Classification Unit Test Practice

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Natural Selection
Individual members of a species that are best suited for their environment are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass these favorable traits on to their offspring.
Taxonomy
The branch of biology that classifies organisms and assigns each organism a universally accepted name
Binominal nomenclature
The naming system that assigns a two part scientific name to each organism
Domain
Additional level of classification has been added that is essentially a "super kingdom".
Phylogeny
Evolutionary history of an organism.
Homologous
Two structures that are similar in function, but not in structure are considered to be _____ structures. Example: Wings of butterfly and wings of a bird.
Analogous
Two structures that are similar in structure, but not in function are considered to be _____ structures. Example: forearm of a human and forearm of a bat.
Vestigial
These structures are reduced in size and seem to be "leftovers" from a previous ancestor.
Cladogram
A diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships between a group of organisms
Morphology
Traditionally, the structure of the organism was used as the basis for its classification.
Species
An organism that can mate and produce fertile offspring. The most specific taxon or level of classification.
Homo sapien sapien
means the wisest of the wise man
Archaebacteria
The kingdom that contains very ancient bacteria. This kingdom contains bacteria that can survive in extreme environments such as hot water springs.
Eubacteria
The kingdom that contains the true bacteria. The organisms added to milk to make yogurt belong to this kingdom.
Protista
The kingdom that contains algae, the ameba, and the paramecium. This kingdom is called the "catch-all" kingdom because it contains organisms that do not fit in any other kingdom.
Fungi
The kingdom that contains mushrooms, molds, mildews and yeasts. This kingdom contains organisms that have cell walls made of chitin, and have no photosynthetic abilities.
Plantae
The organisms in this kingdom have cell walls composed of cellulose and are photosynthetic. The kingdom that contains trees, shrubs, and flowers.
Animalia
The kingdom to which humans belong. This kingdom contains multicellular heterotrophs that do not possess cell walls.
dichotomous key
A key for the identification of organisms based on a series of choices between alternative characters
Aristotle
A Greek philosopher that first attempted to classify the living organisms on Earth. He use two groups Plants and Animals. Animals were divided into air dwellers, land dweller, and water dwellers.
Carolus Linnaeus
This person was the first to attempt a scientific classification of organisms in the 1700's. He is known as the father of Classification.
Charles Darwin
The person who first proposed the theory that states Individual members of a species that are best suited for their environment are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass these favorable traits on to their offspring. This process is called natural selection.
Parts of a scientific Name
Must have a genus and species name. The genus name is always capitalized. the species name is never capitalized. Both names are underlined or written in italics.
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