the
vaginal process
Dehydration is
All; caused by excessive sweating, lack of water, etc; osmotic concentration increasing in the extracellular fluid compartment, water leaving the compartment by osmosis
A person who is severly dehydrated is likely to have a high fever because
water is needed for body termperature regulation
The hormone mainly responsible for the development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics is
The countercurrent mechanism in the loop of henle is correctly described by what?
water moves out of the descending limb; sodium moves out of the ascending limb
Filtration rate in the glomerulus is increased by
vasodilation of the afferent arteriole; vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole
The hormones responsible for maintaining the uterine wall during the last 5-6 months of pregnancy are
placental estrogen and progesterone
Which is not a function of the kidneys?
formation of plasma proteins
Low K+ concentration (hypokalemia) is characterized by
muscular weakness, respiratory difficulty and ventricular arrythmias
Edema is
characterized by abnormal accumulation of extracellular fluid within the interstitial spaces
Infants are more likely than adults to become dehydrated because
infant kidneys are less able to conserve water
Excessive secretion of PTH is accompanied by
increased bone reabsorption and increased blood calcium concentration
The composition of glomerular filtrate compares to that of plasma by containing
the same substances as plasma except for larger protein molecules
Which of the following indicates the parts of a renal tubule in correct sequence from beginning to end?
proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb of the loop of henle, ascending limb of the loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule
A patient with a sodium imbalance is also likely to have an imbalance of
Older males typically experience a decrease in sexual functions because the target cell sensitivity to
testosterone decreases
A primary stiumulus for the secretion of aldosterone is
rising potassium concentration
High potassium concentration (hyperkalemia) can be caused by
all; renal disease, drugs that promote renal conservation of potassium, insufficient secretion of aldosterone
Intracellular fluids are characterized by relatively high concentrations of
potassium and phosphate
As body fluids become more alkaline, neurons become more
Male reproductive functions are controlled mainly by hormones from the hypothalamus and
anterior pituitary gland and testes
About the time of ovulation, the anterior pituitary gland releases a relatively large quantity of
Water intoxication is caused by
hypotonic extracellular fluid
A person with nephrotic syndrome is likely to have
all; widespread edema, increased susceptibility to infections and proteinuria
The blood concentration of calcium may increase with lung cancer because cancer cells
secrete a PTH-like substance
If excessive amounts of water are taken into the body
osmoreceptors in the brain begin to swell
The thirst center in the hypothalamus is stimulated by ___ of the extracellular fluid, and is inhibited by ___
an increase in osmotic pressure; distension of the stomach by water
Shock-wave lithrotripsy is a procedure for
fragmenting kidney stones
Transcellular fluid includes the water and electrolytes within the
joint cavities
As a rule, prostate cancers are stimulated to grow by
During pregnancy
none of these
The hormone oxytocin aids the birth process by stimulating
uterine wall contractions
Ascites is a condition in which
fluid accumulates in the peritoneal cavity