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Combo with "sociology" and 1 other
Terms in this set (84)
rank or position in social hierarchy
assigned at birth
earned based on merit
characterized by limited social mobility
based on ascription at birth with heavy emphasis on religion
economically based hierarchical system with some social mobility-a result from birth and individual achievement
status hierarchy system
based on social prestige, high degree of social mobility
elite mass dichotomy system
leadership based on meritocracy; status based on ability and achievement
individuals position in the stratified social order
familys/individuals net worth
money received by a person for work, from transfers or from returns on investments
structural functionalism and social clas
social inequality is necessary part of society
system in which talented are chosen
ascribed, the physical and biological differences that distinguish males from females
achieved; a social position the set of social arrangements that are built around normative sex categories
desire; sexual preference, and sexual identity and behavior
(nature)-gender roles are genetic or biological in origin of fixed
what you do in the social world is a direct result of who you are in the natural world.
constructionist approach to gender(nature)
notions of gender are socially determined, gender is not fixed or natural
expectations regarding the expression of gender
-an individual exerting a masculine or feminine gender role has a set of proper behavior, attitudes, activities, roles in work, and reaction to others
the process by which a person learns expectations of a larger society.
gender role socialization
gender role socialization refers to the process by which people learn to be masculine and feminine.
(emphasized femininity) Learned from social institutions (parents/family, peer groups, school, media)
childhood socialization and gender
dependent on age and education; largely enforced through these agents of socialization
parental socialization and gender
variation in parenting practices dependent on the sex and gender of the child in question
media socialization and gender
advertisements geared toward a specific gender
imbalance in access to political, economic,educational, and social arenas based on sex and gender
discrimination against women, mothers and work force discrimination
the glass ceiling
an invisible barrier to moving up in your occupation
the glass escalator
the propensity for men entering traditionally female occupations to get promotions at a higher rate.
the gender gap in pay
the difference between men and women's earning in the work force
human capital theory
women have "lower human capital"
occupational segregation (Pink collar versus blue collar)
-blue collar- manual labor
-pink collar- work primarily don't by women
-white collar-professionals; office workers
the unpaid work done to maintain family members and or the home.
routine household labor
non discretionary, routine tasks that can't be postponed, such as cooking and cleaning
household tasks that are more time flexible and discretionary such as household repairs, yard work, and paying bills.
expressive versus instrumental role
the stay at home mom and the breadwinner
time availability perspective
suggest that the DoL is determined by 1. the need for household labor such as the number of children and 2. each partner's availability to perform household tasks
relative resource perspective
the greater the relative amount or value of resources contributed by a partner, the greater his or her power in the relationship "I make more money"
gender perspective of labor
housework so ingrained as "women's work" that it function as an area in which gender is symbolically created and reproduced.
the "second shift"
women work a normal job then come home and have a job at home
the idea that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities and respect
structural functionalism and patriarchy
sex role theory: the nuclear family is the ideal arrangement as it reproduces workers.
symbolic interactionism and gender inequality
gender is learned through socialization and a product of our interactions; gender interaction with family, peers, schools, and the media.
reproducing ideologies of masculinity and femininity
we "do" a lot more than gender
-gender intersects w/race, class, nationality, and religion.
-early feminism was by, about, and for white middle class women
-all women were in the same oppressed boat
postmodernism and patriarchy
How are we supposed to study gender
consequences of gender inequality
education, politics, domestic violence, sexual assault, poverty, economy, health care
a socially defined category based on real or perceived biological differences between groups of people.
a set of beliefs about the superiority of one racial or ethnic group
a socially defined category based on common language, religion, nationality, or culture
why is the distinction b/t race and ethnicity important?
negative attitudes towards members of a specific group
unequal treatment of individuals because of their social groups
one person practicing negative behavior towards another
social institutions policies and or practices that systematically disadvantage certain groups (macro)
ethnic identity that is only relevant on specific occasions and does not significantly impact everyday life
an ethnic identity that can be either displayed or concealed depending on it's usefulness in a given situation
a social group that is systematically denied the same access to power and resources available to dominant groups of a society
social systems generate inequality, which is manifested over the life course through various social institutes
a system by which the society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
the process by which different statuses develop in any group, organization, or society
based on status; rank or position in social hierarchy
Principles of Stratification Systems
-trait of society, not simply a function of individual differences
-persists over generations
-social mobility may be upward, downward, or horizontal
-is universal but variable
Marx theory on social class
2 main social classes; bourgeoise who owned means of production and the proletariat who sold their labor for wages
Weber theory on social class
argued class status was made up of 3 components; wealth, power, and prestige
examines the way we use status differences to categorize ourselves and others
upper middle class
professionals and managers
non manual occupations with pay higher than the poverty line 'white collar'
service industry 'blue collar'
individuals who's income is less than the predetermined poverty line
contemporary american stratification
the ideology of the american dream which justifies our social system
predicated on meritocracy
a system in which the talented are chosen and moved ahead on the basis of their achievement; leadership selected on the basis of intellectual criteria
the federal poverty line
relative measure of poverty based on the standards of living
objective measure of poverty that is defined by the inability to meet minimal standards
culture of poverty
poor people adopt certain practices, which differ from those middle class 'mainstream' society society in order to adapt and survive in difficult economic circumstances
the 'aspen' effect
people have to travel farther and farther to reach their low wage jobs servicing the needs of the wealthy
equality of opportunity
everyone has an equal chance to obtain wealth, social prestige, and power
equality of condition
everyone should have an equal starting point in life
equality of outcome
everyone must end up with the same amount of wealth, regardless of their occupation
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