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History 2, Unit 3

History 2, Unit 3
STUDY
PLAY
Cultural Trends-"new era"
roaring 20s.
• "Red Scare"
denotes two distinct periods of strong Anti-Communism in the United States: the First Red Scare, from 1919 to 1921, and the Second Red Scare,
Labor opposed the concept of "open shop"
...
American Federation of Labor
was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in Columbus, Ohio in December 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association. Samuel Gompers of the Cigar Makers' International Union was elected president of the Federation at its founding convention and was reelected every year except one until his death in 1924.

The AFL was the largest union grouping in the United States for the first half of the 20th century, even after the creation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) by unions that were expelled by the AFL in 1935 over its opposition to industrial unionism. While the Federation was founded and dominated by craft unions throughout the first fifty years of its existence, many of its craft union affiliates turned to organizing on an industrial union basis to meet the challenge from the CIO in the 1940s.

In 1955, the AFL merged with its longtime rival, the Congress of Industrial Organizations, to form the AFL-CIO, a federation which remains in place to this day. Together with its offspring, the AFL has comprised the longest lasting and most influential labor federation in the United States.
Boston police strike, 1919-Governor Calvin Coolidge
the Boston police rank and file went out on strike on September 9, 1919, in order to achieve recognition for their trade union and improvements in wages and working conditions. They faced an implacable opponent in Police Commissioner Edwin Upton Curtis, who denied that police officers had any right to form a union, much less one affiliated with a larger organization like the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Attempts at reconciliation between the Commissioner and the police officers, particularly on the part of Boston's Mayor Andrew James Peters, failed.
During the strike, Boston experienced several nights of lawlessness, although property damage was not extensive. Several thousand members of the State Guard, supported by volunteers, restored order. Press reaction both locally and nationally described the strike as Bolshevik-inspired and directed at the destruction of civil society. The strikers were called "deserters" and "agents of Lenin."[1]
Samuel Gompers of the AFL recognized that the strike was damaging the cause of labor in the public mind and advised the strikers to return to work. The Police Commissioner remained adamant and refused to re-hire the striking policemen. He was supported by Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge, whose rebuke of Gompers earned him a national reputation. The strike proved a setback for labor, and the AFL reversed its attempts to organize police officers for another two decades. Coolidge won the Republican nomination for vice-president of the US in the 1920 presidential election.
International Workers of the World (IWW) "Wobblies"
is an international union. At its peak in 1923, the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. Its membership declined dramatically after severe government repression as part of the first Red Scare and a 1924 split brought on by internal conflict. IWW membership does not require that one work in a represented workplace,[3] nor does it exclude membership in another labor union.[4]

The IWW contends that all workers should be united as a class and that the wage system should be abolished.[5] They are known for the Wobbly Shop model of workplace democracy, in which workers elect their managers[6] and other forms of grassroots democracy (self-management) are implemented.

In 2012 the IWW moved its General Headquarters offices to 2036 West Montrose, Chicago.[7]

The origin of the nickname "Wobblies" is uncertain.[8]
"Red Scare"
...
A. Mitchell Palmer
was Attorney General of the United States from 1919 to 1921. He directed the controversial Palmer Raids.
Contents [hide]
1 Congressional career
2 Alien Property Custodian
3 Attorney general
3.1 Palmer Raids
3.2 Labor and Business
3.2.1 Coal strike
3.3 May Day warnings
4 Later years
5 Notes
6 References
7 Sources
8 External links
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti
(June 11, 1888 - August 23, 1927) were anarchists who were convicted of murdering two men during a 1920 armed robbery in South Braintree, Massachusetts, United States. After a controversial trial and a series of appeals, the two Italian immigrants were executed on August 23, 1927.[1]
There is a highly politicized dispute over their guilt or innocence, as well as whether or not the trials were fair.[2][3] The dispute focuses on contradictory evidence. As a result, historians have not reached a consensus.
1920 urban population greater than rural for the first time
...
• Prohibition
is the legal act of prohibiting the manufacture, transportation and sale of alcohol and alcoholic beverages. The term can also apply to the periods in the histories of the countries during which the prohibition of alcohol was enforced. Use of the term as applicable to a historical period is typically applied to countries of European culture.
eighteenth amendment
of the United States Constitution established prohibition in the United States. The separate Volstead Act set down methods of enforcing the Eighteenth Amendment, and defined which "intoxicating liquors" were prohibited, and which were excluded from prohibition (e.g., for medical and religious purposes). The Amendment was unique in setting a time delay before it would take effect following ratification, and in setting a time limit for its ratification by the states. Its ratification was certified on January 16, 1919, with the law taking effect on January 17, 1920.

Demand for liquor continued, and the law resulted in the criminalization of producers, suppliers, transporters and consumers. The police, courts and prisons were overwhelmed with new cases; organized crime increased in power, and corruption extended among law enforcement officials. The amendment was repealed in 1933 by ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment, the only instance in United States history of repeal of a constitutional amendment.
Volstead Act, 1919
was the enabling legislation for the Eighteenth Amendment which established prohibition in the United States. The Anti-Saloon League's Wayne Wheeler conceived and drafted the bill, which was named for Andrew Volstead, Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, who managed the legislation.
Wickersham Commission, 1931
U.S. President Herbert Hoover established this Commission, officially called the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement, on May 20, 1929. Former Attorney General George W. Wickersham (1858-1936) headed the 11-member group charged with identifying the causes of criminal activity and to make recommendations for appropriate public policy.
During the 1928 presidential campaign Herbert Hoover supported the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution but recognized that evasion was widespread and that prohibition had fueled the growth of organized crime.
Twenty-first Amendment
to the United States Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition on alcohol on January 17, 1920. The Twenty-first amendment was ratified on December 5, 1933. It is unique among the 27 Amendments of the U.S. Constitution for being the only one to repeal a previous Amendment, and for being the only one to have been ratified by the method of the state ratifying convention.
• Religion-"Monkey Trial"
...
John T. Scopes
(teacher)
Clarence Darrow
(defense attorney)
William Jennings Bryan
(special prosecutor)
Overturned in appeal-fine was too great ($100)
...
• Immigration
...
Emergency Quota Act, 1921
also known as the Emergency Immigration Act of 1921, the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, the Per Centum Law, and the Johnson Quota Act (ch. 8, 42 Stat. 5 of May 19, 1921) restricted immigration into the United States. Although intended as temporary legislation, the Act "proved in the long run the most important turning-point in American immigration policy"[1] because it added 2 new features to American immigration law: numerical limits on immigration from Europe and the use of a quota system for establishing those limits.

The Act restricted the number of immigrants admitted from any country annually to 3% of the number of residents from that same country living in the United States as of the U.S. Census of 1910.[2] Based on that formula, the number of new immigrants admitted fell from 805,228 in 1920 to 309,556 in 1921-22.[3]

The act meant that only people of Northern Europe who had similar cultures to that of America were likely to get in. The excuse was the American government wanted to protect its culture when this act was introduced, however some[who?] felt it was mainly in response to the millions of Jews who begun fleeing the terrible persecution they were facing in Western Europe starting in 1890.[citation needed] The fact that the quotas were to be based on the 1890 census, immediately prior to the influx of those Jews, rather then the 1920 census, lends credence to that accusation.
National Origins Act, 1924
...
National Origins Plan, 1927
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Ku Klux Klan,1915
is the name of three distinct past and present far-right[5][6][7][8] organizations in the United States, which have advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration, historically expressed through terrorism.[9] Since the mid-20th century, the KKK has also been anti-communist.[9] The current manifestation is splintered into several chapters with no connections between each other; it is classified as a hate group by the Anti-Defamation League and the Southern Poverty Law Center.[10] It is estimated to have between 3,000 and 5,000 members as of 2012.[11]

The first Klan flourished in the Southern United States in the late 1860s, then died out by the early 1870s. Members adopted white costumes: robes, masks, and conical hats, designed to be outlandish and terrifying, and to hide their identities.[12] The second KKK flourished nationwide in the early and mid 1920s, and adopted the same costumes and code words as the first Klan, while introducing cross burnings.[13] The third KKK emerged after World War II and was associated with opposing the Civil Rights Movement and progress among minorities. The second and third incarnations of the Ku Klux Klan made frequent reference to the USA's "Anglo-Saxon" and "Celtic" blood, harking back to 19th-century nativism and claiming descent from the original 18th-century British colonial revolutionaries.[14] The first and third incarnations of the Klan have well-established records of engaging in terrorism and political violence, though historians debate whether or not the tactic was supported by the second KKK.
Marcus Garvey
(Universal Negro Improvement Association
• "The Lost Generation"
is a term used to refer to the generation, actually a cohort, that came of age during World War I. The term was popularized by Ernest Hemingway who used it as one of two contrasting epigraphs for his novel, The Sun Also Rises. In that volume Hemingway credits the phrase to Gertrude Stein, who was then his mentor and patron.

In A Moveable Feast, which was published after both Hemingway and Stein were dead and after a literary feud that lasted much of their life, Hemingway reveals that the phrase was actually originated by the garage owner who serviced Stein's car. When a young mechanic failed to repair the car in a way satisfactory to Stein, the garage owner shouted at the boy, "You are all a "génération perdue."[1]:29 Stein, in telling Hemingway the story, added, "That is what you are. That's what you all are ... all of you young people who served in the war. You are a lost generation."[1]:29 This generation included distinguished artists such as F. Scott Fitzgerald, T. S. Eliot, John Dos Passos, Waldo Peirce, Isadora Duncan, Abraham Walkowitz, Alan Seeger, and Erich Maria Remarque.
Gertrude Stein-
"you are all a lost generation"
Sinclair Lewis-Main Street, Babbitt, Arrowsmith, Elmer Gantry
Main Street, Babbitt, Arrowsmith, Elmer Gantry
Ernest Hemingway-
The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms
F. Scott Fitzgerald-
This Side of Paradise, The Great Gatsby
H. L. Mencken-
-The Smart Set and The American Mercury
Charles and Mary Beard
-The Rise of American Civilization
Charles A. Lindbergh and the Spirit of St. Louis
...
Political Trends
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• "Return to normalcy" and Warren G. Harding
Warren Harding's main campaign slogan was a "return to normalcy", playing upon the weariness of the American public after the social upheaval of the Progressive Era. Additionally, World War I and the Treaty of Versailles proved deeply unpopular, causing a reaction against Wilson, who had pushed especially hard for the latter.
• "Ohio Gang"
was a good ol' boy network of politicians and industry leaders closely surrounding Warren G. Harding, the 29th President of the United States of America. Many of these individuals came into Harding's personal orbit during his tenure as a state-level politician in Ohio, thus the name.
During the Harding administration several of the so-called Ohio Gang became involved in financial scandals, including the Teapot Dome scandal and apparent malfeasance at the U.S. Department of Justice, ending in prison terms and suicides. Following Harding's sudden death of a heart attack in 1923, the Ohio Gang were effectively removed from the corridors of power by Harding's Vice President and successor, Calvin Coolidge.
Charles R. Forbes
(February 14, 1878 - April 10, 1952) was appointed the first Director of the Veterans' Bureau by President Warren G. Harding on August 9, 1921 and served until February 28, 1923. Caught for Army desertion in 1900, he went on to serve in the military and was a decorated World War I veteran. He first became active in politics in the Pacific Northwest. In 1912, Forbes moved to Hawaii and served as chairman on various federal commissions. While Senator Warren G. Harding was on vacation in Hawaii the two met by chance and became friends. After the 1920 U.S. Presidential election, President Harding appointed Forbes director to the newly created Veterans Bureau, a powerful position in charge of millions of dollars in government expenditures and supplies.
His tenure as the first Veterans Bureau Director was characterized by corruption and scandal. Forbes was considered the "dashing playboy" of Washington and a favorite of President Harding.[1] Having returned to the United States after fleeing to Europe in 1923, he was convicted of conspiracy to defraud the U.S. Government and sent to federal prison in 1926, where he was cell mates with Frederick Cook, the person who is often credited with being the first to reach the North Pole. Forbes was released 8 months later in 1927. He died in 1952.
Jesse Smith
(1871 - May 30, 1923)[1] was a member of President Warren G. Harding's Ohio Gang. He was born and raised in Washington Court House, Ohio, where he became a friend of Harry M. Daugherty.[2] There, Daugherty helped him to become the successful owner of a department store. Smith became Daugherty's gofer during the 1920 campaign.[2]
Thomas W. Miller
(June 26, 1886 - May 5, 1973) was an American businessman, lawyer and politician, from Wilmington, Delaware, and Reno, Nevada. He was a veteran of World War I and a member of the Republican Party, who served as U. S. Representative from Delaware.
Albert B. Fall-Teapot Dome Affair
(November 26, 1861 - November 30, 1944) was a United States Senator from New Mexico and the Secretary of the Interior under President Warren G. Harding, infamous for his involvement in the Teapot Dome scandal.
• Washington Naval Conference, 1921
also called the Washington Arms Conference, was a military conference called by President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922. Conducted outside the auspices of the League of Nations, it was attended by nine nations, the United States, Japan, China, France, Britain, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal,[1] having interests in the Pacific Ocean and East Asia. Soviet Russia was not invited to the conference. It was the first international conference held in the United States and the first disarmament conference in history, and as Kaufman, 1990 shows, it is studied by political scientists as a model for a successful disarmament movement.
Held at Memorial Continental Hall in downtown Washington,[2] it resulted in three major treaties: Four-Power Treaty, Five-Power Treaty (more commonly known as the Washington Naval Treaty), the Nine-Power Treaty, and a number of smaller agreements. These treaties preserved peace during the 1920s but are also credited with enabling the rise of the Japanese Empire as a naval power leading up to World War II.
Four-Power Naval Treat
was a treaty signed by the United States, Great Britain, France and Japan at the Washington Naval Conference on 13 December 1921. It was partly a follow-on to the Lansing-Ishii Treaty, signed between the U.S. and Japan.
By the Four-Power Treaty, all parties agreement to maintain the status quo in the Pacific, by respecting the Pacific holdings of the other countries signing the agreement, not seeking further territorial expansion, and mutual consultation with each other in the event of a dispute over territorial possessions. However, the main result of the Four-Power Treaty was the termination of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902.
Five-Power Naval Treaty
was a treaty to limit naval construction and prevent an arms race among the victorious powers in the wake of World War I. The treaty was negotiated at the Washington Naval Conference, which was held in Washington, D.C. from November 1921 to February 1922, and signed by Britain, the US, Japan, France and Italy. It limited the construction of battleships, battlecruisers and aircraft carriers by the signatories. The numbers of other categories of warships, including cruisers, destroyers and submarines, were not limited by the treaty but were limited to 10,000 tons displacement.
The treaty was followed by a number of other naval arms limitation conferences, which sought to extend or tighten limitations on warship building. The terms of the treaty were modified by the London Naval Treaty of 1930 and the Second London Naval Treaty of 1936. However, by the mid-1930s, Japan and Italy had indicated their withdrawal from the Treaties, and naval arms limitation increasingly became a dead letter.
Nine-Power Naval Treaty
was a treaty affirming the sovereignty and territorial integrity of China as per the Open Door Policy, signed by all of the attendees to the Washington Naval Conference on 6 February 1922.
United States Secretary of State John Hay had issued the "Open Door Notes" of September-November 1899, followed by a diplomatic circular in July 1900, asking that all of the major world powers with vested interests in China declare formally that they would maintain an 'open door' to allow all nations equal rights and equal access to the treaty ports within their spheres of influence in China. Fearing that the European powers and Japan were preparing to carve China up into colonies, Hay also added provisions that Chinese territorial and administrative integrity should be maintained.
Although no nation specifically affirmed Hay's proposal, Hay announced that each of the powers had granted consent in principle and treaties made after 1900 make reference to the Open Door Policy. Nonetheless, competition between the various powers for special concessions within China for railroad rights, mining rights, loans, foreign trade ports, etc. continued unabated.
The United States was especially leery of Japanese designs on China after the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and the Twenty-One Demands (1915) and repeatedly signed agreements with the Japanese government pledging to maintain a policy of equality in Manchuria and China. These agreements concluded with Lansing-Ishii Agreement in 1917, which was soon shown to be completely ineffective.
During the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-1922, the United States government again raised the Open Door Policy as an international issue, and had all of the attendees (United States, Japan, China, France, Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal) sign a new treaty which intended to make the Open Door Policy international law.
However, the Nine-Power Treaty lacked any enforcement regulations, and when violated by Japan during its invasion of Manchuria in 1931 and creation of Manchukuo, the United States could do little more than issue protests and impose economic sanctions.
World War II effectively nullified the Nine-Power Treaty.
The Nine-Power Treaty was one of several treaties concluded at the Washington Naval Conference. Other major agreements included the Four-Power Treaty and the Five-Power Treaty.
Economic Trends
...
• "Keep cool with Coolidge"
Coolidge's campaign slogan
• Prosperity of the 1920s- USA became-creditor nation-had a pro-business government-developed new technologies
...
• Automobile Industry-Model T and Henry Ford
...
• Economic Problems
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Revenue Act of 1921
was the first Republican tax reduction following their landslide victory in the 1920 federal elections. New Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon argued that significant tax reduction was necessary in order to spur economic expansion and restore prosperity.
Mellon obtained repeal of the wartime excess profits tax. The top marginal rate on individuals fell from 73 to 58 percent by 1922, and preferential treatment for capital gains was introduced at a rate of 12.5 percent. Mellon had hoped for more significant tax reduction.
Budget and Accounting Act of 1921
was landmark legislation that established the framework for the modern federal budget. The act was approved by President Warren G. Harding to provide a national budget system and an independent audit of government accounts. The official title of this act is "The General Accounting Act of 1921," but is frequently referred to as "the budget act," or "the Budget and Accounting Act."[1] This act meant that for the first time, the president would be required to submit an annual budget for the entire federal government to Congress.[2] The object of the budget bill was to consolidate the spending agencies in both the executive and legislative branches of the government.[1]The act created the Bureau of the Budget, now called the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), to review funding requests from government departments and to assist the president in formulating the budget. The OMB mandates that all government estimates, receipts, and expenditures be cleared by the director of the budget. From the director, the estimates go directly to the president and from the president, directly to Congress.[1] In addition, the act created the General Accounting Office, now known as the Government Accountability Office (GAO), the non-partisan audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress, and an agency in the legislative branch of the United States Government.
The act required the head of the GAO, to "investigate, at the seat of government or elsewhere, all matters in relation to the receipt, disbursement, and application of public funds, and shall make to the President ... and to Congress ... reports [and] recommendations looking to greater economy or efficiency in public expenditures".[3] The name of the General Accounting Office was changed to Government Accountability Office in 2004 to better reflects the mission of the office.[4]
Fordney-McCumber Act
of 1922 raised American tariffs in order to protect factories and farms. Congress displayed a pro-business attitude in passing the ad valorem tariff and in promoting foreign trade through providing huge loans to Europe, which in turn bought more American goods.[1] The Roaring Twenties brought a period of sustained economic prosperity with an end to the Depression of 1920-21.
As a result of the war, Americans had two main concerns. First, they wanted to ensure economic self-sufficiency so that no future enemy could manipulate the American economy. Second, many industries wanted to preserve the benefits of the increased wartime demand.
McNary-Haugen Bill (1927 and 1928)
which never became law, was a highly controversial plan in the 1920s to subsidize American agriculture by raising the domestic prices of farm products. The plan was for the government to buy the wheat, and either store it or export it at a loss. It was co-authored by Charles L. McNary (R-Oregon) and Gilbert N. Haugen (R-Iowa). Despite attempts in 1924, 1926, 1927, and 1928 to pass the bill — it was vetoed by President Calvin Coolidge, and never approved. It was supported by then-Secretary of Agriculture Henry C. Wallace.
According to the bill, a federal agency would be created to support and protect domestic farm prices by attempting to maintain price levels that existed before the First World War. By purchasing surpluses and selling them overseas, the federal government would take losses that would be paid for through fees against farm producers.
World War I debt-Coolidge quote
"They hired the money didn't they?"
World War Foreign Debt Commission
of February 9, 1922 authorized the creation of a commission, working under Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon, to negotiate repayment agreements with Great Britain and France in the aftermath of World War I.

The Commission placed the Allied debt principal to the United States at $11 billion; payments were to be made in graduated 62 annual installments; however, the accrued interest on these payments over a period of 62 years would have increased the debt to approximately $22 billion, although the U.S. did agree to lowered interest rates. Great Britain's debt was reduced 19.7% to $4.6 billion with the interest rate reduced from 5% to 3% for the first ten years of payment to be raised to 3½% thereafter. France's debt was reduced by 52.8% to $4 billion, without any interest for the first five years of payment. It was then to be increased gradually to 3½%.
Dawes Plan
(as proposed by the Dawes Committee, chaired by Charles G. Dawes) was an attempt in 1924 to solve the reparations problem, which had bedeviled international politics, in the wake of the Ruhr occupation and the hyperinflation crisis. It provided for the Allies to collect war reparations debt from Germany. Intended as an interim measure, the Young Plan was adopted in 1929 to replace it.
Kellogg-Briand Pact (Pact of Paris)
was an international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them".[1] Parties failing to abide by this promise "should be denied the benefits furnished by this treaty". It was signed by Germany, France and the United States on August 27, 1928.

The Kellogg-Briand Pact is named after its authors: Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand.
Young Plan
was a program for settlement of German reparations debts after World War I written in 1929 and formally adopted in 1930. It was presented by the committee headed (1929-30) by American Owen D. Young. The reparations, set in January 1921 by an Inter-Allied Reparations Commission at 269 billion gold marks (the equivalent of around 100,000 tonnes of pure gold) were deliberately crushing. This 100,000 tonnes of gold is equivalent to more than 50% of all the gold ever mined in history (est. 165000 tonnes), which many economists at the time including John Maynard Keynes deemed to be irrational and excessive. After the Dawes Plan was put into operation (1924), it became apparent that Germany could not meet the annual payments, especially over an indefinite period of time. The Young Plan reduced further payments to 112 billion Gold Marks, US $8 billion in 1929 (US$ 108 billion in 2012) over a period of 59 years (1988).[1] In addition, the Young Plan divided the annual payment, set at two billion Gold Marks, US $473 million, into two components, one unconditional part equal to one third of the sum and a postponable part, incurring interest and financed by a consortium of American investment banks coordinated by the Morgan Guaranty Trust Company, for the remaining two-thirds.
"Brown Derby Campaign of 1928"-
Herbert Hoover (R) and Alfred E. Smith (D)-"the happy warrior"
Stock Market Crash-The Great Crash, 1929-John Kenneth Galbraith (i) "The bad distribution of income." (ii) "The bad corporate structure." (iii) "The bad banking structure." (iv) "The dubious state of the foreign balance." (v) "The poor state of economic intelligence."
...
• Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
was an independent agency of the United States government, established and chartered by the US Congress in 1932, Act of January 22, 1932, c. 8, 47 Stat. 5, during the administration of President Herbert Hoover. It was modeled after the War Finance Corporation of World War I. The agency gave $2 billion in aid to state and local governments and made loans to banks, railroads, mortgage associations and other businesses. The loans were nearly all repaid. It was continued by the New Deal and played a major role in handling the Great Depression in the United States and setting up the relief programs that were taken over by the New Deal in 1933.[1]
$1.5 billion-banks, insurance companies, and railroads
...
$1.5 billion local relief projects
...
$300 million local relief projects
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Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930)
otherwise known as the Smoot-Hawley Tariff or Hawley-Smoot Tariff,[1] was an act, sponsored by Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley, and signed into law on June 17, 1930, that raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels.[2]
The overall level tariffs under the Tariff were the second-highest in U.S. history, exceeded by a small margin only by the Tariff of 1828.[3] The act, and the ensuing retaliatory tariffs by U.S. trading partners, reduced American exports and imports by more than half.
• Glass-Steagall Act (1932)
was a law enacted by the United States Congress in 1932. It was the first time that currency (non-specie, paper currency etc.) was permitted to be allocated for the Federal Reserve System. It was passed in February 1932 in an effort to stop deflation and expanded the Federal Reserve's ability to offer rediscounts[clarification needed] on more types of assets such as government bonds as well as commercial paper.[1]
The "Glass-Steagall Act" is not the official title of the law; it is a colloquialism that refers to its legislative sponsors, Carter Glass, a US Senator from Virginia and Henry B. Steagall, the Congressman from Alabama's 3rd congressional district.
• Farm Holiday Movement-Milo Reno
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• "Bonus Army" (15,000 World War I veterans)
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Election of 1932
FRD vs. Hoover
took place in the midst of the Great Depression that had ruined the promises of incumbent President Herbert Hoover to bring about a new era of prosperity. Economics was dominant, and the sort of cultural issues that had dominated previous elections including Catholicism and the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) were dormant. Prohibition was a favorite Democratic target, as few Republicans tried to defend it. There was a mounting demand to end prohibition and bring back beer, liquor, and the resulting tax revenues.[1] The Democratic nomination went to the well known governor of the largest state, New York's Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR). He had been reelected governor in a landslide in 1930. People still remembered his cousin, the first president Roosevelt, and FDR had been the losing vice presidential nominee in 1920. This time, Roosevelt united all wings of the party, avoided divisive cultural issues such as religion and the KKK, and brought in a leading southern conservative as his running mate, House Speaker John Nance Garner.
The theme of the campaign was an all-out attack on Hoover's economic failures, with the incumbent hard pressed to defend himself. Roosevelt blamed the Great Depression on Hoover, and his protectionist policies. Roosevelt lashed out at Hoover: "I accuse the present Administration of being the greatest spending Administration in peacetime in all our history."[2] Garner accused Hoover of "leading the country down the path of socialism."[3] Roosevelt himself did not have a clear idea of the New Deal at this point, so he promised no specific programs and tried to appeal to practically all groups of voters, even Republicans. Roosevelt won by a landslide, and this critical election marked the collapse of the Fourth Party System or Progressive Era. With another landslide in the 1934 off-year elections, the electorate was realigned into the Fifth Party System, dominated by Roosevelt's New Deal Coalition.
• Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) created the "Roosevelt Coalition"
...
• Herbert Hoover (R)
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Congress set up the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to make loans to financially troubled businesses.
true
Harold Ickes organized liberal Democrats for FDR.
false
Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins was the first woman cabinet member.
true
The principal relief measure of the Hundred Days was the Federal Emergency Relief Act.
true
The most innovative program of the Hundred Days was the Tennessee Valley Authority.
true
The Works Progress Administration funneled assistance directly to the jobless.
true
The Social Security Act stands out for its failure to pass Congress in 1934.
false
The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 banned child labor and set a national minimum wage and a maximum workweek.
true
The Indian Reorganization of 1934 halted tribal land sales and allowed tribes to regain title to unallocated lands.
true
In 1937-1938 the "Roosevelt Recession" took the economy into a downturn.
true
In 1935-1937 a series of Neutrality Acts were passed by Congress.
true
The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill pleaded for American aid.
true
The Atlantic Charter was signed by the US and Russia.
false
The War Production Board allocated materials, limited production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts.
true
The Manhattan Project was the code name for the building of the atomic bomb.
true
The Battle of the Bulge called attention to the need for American soldiers to loose weight.
false
The image of "Rosie the Riveter" became the symbol of the woman war worker.
true
A. Philip Randolph was the president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.
true
Japanese internment reflected forty years of racial prejudice and econmic rivalry
true
The Potsdam Declaration warned the Japanese to surrender or face destruction.
true
Causes of the Great Depression
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• Agricultural over expansion
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• Overproduction of manufactured goods
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• Technological unemployment
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• Distribution of income
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• Consumer credit
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• Financial ethics
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The New Deal-"a new deal for the American people"
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First New Deal: 1933-1935
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• "Relief, Reform, and Recovery"
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• "New Nationalism" (Theodore Roosevelt-control and planning)
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• "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself"-FDR
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• "Hundred Days"
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Emergency Banking Act of 1933
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Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933
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Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
was a United States federal law of the New Deal era which restricted agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies not to plant part of their land (that is, to let a portion of their fields lie fallow) and to kill off excess livestock. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus and therefore effectively raise the value of crops. The money for these subsidies was generated through an exclusive tax on companies which processed farm products. The Act created a new agency, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, to oversee the distribution of the subsidies.[1] It is considered the first modern U.S. farm bill.[citation needed]
Increase farmer's purchasing power
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Reduce mortgage foreclosures
...
More credit from banks to farmers
...
Farm income up 50% from 1932-1936
...
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
was an American statute which purposed to authorize the President of the United States to regulate industry and permit cartels and monopolies in an attempt to stimulate economic recovery, and established a national public works program.[1][2]
The legislation was enacted in June 1933 during the Great Depression as part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal legislative program. Section 7(a) of the bill, which protected collective bargaining rights for unions, proved contentious (especially in the Senate),[1][3] but both chambers eventually passed the legislation and President Roosevelt signed the bill into law on June 16, 1933.[1][4] The Act had two main sections (or "titles"). Title I was devoted to industrial recovery, and authorized the promulgation of industrial codes of fair competition, guaranteed trade union rights, permitted the regulation of working standards, and regulated the price of certain refined petroleum products and their transportation. Title II established the Public Works Administration, outlined the projects and funding opportunities it could engage in, and funded the Act.
The Act was implemented by the National Recovery Administration (NRA) and the Public Works Administration (PWA).[2][5] Very large numbers of regulations were generated under the authority granted to the NRA by the Act,[6][7] which led to a significant loss of political support for Roosevelt and the New Deal.[2] The NIRA was set to expire in June 1935, but in a major constitutional ruling the U.S. Supreme Court held Title I of the Act unconstitutional on May 27, 1935, in Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, 295 U.S. 495 (1935).[2] The National Industrial Recovery Act is widely considered a policy failure, both in the 1930s and by historians today.[1][8][9] Disputes over the reasons for this failure continue, however. Among the suggested causes are that the Act promoted economically harmful monopolies,[6] that the Act lacked critical support from the business community,[10] and that the Act was poorly administered.[10][11] The Act encouraged union organizing, which led to significant labor unrest.[12] The Act had no mechanisms for handling these problems, which led Congress to pass the National Labor Relations Act in 1935.[13] The Act was also a major force behind a major modification of the law criminalizing making false statements.[14]
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
was the primary New Deal agency established by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) in 1933. The goal was to eliminate "cut-throat competition" by bringing industry, labor and government together to create codes of "fair practices" and set prices. The NRA was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) and allowed industries to get together and write "codes of fair competition." The codes were intended to reduce "destructive competition" and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours, as well as minimum prices at which products could be sold. The NRA also had a two year renewal charter and was set to expire in June 1935 if not renewed.[1]
In 1935, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously declared that the NRA law was unconstitutional, ruling that it infringed the separation of powers under the United States Constitution. The NRA quickly stopped operations, but many of its labor provisions reappeared in the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act), passed later the same year. The long-term result was a surge in the growth and power of unions, which became a core of the New Deal Coalition that dominated national politics for the next three decades.
The NRA, symbolized by the Blue Eagle (a blue-colored representation of the American thunderbird) was popular with workers. Businesses that supported the NRA put the symbol in their shop windows and on their packages, though they did not always go along with the regulations entailed. Though membership to the NRA was voluntary, businesses that did not display the eagle were very often boycotted, making it seem mandatory for survival to many.
Wide reemployment
...
Reduced work week
...
Decent wages
...
No unfair competition and overproduction
...
"Blue Eagle"-"we do our part"
...
Section 7a of the NIRA
was an American statute which purposed to authorize the President of the United States to regulate industry and permit cartels and monopolies in an attempt to stimulate economic recovery, and established a national public works program.[1][2]

The legislation was enacted in June 1933 during the Great Depression as part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal legislative program. Section 7(a) of the bill, which protected collective bargaining rights for unions, proved contentious (especially in the Senate),[1][3] but both chambers eventually passed the legislation and President Roosevelt signed the bill into law on June 16, 1933.[1][4] The Act had two main sections (or "titles"). Title I was devoted to industrial recovery, and authorized the promulgation of industrial codes of fair competition, guaranteed trade union rights, permitted the regulation of working standards, and regulated the price of certain refined petroleum products and their transportation. Title II established the Public Works Administration, outlined the projects and funding opportunities it could engage in, and funded the Act.

The Act was implemented by the National Recovery Administration (NRA) and the Public Works Administration (PWA).[2][5] Very large numbers of regulations were generated under the authority granted to the NRA by the Act,[6][7] which led to a significant loss of political support for Roosevelt and the New Deal.[2] The NIRA was set to expire in June 1935, but in a major constitutional ruling the U.S. Supreme Court held Title I of the Act unconstitutional on May 27, 1935, in Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, 295 U.S. 495 (1935).[2] The National Industrial Recovery Act is widely considered a policy failure, both in the 1930s and by historians today.[1][8][9] Disputes over the reasons for this failure continue, however. Among the suggested causes are that the Act promoted economically harmful monopolies,[6] that the Act lacked critical support from the business community,[10] and that the Act was poorly administered.[10][11] The Act encouraged union organizing, which led to significant labor unrest.[12] The Act had no mechanisms for handling these problems, which led Congress to pass the National Labor Relations Act in 1935.[13] The Act was also a major force behind a major modification of the law criminalizing making false statements.[14]
Public Works Administration (PWA)
part of the New Deal of 1933, was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes. It was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in June 1933 in response to the Great Depression. It built large-scale public works such as dams, bridges, hospitals and schools. Its goals were to spend $3.3 billion in the first year, and $6 billion in all, to provide employment, stabilize purchasing power, and help revive the economy. Most of the spending came in two waves in 1933-35, and again in 1938. Originally called the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, it was renamed the Public Works Administration in 1939 and shut down in 1943.[1]

The PWA spent over $6 billion in contracts to private construction firms that did the actual work. It created an infrastructure that generated national and local pride in the 1930s and remains vital seven decades later. The PWA was much less controversial than its rival agency with a confusingly similar name, the Works Progress Administration (WPA), headed by Harry Hopkins, which focused on smaller projects and hired unemployed unskilled workers.[2]
Civilian Conservation Corps Act (CCC)
was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families, ages 17-23. A part of the New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, it provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal, state and local governments. The CCC was designed to provide employment for young men in relief families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression while at the same time implementing a general natural resource conservation program in every state and territory. Maximum enrollment at any one time was 300,000; in nine years 2.5 million young men participated.

The American public made the CCC the most popular of all the New Deal programs.[1] Principal benefits of an individual's enrollment in the CCC included improved physical condition, heightened morale, and increased employability. Of their pay of $30 a month, $25 went to their parents.[2] Implicitly, the CCC also led to a greater public awareness and appreciation of the outdoors and the nation's natural resources; and the continued need for a carefully planned, comprehensive national program for the protection and development of natural resources.[3]

During the time of the CCC, volunteers planted nearly 3 billion trees to help reforest America, constructed more than 800 parks nationwide and upgraded most state parks, updated forest fire fighting methods, and built a network of service buildings and public roadways in remote areas.[4]

The CCC operated separate programs for veterans and Native Americans.

Despite its popular support, the CCC was never a permanent agency. It depended on emergency and temporary Congressional legislation for its existence. By 1942, with the war industries booming and the draft in operation, need declined and Congress voted to close the program.[6]
Glass-Steagall Act of 1933-
FDIC
The Banking Act of 1933 (Pub.L. 73-66, 48 Stat. 162, enacted June 16, 1933) was a law that established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) in the United States and imposed banking reforms, several of which were intended to control speculation.[1] It is often referred to as the Glass-Steagall Act, after its Congressional sponsors, Senator Carter Glass (D) of Virginia, and Representative Henry B. Steagall (D) of Alabama.
The term Glass-Steagall Act, however, is most often used to refer to four provisions of the Banking Act of 1933 that limited commercial bank securities activities and affiliations between commercial banks and securities firms.[2] Starting in the early 1960s federal banking regulators interpreted these provisions to permit commercial banks and especially commercial bank affiliates to engage in an expanding list and volume of securities activities.[3] By the time the affiliation restrictions in the Glass-Steagall Act were repealed through the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act in 1999 by President Bill Clinton, many commentators argued Glass-Steagall was already "dead."[4] Most notably, Citibank's 1998 affiliation with Salomon Smith Barney, one of the largest US securities firms, was permitted under the Federal Reserve Board's then existing interpretation of the Glass-Steagall Act.[5] Clinton publicly declared, "The Glass-Steagall Act is no longer relevant."[6]
Many commentators have stated that the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act's repeal of the affiliation restrictions of the Glass-Steagall Act was an important cause of the late-2000s financial crisis.[7][8][9] Some critics of that repeal argue it permitted Wall Street investment banking firms to gamble with their depositors' money that was held in affiliated commercial banks.[10][11][12][13][14][15] Others have argued that the activities linked to the financial crisis were not prohibited (or, in most cases, even regulated) by the Glass-Steagall Act.[16] Commentators, including the American Bankers Association in January 2010, have also argued that the ability of commercial banking firms to acquire securities firms (and of securities firms to convert into bank holding companies) helped mitigate the financial crisis.[17]
Home Owners Refinancing Act (HOLC)
was an Act of Congress of the United States passed as part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal during the Great Depression to help those in danger of losing their homes.[1] The act, which went into effect on June 13, 1933, provided mortgage assistance to homeowners or would-be homeowners by providing them money or refinancing mortgages.[2][3][4]

Sponsored by Senate Majority leader Joe Robinson of Arkansas, it also created the Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC), building off of Herbert Hoover's Federal Loan Bank Board. The Corporation lent low-interest money to families in danger of losing their homes to foreclosure. By the mid 1930s, the HOLC had refinanced nearly 20% of urban homes in the country.[5][6]
Tennessee Valley Authority Act (TVA)
is a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression. The enterprise was a result of the efforts of Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska. TVA was envisioned not only as a provider, but also as a regional economic development agency that would use federal experts and electricity to rapidly modernize the region's economy and society.

TVA's service area covers most of Tennessee, portions of Alabama, Mississippi, and Kentucky, and small slices of Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia. It was the first large regional planning agency of the federal government and remains the largest. Under the leadership of David Lilienthal ("Mr. TVA"), TVA became a model for America's governmental efforts to modernize Third World agrarian societies.[1]
• Opposition to the New Deal
...
Liberty League
...
Share the Wealth Society-
was a movement begun during the Great Depression by Huey Long, a governor and later United States Senator from Louisiana.
Old Age Revolving Pension Plan-Francis E. Townsend
...
National Union for Social Justice-Charles E. Coughlin
...
Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States (1935)-NIRA and United States v. Butler (1936)-AAA-Supreme Court
...
Second New Deal: 1935-1938
...
• "New Freedom" (Woodrow Wilson-competition and reform)
...
• Wagner Labor Relations Act of 1935-(NLRB)
...
• Works Progress Administration (WPA)-$4.88B relief program
...
• Wheeler-Rayburn Act
(Public Utilities Holding Act)
, was a law that was passed by the United States Congress to facilitate regulation of electric utilities, by either limiting their operations to a single state, and thus subjecting them to effective state regulation, or forcing divestitures so that each became a single integrated system serving a limited geographic area. Another purpose of PUHCA was to keep utility holding companies engaged in regulated businesses from engaging in unregulated businesses.
• Revenue Act of 1935
raised United States federal income tax on higher income levels, by introducing the "Wealth Tax". It was a progressive tax that took up to 75 percent on incomes over 5 million.[1]
It was signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
The 1935 Act also was popularly known at the time as the "Soak the Rich" tax.[2] Many wealthy people used loopholes in the existing tax code to evade these taxes, and the Revenue Act of 1937[1] cracked down on this by revising tax laws and regulations.[1]
• Banking Act of 1935
During the 1930s, the U.S. and the rest of the world experienced a severe economic contraction that is now called the Great Depression. In the U.S. during the height of the Great Depression, the official unemployment rate was 25% and the stock market had declined 75% since 1929. Bank runs were common because there was not insurance on deposits at banks, banks kept only a fraction of deposits in reserve, and customers ran the risk of losing the money that they had deposited if their bank failed.[6]
On June 16, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Banking Act of 1933. This legislation:[6]
Established the FDIC as a temporary government corporation
Gave the FDIC authority to provide deposit insurance to banks
Gave the FDIC the authority to regulate and supervise state non-member banks
Funded the FDIC with initial loans of $289 million through the U.S. Treasury and the Federal Reserve
Extended federal oversight to all commercial banks for the first time
Separated commercial and investment banking (Glass-Steagall Act)
Prohibited banks from paying interest on checking accounts
Allowed national banks to branch statewide, if allowed by state law.
• Social Security Act of 1935
refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) federal program.[1] The original Social Security Act (1935)[2] and the current version of the Act, as amended[3] encompass several social welfare and social insurance programs.
Social Security is primarily funded through dedicated payroll taxes called Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax (FICA). Tax deposits are formally entrusted to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, or the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund which comprise the Social Security Trust Fund.[4]
By dollars paid, the U.S. Social Security program is the largest government program in the world and the single greatest expenditure in the federal budget, with 20.8% for Social Security, compared to 20.5% for discretionary defense and 20.1% for Medicare/Medicaid.[5] In 2003 the combined spending for all social insurance programs constituted 37% of government expenditure and 7% of the gross domestic product.[6] Social Security is currently estimated to keep roughly 40 percent of all Americans age 65 or older out of poverty.[7]
The Social Security Administration is headquartered in Woodlawn, Maryland, just to the west of Baltimore.
Proposals to privatize Social Security became part of the Social Security debate during the Bill Clinton and George W. Bush presidencies.
• Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938
(Wheeler-Lea Act)
Election of 1936
• Alfred Landon (R) vs. • Franklin D. Roosevelt-"one third of the nation ill-housed, ill-clad and ill-nourished"
• Alfred Landon (R)
...
• Franklin D. Roosevelt
-"one third of the nation ill-housed, ill-clad and ill-nourished"
• Democrats and the Roosevelt swept the election
...
"Packing the Court"
-FDR's attempt to change the personnel
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
...
• John L. Lewis-
United Mine Workers
• "Sit down" strikes-auto industry (Ford Motor Co.)
is a form of civil disobedience in which an organized group of workers, usually employed at a factory or other centralized location, take possession of the workplace by "sitting down" at their stations, effectively preventing their employers from replacing them with strikebreakers or, in some cases, moving production to other locations.
Workers have used this technique since the beginning of the 20th century, not only in the United States, but also in Italy, Poland, Yugoslavia, and France.
The [Industrial Workers of the World] (IWW) were the first American union to use the sit-down strike. On December 10, 1906, at the General Electric Works in Schenectady, New York, 3,000 workers sat down on the job and stopped production to protest the dismissal of three fellow IWW members.[1][2] The United Auto Workers staged successful sit-down strikes in the 1930s, most famously in the Flint Sit-Down Strike of 1936-1937. In Flint, Michigan, strikers occupied several General Motors plants for more than forty days, and repelled the efforts of the police and National Guard to retake them. A wave of sit-down strikes followed, but diminished by the end of the decade as the courts and the National Labor Relations Board held that sit-down strikes were illegal and sit-down strikers could be fired. While some sit-down strikes still occur in the United States, they tend to be spontaneous and short-lived.
French workers engaged in a number of factory occupations in the wake of the French student revolt in May 1968. At one point more than twenty-five percent of French workers were on strike, many of them occupying their factories.
In 1973, the workers at the Triumph Motorcycles factory at Meriden, West Midlands locked the new owners, NVT, out following the announcement of their plan to close Meriden. The sit-in lasted over a year until the British government intervened, the result of which was the formation of the Meriden Motorcycle Co-operative which produced Triumphs until their closure in 1983.
The sit-down strike was the inspiration for the sit-in, where an organized group of protesters would occupy an area in which they are not wanted by sitting and refuse to l
• Memorial Day Massacre
-Republic Steel plant in Chicago, IL
the Chicago Police Department shot and killed ten unarmed demonstrators in Chicago, on May 30, 1937. The incident took place during the "Little Steel Strike" in the United States.
The incident arose after U.S. Steel signed a union contract but smaller steel manufacturers (called 'Little Steel'), including Republic Steel, refused to do so. In protest, the Steel Workers Organizing Committee (SWOC) of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) called a strike. On Memorial Day, hundreds of sympathizers gathered at Sam's Place, headquarters of SWOC. As the crowd marched across the prairie towards the Republic Steel mill, a line of Chicago policeman blocked their path. When the foremost protestors argued their right to continue, a tree branch was tossed at the police lines[1] and the police fired on the crowd. As the crowd fled, police bullets killed ten people and injured 30. Nine people were permanently disabled and another 28 had serious head injuries from police clubbing.
Years later, one of the protesters, Mollie West, recalled a policeman yelling to her that day to, "Get off the field or I'll put a bullet in your back." No police were ever prosecuted.
A Coroner's Jury declared the killings to be "justifable homicide". The press mostly called it a labor or Red riot. Roosevelt responded to a union plea "The majority of people are saying just one thing, ′A plague on both your houses′"[2]
Today, on the site of Sam's Place stands the union hall of the United Steelworkers and a memorial to the 10 people who died in 1937.
In the book Selected Writings by Dorothy Day (who was present), the events of the protest are summarized thus: 'On Memorial Day, May 30, 1937, police opened fire on a parade of striking steel workers and their families at the gate of the Republic Steel Company, in South Chicago. Fifty people were shot, of whom 10 later died; 100 others were beaten with clubs.
"Roosevelt Recession" (1937-1938)
was an economic downturn that occurred during the Great Depression in the United States.
By the spring of 1937, production, profits, and wages had regained their 1929 levels. Unemployment remained high, but it was slightly lower than the 25% rate seen in 1933. The American economy took a sharp downturn in mid-1937, lasting for 13 months through most of 1938. Industrial production declined almost 30 percent and production of durable goods fell even faster.
Unemployment jumped from 14.3% in 1937 to 19.0% in 1938.[1] Manufacturing output fell by 37% from the 1937 peak and was back to 1934 levels.[2] Producers reduced their expenditures on durable goods, and inventories declined, but personal income was only 15% lower than it had been at the peak in 1937. In most sectors, hourly earnings continued to rise throughout the recession, which partly compensated for the reduction in the number of hours worked. As unemployment rose, consumers' expenditures declined, thereby leading to further cutbacks in production.
"Roosevelt Purge"-FDR supported only liberal Democrats in the 1938 election and asked fellow Democrats to do the same-a terrible political mistake
...
The New Deal and American Society
...
• Not a total success-did not end the Great Depression
...
• Public protection began with the Social Security Act of 1935
...
• Use of fiscal and monetary policy to control business cycle
...
• Faith in the economic system was restored by the New Deal
...
"Good Neighbor Policy"
was the foreign policy of the administration of United States President Franklin Roosevelt toward the countries of Latin America. Its main principle was that of non-intervention and non-interference in the domestic affairs of Latin America. It also reinforced the idea that the United States would be a "good neighbor" and engage in reciprocal exchanges with Latin American countries[1]. Overall, the Roosevelt administration expected that this new policy would create new economic opportunities in the form of reciprocal trade agreements and reassert the influence of the United States in Latin America, however many Latin American governments were not convinced.[2]
• FDR-"the policy of the good neighbor"
...
• Kellogg-Briand Pact
was an international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them".[1] Parties failing to abide by this promise "should be denied the benefits furnished by this treaty". It was signed by Germany, France and the United States on August 27, 1928.
The Kellogg-Briand Pact is named after its authors: Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand.
• American policy
...
Montevideo Conference, 1933
...
Clark Memorandum-J. Reuben Clark
...
Platt Amendment
...
Buenos Aires Conference, 1936
...
Lima Conference, 1938
...
London Economic Conference, 1933
was a meeting of representatives of 66 nations from June 12 to July 27, 1933, at the Geological Museum in London. Its purpose was to win agreement on measures to fight global depression, revive international trade, and stabilize currency exchange rates.
The Conference was "torpedoed" by U.S. President Roosevelt in early July, when Roosevelt denounced currency stabilization.
Trade Agreements Act, 1934
...
Fascism:
Germany, Italy, Japan
) is a radical authoritarian nationalist political ideology.[1][2] Fascists seek elevation of their nation based on commitment to an organic national community where its individuals are united together as one people in national identity by suprapersonal connections of ancestry and culture through a totalitarian state that seeks the mass mobilization of a nation through discipline, indoctrination, physical training, and eugenics.[3][4] Fascism seeks to eradicate perceived foreign influences that are deemed to be causing degeneration of the nation or of not fitting into the national culture.[5]
Fascism was founded during World War I by Italian national syndicalists who combined left-wing and right-wing political views.[6][7] Fascists have commonly opposed having a firm association with any section of the left-right spectrum, considering it inadequate to describe their beliefs,[8][9] though fascism's goal to promote the rule of people deemed innately superior while seeking to purge society of people deemed innately inferior is identified as a prominent far-right theme.[10] Fascism opposes multiple ideologies: conservatism, liberalism, and the two major forms of socialism — communism and social democracy, and denounce them as representatives of sectarian interests rather than the community as a whole.[11] To achieve its goals, the fascist state purges forces, ideas, people, and systems deemed to be the cause of decadence and degeneration.[12] Fascism promotes political violence and war as forms of direct action that promote national rejuvenation, spirit and vitality.[3][13] Fascists commonly utilize paramilitary organizations to commit or threaten violence against their opponents.[14]
The fascist party is a vanguard party designed to initiate a revolution from above and to organize the nation upon fascist principles.[15] The fascist party and state is led by a supreme leader who exercises a dictatorship over the party, the government and other state institutions.[16] Fascism condemns liberal democracy for basing government legitimacy on quantity rather than quality, and for causing quarreling partisan politics, but deny that they are entirely against democracy and espouse to create an authoritarian democracy that derives its goals from the general will.[17][18] Fascists claim that their ideology is a trans-class movement, advocating resolution to domestic class conflict within a nation to secure national solidarity.[19] It claims that its goal of cultural nationalization of society emancipates the nation's proletariat, and promotes the assimilation of all classes into proletarian national culture.[19] While fascism opposes domestic class conflict, fascism believes that bourgeois-proletarian conflict primarily exists in national conflict between proletarian nations versus bourgeois nations; fascism declares its opposition to bourgeois nations and declares its support for the victory of proletarian nations.[20]
Fascism advocates a state-controlled and regulated mixed economy; the principal economic goal of fascism is to achieve national autarky to secure national independence, through protectionist and interventionist economic policies.[21] It promotes regulated private enterprise and private property contingent whenever beneficial to the nation and state enterprise and state property whenever necessary to protect its interests.[21] At the same time, fascists are hostile to financial capital, plutocracy, and "the power of money".[21] It supports criminalization of strikes by employees and lockouts by employers because it deems these acts as prejudicial and detrimental to the national community and therefore to society as an entirety.[22]
• Japan: invaded Manchuria-US responded with Stimson Doctrine, 1932
...
• Italy: Benito Mussolini-
Fascist Party
• Germany: Adolf Hitler-chancellor of Germany-National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP)
...
Restoration of Germany's greatness
...
Reverse the Treaty of Versailles
...
Eliminate Jewish and Communist power
...
Massive rearmament campaign
...
Isolationism and the United States
...
• Senate Munitions Investigating Committee- "Nye Committee"-Senator Gerald R. Nye-"merchants of death"
...
• America First Committee-
Robert E. Woods and Charles A. Lindbergh
• Neutrality Act of 1935
Roosevelt's State Department had lobbied for embargo provisions that would allow the President to impose sanctions selectively. This was rejected by Congress. The 1935 act, signed on August 31, 1935, imposed a general embargo on trading in arms and war materials with all parties in a war. It also declared that American citizens traveling on warring ships traveled at their own risk. The act was set to expire after six months.
Roosevelt invoked the act after Italy's invasion of Ethiopia in October 1935, preventing all arms and ammunition shipments to both countries. He also declared a "moral embargo" against the belligerents, covering trade not falling under the Neutrality Act.[3]
Restricted arm sells
...
Americans "travel at own risk"
...
• Neutrality Act of 1936
passed in February of that year, renewed the provisions of the 1935 act for another 14 months. It also forbade all loans or credits to belligerents.
However, this act did not cover "civil wars," such as that in Spain (1936-1939), nor did it cover materials such as trucks and oil. U.S. companies such as Texaco, Standard Oil, Ford, General Motors, and Studebaker used this loophole to sell such items to Franco on credit. By 1939, Franco owed these and other companies more than $100,000,000.[4]
Extended 1935 act
...
President given authority for loan embargos
...
• Neutrality Act of 1937
n January 1937, the Congress passed a joint resolution outlawing the arms trade with Spain. The Neutrality Act of 1937, passed in May, included the provisions of the earlier acts, this time without expiration date, and extended them to cover civil wars as well. Further, U.S. ships were prohibited from transporting any passengers or articles to belligerents, and U.S. citizens were forbidden from traveling on ships of belligerent nations.
In a concession to Roosevelt, a "cash-and-carry" provision that had been devised by his advisor Bernard Baruch was added: the President could permit the sale of materials and supplies to belligerents in Europe as long as the recipients arranged for the transport and paid immediately in cash, with the argument that this would not draw the U.S. into the conflict. Roosevelt believed that cash-and-carry would aid France and Great Britain in the event of a war with Germany, since they were the only countries that controlled the seas and were able to take advantage of the provision.[2] The cash-and-carry clause was set to expire after two years.
Japan invaded China in July 1937, starting the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). President Roosevelt, who supported the Chinese side, chose not to invoke the Neutrality Acts since the parties had not formally declared war. In so doing, he ensured that China's efforts to defend itself would not be hindered by the legislation: China was dependent on arms imports and only Japan would have been able to take advantage of cash-and-carry. This outraged the isolationists in Congress who claimed that the spirit of the law was being undermined. Roosevelt stated that he would prohibit American ships from transporting arms to the belligerents, but he allowed British ships to transport American arms to China.[5] Roosevelt gave his Quarantine Speech in October 1937, outlining a move away from neutrality and towards "quarantining" all aggressors. He then imposed a "moral embargo" on exports of aircraft to Japan.[3]
"Cash and carry" for non-military goods
...
Forbade American travel on belligerent ships
...
• Neutrality Act of 1939
Early in 1939, after Nazi Germany had invaded Czechoslovakia, Roosevelt lobbied Congress to have the cash-and-carry provision renewed. He was rebuffed, the provision lapsed, and the mandatory arms embargo remained in place.
In September 1939, after Germany had invaded Poland, Great Britain and France declared war on Germany. Roosevelt invoked the provisions of the Neutrality Act but came before Congress and lamented that the Neutrality Acts may give passive aid to an aggressor.[6]
He prevailed over the isolationists, and on November 4 the Neutrality Act of 1939 was passed, allowing for arms trade with belligerent nations on a cash-and-carry basis, thus in effect ending the arms embargo. Furthermore, the Neutrality Acts of 1935 and 1937 were repealed, American citizens and ships were barred from entering war zones designated by the President, and the National Munitions Control Board (which had been created by the 1935 Neutrality Act) was charged with issuing licenses for all arms imports and exports. Arms trade without a license became a federal crime.[7]
"Cash and carry" military goods
...
Combat zones no American shipping allowed
...
Short-term loans approved
...
• Quarantine Speech, 1937
was given by U.S. President [Franklin D. Roosevelt] on October 5, 1937 in [Chicago], calling for an international "quarantine of the aggressor nations" as an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality and non-intervention that was prevalent at the time. The speech intensified America's isolationist mood, causing protest by non-interventionists and foes to intervene. No countries were directly mentioned in the speech, although it was interpreted as referring to Japan, Italy, and Germany.[1] Roosevelt suggested the use of economic pressure, a forceful response, but less direct than outright aggression.
Public response to the speech was mixed. Famed cartoonist Percy Crosby, creator of Skippy (comic strip) and very outspoken Roosevelt critic, bought a two-page advertisement in the New York Sun to attack it.[2] In addition, it was heavily criticized by Hearst-owned newspapers and Robert R. McCormick of the Chicago Tribune, but several subsequent compendia of editorials showed overall approval in US media.[3]
European Aggressor Nations
...
• Italy and Ethiopian "incident"
...
• German aggression
...
Rhineland, 1936-DMZ-Hitler-Europe had only submission no solidarity
...
Austria, 1938-voluntary entry into Third Reich (anschluss)
...
Czechoslovakia the Sudetenland-"appeasement policy"
...
• September 1, 1939-blitzkrieg of Poland invaded-World War II began
...
• "Phony war" of 1939-1940
was a phase early in World War II that was marked by a lack of major military operations by the Western Allies against the German Reich. The phase was in the months following Britain and France's declaration of war on Germany (shortly after the German invasion of Poland) in September 1939 and preceding the Battle of France in May 1940. War was declared by each side, but no Western power had committed to launching a significant land offensive, notwithstanding the terms of the Anglo-Polish military alliance and the Franco-Polish military alliance, which obliged the United Kingdom and France to assist Poland.
Contemporaneously, the period had also been referred to as the Twilight War (by Winston Churchill), der Sitzkrieg[1] ("the sitting war": a play on Blitzkrieg), the Bore War (a play on the Boer War), and drôle de guerre ("strange/funny war").
The term "Phoney War" was possibly coined by U.S. Senator William Borah who stated, in September 1939: "There is something phoney about this war."[2]
• Dunkirk
(May 26-June 3, 1940)-British troops removed from Europe
• Paris fell on June 14, 1940-Free French Army retreated to England
fell on June 14, 1940-Free French Army retreated to England
• Battle of Britain-
August 8-October 31, 1940-German air attack on Britain-preparation for "Operation Sea Lion" in 1941
Election of 1940
was fought in the shadow of World War II (in Europe) as the United States was emerging from the Great Depression. Incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR), a Democrat, broke with tradition and ran for a third term, which became a major issue. The surprise Republican candidate was maverick businessman Wendell Willkie, a dark horse who crusaded against Roosevelt's perceived failure to end the Depression and his supposed eagerness for war. Roosevelt, acutely aware of strong isolationist sentiment in the U.S., promised there would be no involvement in foreign wars if he were re-elected. Willkie conducted an energetic campaign and managed to revive Republican strength in areas of the Midwest and Northeast. However, Roosevelt won a comfortable victory by building strong support from labor unions, urban political machines, ethnic voters, and the traditionally Democratic Solid South.

The subsequent passing of the 22nd Amendment of the United States Constitution in 1947 renders this election the only occasion in American history in which a candidate was elected to an unprecedented third term as president (Roosevelt was elected to a fourth term in 1944, but he died less than three months after his inauguration).
• Wendell Willkie (R)
February 18, 1892 - October 8, 1944) was a corporate lawyer in the United States and a dark horse who became the Republican Party nominee for president in 1940. A member of the liberal wing of the GOP, he crusaded against those domestic policies of the New Deal that he thought were inefficient and anti-business. Willkie, an internationalist,[2] needed the votes of the large isolationist element, so he waffled on the bitterly debated issue of America's role in World War II, losing support from both sides. His opponent Franklin D. Roosevelt won the 1940 election with 55% of the popular vote and 85% of the electoral vote.

Afterward, Roosevelt found Willkie to be compatible politically with his plans and brought him aboard as an informal ambassador-at-large. Willkie criss-crossed the globe on the former army bomber The Gulliver, bringing home a vision of "One World" freed from imperialism and colonialism. "One World" was Willkie's travelogue of his travels and meetings of the then-Allies heads of state, as well as ordinary citizens and soldiers in regions such as Russia and Iran.[3] His liberalism lost him supporters in the GOP and he dropped out of the 1944 race, then died of a heart attack. He never held political office.
• Franklin D. Roosevelt (D)
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Urban and rural conflicts
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Palmer Raids
were attempts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the United States. The raids and arrests occurred in November 1919 and January 1920 under the leadership of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. Though more than 500 foreign citizens were deported, including a number of prominent leftist leaders, Palmer's efforts were largely frustrated by officials at the U.S. Department of Labor who had responsibility for deportations and who objected to Palmer's methods. The Palmer Raids occurred in the larger context of the Red Scare, the term given to fear of and reaction against political radicals in the U.S. in the years immediately following World War I.
Eighteenth Amendment
of the United States Constitution established prohibition in the United States. The separate Volstead Act set down methods of enforcing the Eighteenth Amendment, and defined which "intoxicating liquors" were prohibited, and which were excluded from prohibition (e.g., for medical and religious purposes). The Amendment was unique in setting a time delay before it would take effect following ratification, and in setting a time limit for its ratification by the states. Its ratification was certified on January 16, 1919, with the law taking effect on January 17, 1920.

Demand for liquor continued, and the law resulted in the criminalization of producers, suppliers, transporters and consumers. The police, courts and prisons were overwhelmed with new cases; organized crime increased in power, and corruption extended among law enforcement officials. The amendment was repealed in 1933 by ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment, the only instance in United States history of repeal of a constitutional amendment.
"monkey trial"
was a landmark American legal case in 1925 in which high school science teacher, John Scopes, was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act, which made it unlawful to teach evolution in any state-funded school.[1]

Scopes was found guilty, but the verdict was overturned on a technicality and he went free. The trial drew intense national publicity, as national reporters flocked to the small town of Dayton, Tennessee, to cover the big-name lawyers representing each side. William Jennings Bryan, three-time presidential candidate for the Democrats, argued for the prosecution, while Clarence Darrow, the famed defense attorney, spoke for Scopes. The trial set modernists, who said evolution was consistent with religion, against fundamentalists who said the word of God as revealed in the Bible took priority over all human knowledge. The trial was thus both a theological contest and a trial on the veracity of modern science regarding the creation-evolution controversy. The teaching of evolution expanded, as fundamentalist efforts to use state laws to reverse the trend had failed in the court of public opinion.[2]
Clarence Darrow
(April 18, 1857 - March 13, 1938) was an American lawyer and leading member of the American Civil Liberties Union, best known for defending teenage thrill killers Leopold and Loeb in their trial for murdering 14-year-old Robert "Bobby" Franks (1924) and defending John T. Scopes in the Scopes "Monkey" Trial (1925), in which he opposed William Jennings Bryan (statesman, noted orator, and 3-time presidential candidate). Called a "sophisticated country lawyer",[2] he remains notable for his wit and agnosticism, which marked him as one of the most famous American lawyers and civil libertarians.[3]
John T. Scopes
(August 3, 1900 - October 21, 1970[1]) was a teacher in Dayton, Tennessee, who was charged on May 5, 1925 for violating Tennessee's Butler Act, which prohibited the teaching of evolution in Tennessee schools. He was tried in a case known as the Scopes Trial.
National Origins Act
was a United States federal law that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, down from the 3% cap set by the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, according to the Census of 1890. It superseded the 1921 Emergency Quota Act. The law was aimed at further restricting the Southern and Eastern Europeans, mainly Jews fleeing persecution in Poland and Russia, who were immigrating in large numbers starting in the 1890s, as well as prohibiting the immigration of Middle Easterners, East Asians and Asian Indians. According to the U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian, "In all its parts, the most basic purpose of the 1924 Immigration Act was to preserve the ideal of American homogeneity."[1] Congressional opposition was minimal.
"lost generation"
is a term used to refer to the generation, actually a cohort, that came of age during World War I. The term was popularized by Ernest Hemingway who used it as one of two contrasting epigraphs for his novel, The Sun Also Rises. In that volume Hemingway credits the phrase to Gertrude Stein, who was then his mentor and patron.

In A Moveable Feast, which was published after both Hemingway and Stein were dead and after a literary feud that lasted much of their life, Hemingway reveals that the phrase was actually originated by the garage owner who serviced Stein's car. When a young mechanic failed to repair the car in a way satisfactory to Stein, the garage owner shouted at the boy, "You are all a "génération perdue."[1]:29 Stein, in telling Hemingway the story, added, "That is what you are. That's what you all are ... all of you young people who served in the war. You are a lost generation."[1]:29 This generation included distinguished artists such as F. Scott Fitzgerald, T. S. Eliot, John Dos Passos, Waldo Peirce, Isadora Duncan, Abraham Walkowitz, Alan Seeger, and Erich Maria Remarque.
Charles A. Lindbergh
was an American aviator, author, inventor, explorer, and social activist.

As a 25-year-old U.S. Air Mail pilot Lindbergh emerged suddenly from virtual obscurity to instantaneous world fame as the result of his Orteig Prize-winning solo non-stop flight on May 20-21, 1927, made from Roosevelt Field[N 1] located in Garden City on New York's Long Island to Le Bourget Field in Paris, France, a distance of nearly 3,600 statute miles (5,800 km), in the single-seat, single-engine purpose built Ryan monoplane Spirit of St. Louis. Lindbergh, a U.S. Army Air Corps Reserve officer, was also awarded the nation's highest military decoration, the Medal of Honor, for his historic exploit.

In the late 1920s and early 1930s, Lindbergh used his fame to promote the development of both commercial aviation and Air Mail services in the United States and the Americas. In March 1932, however, his infant son, Charles, Jr., was kidnapped and murdered in what was soon dubbed the "Crime of the Century". This eventually led to the Lindbergh family being "driven into voluntary exile" in Europe to which they sailed in secrecy from New York under assumed names in late December 1935 to "seek a safe, secluded residence away from the tremendous public hysteria" in America. The Lindberghs did not return to the United States until April 1939.

Before the United States formally entered World War II, Lindbergh had been an outspoken advocate of keeping the U.S. out of the world conflict, as had his father, Congressman Charles August Lindbergh, during World War I. Although Lindbergh was a leader in the anti-war America First movement, he nevertheless strongly supported the war effort after Pearl Harbor and flew many combat missions in the Pacific Theater of World War II as a civilian consultant even though President Franklin D. Roosevelt had refused to reinstate his Army Air Corps colonel's commission that he had resigned in April 1941.

In his later years, Lindbergh became a prolific prize-winning author, international explorer, inventor, and environmentalist.
"best minds"
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"Ohio gang"
was a good ol' boy network of politicians and industry leaders closely surrounding Warren G. Harding, the 29th President of the United States of America. Many of these individuals came into Harding's personal orbit during his tenure as a state-level politician in Ohio, thus the name.

During the Harding administration several of the so-called Ohio Gang became involved in financial scandals, including the Teapot Dome scandal and apparent malfeasance at the U.S. Department of Justice, ending in prison terms and suicides. Following Harding's sudden death of a heart attack in 1923, the Ohio Gang were effectively removed from the corridors of power by Harding's Vice President and successor, Calvin Coolidge.
Teapot Dome
was a bribery incident that took place in the United States from 1922-1923, during the administration of President Warren G. Harding. Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall leased Navy petroleum reserves at Teapot Dome and two other locations to private oil companies at low rates without competitive bidding. In 1922 and 1923, the leases became the subject of a sensational investigation by Senator Thomas J. Walsh. Fall was later convicted of accepting bribes from the oil companies.

Before the Watergate scandal, Teapot Dome was regarded as the "greatest and most sensational scandal in the history of American politics".[1] The scandal also was a key factor in posthumously further destroying the public reputation of the Harding administration, which was already unpopular due to its poor handling of the Great Railroad Strike of 1922 and the President's veto of the Bonus Bill in 1922.[2]
Albert B. Fall
(November 26, 1861 - November 30, 1944) was a United States Senator from New Mexico and the Secretary of the Interior under President Warren G. Harding, infamous for his involvement in the Teapot Dome scandal.
Washington Naval Conference
was a military conference called by President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922. Conducted outside the auspices of the League of Nations, it was attended by nine nations, the United States, Japan, China, France, Britain, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal,[1] having interests in the Pacific Ocean and East Asia. Soviet Russia was not invited to the conference. It was the first international conference held in the United States and the first disarmament conference in history, and as Kaufman, 1990 shows, it is studied by political scientists as a model for a successful disarmament movement.

Held at Memorial Continental Hall in downtown Washington,[2] it resulted in three major treaties: Four-Power Treaty, Five-Power Treaty (more commonly known as the Washington Naval Treaty), the Nine-Power Treaty, and a number of smaller agreements. These treaties preserved peace during the 1920s but are also credited with enabling the rise of the Japanese Empire as a naval power leading up to World War II.
Economic characteristics in the 1920s
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Fordney-McCumber Act
raised American tariffs in order to protect factories and farms. Congress displayed a pro-business attitude in passing the ad valorem tariff and in promoting foreign trade through providing huge loans to Europe, which in turn bought more American goods.[1] The Roaring Twenties brought a period of sustained economic prosperity with an end to the Depression of 1920-21.

As a result of the war, Americans had two main concerns. First, they wanted to ensure economic self-sufficiency so that no future enemy could manipulate the American economy. Second, many industries wanted to preserve the benefits of the increased wartime demand.
Dawes Plan
was an attempt in 1924 to solve the reparations problem, which had bedeviled international politics, in the wake of the Ruhr occupation and the hyperinflation crisis. It provided for the Allies to collect war reparations debt from Germany. Intended as an interim measure, the Young Plan was adopted in 1929 to replace it.
Election of 1928
pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith. Hoover and Smith had been widely known as potential presidential candidates long before the campaign of 1928, and both were generally regarded as of outstanding leadership quite apart from the office of president. Seldom has this been the case of both contenders in an election. As each candidate was a newcomer to the presidential race, each presented in his person and in his record appeals of unknown potency to widely distributed elements in the population. However, each candidate faced serious discontent within his party membership, and neither had the wholehearted support of the party organization.[1]

In the end, the Republicans were identified with the booming economy of the 1920s, whereas Smith, a Roman Catholic, suffered politically from Anti-Catholic prejudice, his anti-prohibitionist stance, and the legacy of corruption of Tammany Hall, with which he was associated. Hoover won a landslide victory.
John Kenneth Galbraith
October 15, 1908 - April 29, 2006), OC was a Canadian-American economist. He was a Keynesian, an institutionalist, and a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalism. His books on economic topics were bestsellers from the 1950s through the 2000s and he filled the role of public intellectual from the 1950s to the 1970s on matters of economics.

Galbraith was a prolific author who produced four dozen books and over a thousand articles on various subjects. Among his most famous works was a popular trilogy on economics, American Capitalism (1952), The Affluent Society (1958), and The New Industrial State (1967). He taught at Harvard University for many years. Galbraith was active in Democratic Party politics, serving in the administrations of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson; he served as United States Ambassador to India under Kennedy. Due to his prodigious literary output he was arguably the best known economist in the world during his lifetime[1] and was one of a select few people to be awarded the Medal of Freedom, in 1946, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2000, for services to economics.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
was an independent agency of the United States government, established and chartered by the US Congress in 1932, Act of January 22, 1932, c. 8, 47 Stat. 5, during the administration of President Herbert Hoover. It was modeled after the War Finance Corporation of World War I. The agency gave $2 billion in aid to state and local governments and made loans to banks, railroads, mortgage associations and other businesses. The loans were nearly all repaid. It was continued by the New Deal and played a major role in handling the Great Depression in the United States and setting up the relief programs that were taken over by the New Deal in 1933.[1]
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
otherwise known as the Smoot-Hawley Tariff or Hawley-Smoot Tariff,[1] was an act, sponsored by Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley, and signed into law on June 17, 1930, that raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels.[2]

The overall level tariffs under the Tariff were the second-highest in U.S. history, exceeded by a small margin only by the Tariff of 1828.[3] The act, and the ensuing retaliatory tariffs by U.S. trading partners, reduced American exports and imports by more than half.
Glass-Steagall Act, 1932
was a law enacted by the United States Congress in 1932. It was the first time that currency (non-specie, paper currency etc.) was permitted to be allocated for the Federal Reserve System. It was passed in February 1932 in an effort to stop deflation and expanded the Federal Reserve's ability to offer rediscounts[clarification needed] on more types of assets such as government bonds as well as commercial paper.[1]

The "Glass-Steagall Act" is not the official title of the law; it is a colloquialism that refers to its legislative sponsors, Carter Glass, a US Senator from Virginia and Henry B. Steagall, the Congressman from Alabama's 3rd congressional district.
Election of 1932
took place in the midst of the Great Depression that had ruined the promises of incumbent President Herbert Hoover to bring about a new era of prosperity. Economics was dominant, and the sort of cultural issues that had dominated previous elections including Catholicism and the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) were dormant. Prohibition was a favorite Democratic target, as few Republicans tried to defend it. There was a mounting demand to end prohibition and bring back beer, liquor, and the resulting tax revenues.[1] The Democratic nomination went to the well known governor of the largest state, New York's Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR). He had been reelected governor in a landslide in 1930. People still remembered his cousin, the first president Roosevelt, and FDR had been the losing vice presidential nominee in 1920. This time, Roosevelt united all wings of the party, avoided divisive cultural issues such as religion and the KKK, and brought in a leading southern conservative as his running mate, House Speaker John Nance Garner.

The theme of the campaign was an all-out attack on Hoover's economic failures, with the incumbent hard pressed to defend himself. Roosevelt blamed the Great Depression on Hoover, and his protectionist policies. Roosevelt lashed out at Hoover: "I accuse the present Administration of being the greatest spending Administration in peacetime in all our history."[2] Garner accused Hoover of "leading the country down the path of socialism."[3] Roosevelt himself did not have a clear idea of the New Deal at this point, so he promised no specific programs and tried to appeal to practically all groups of voters, even Republicans. Roosevelt won by a landslide, and this critical election marked the collapse of the Fourth Party System or Progressive Era. With another landslide in the 1934 off-year elections, the electorate was realigned into the Fifth Party System, dominated by Roosevelt's New Deal Coalition.
First Deal philosophies
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Second New Deal philosophies
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AAA
was legislation in the United States that was enacted as an alternative and replacement for the farm subsidy policies, in previous New Deal farm legislation (Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933), that had been found unconstitutional. The act revived the provisions in the previous Agriculture Adjustment Act, with the exception that the financing of the law's programs would be provided by the Federal Government and not a processor's tax,[1] and was also enforced as a response to the success of the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1936.[2]Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938
NIRA
was an American statute which purposed to authorize the President of the United States to regulate industry and permit cartels and monopolies in an attempt to stimulate economic recovery, and established a national public works program.[1][2]
The legislation was enacted in June 1933 during the Great Depression as part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal legislative program. Section 7(a) of the bill, which protected collective bargaining rights for unions, proved contentious (especially in the Senate),[1][3] but both chambers eventually passed the legislation and President Roosevelt signed the bill into law on June 16, 1933.[1][4] The Act had two main sections (or "titles"). Title I was devoted to industrial recovery, and authorized the promulgation of industrial codes of fair competition, guaranteed trade union rights, permitted the regulation of working standards, and regulated the price of certain refined petroleum products and their transportation. Title II established the Public Works Administration, outlined the projects and funding opportunities it could engage in, and funded the Act.
The Act was implemented by the National Recovery Administration (NRA) and the Public Works Administration (PWA).[2][5] Very large numbers of regulations were generated under the authority granted to the NRA by the Act,[6][7] which led to a significant loss of political support for Roosevelt and the New Deal.[2] The NIRA was set to expire in June 1935, but in a major constitutional ruling the U.S. Supreme Court held Title I of the Act unconstitutional on May 27, 1935, in Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, 295 U.S. 495 (1935).[2] The National Industrial Recovery Act is widely considered a policy failure, both in the 1930s and by historians today.[1][8][9] Disputes over the reasons for this failure continue, however. Among the suggested causes are that the Act promoted economically harmful monopolies,[6] that the Act lacked critical support from the business community,[10] and that the Act was poorly administered.[10][11] The Act encouraged union organizing, which led to significant labor unrest.[12] The Act had no mechanisms for handling these problems, which led Congress to pass the National Labor Relations Act in 1935.[13] The Act was also a major force behind a major modification of the law criminalizing making false statements.[14]National Industrial Recovery Act
CCC
was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families, ages 17-23. A part of the New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, it provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal, state and local governments. The CCC was designed to provide employment for young men in relief families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression while at the same time implementing a general natural resource conservation program in every state and territory. Maximum enrollment at any one time was 300,000; in nine years 2.5 million young men participated.
The American public made the CCC the most popular of all the New Deal programs.[1] Principal benefits of an individual's enrollment in the CCC included improved physical condition, heightened morale, and increased employability. Of their pay of $30 a month, $25 went to their parents.[2] Implicitly, the CCC also led to a greater public awareness and appreciation of the outdoors and the nation's natural resources; and the continued need for a carefully planned, comprehensive national program for the protection and development of natural resources.[3]
During the time of the CCC, volunteers planted nearly 3 billion trees to help reforest America, constructed more than 800 parks nationwide and upgraded most state parks, updated forest fire fighting methods, and built a network of service buildings and public roadways in remote areas.[4]The CCC operated separate programs for veterans and Native Americans.
Despite its popular support, the CCC was never a permanent agency. It depended on emergency and temporary Congressional legislation for its existence. By 1942, with the war industries booming and the draft in operation, need declined and Congress voted to close the program.[6]Civilian Conservation Corps
Blue Eagle
a blue-colored representation of the American thunderbird, with outspread wings, was a symbol used in the United States by companies to show compliance with the National Industrial Recovery Act. It was proclaimed the symbol of industrial recovery on July 20, 1933 by Hugh Samuel Johnson, the head of the National Recovery Administration.[1][2][3]

Many sources credit advertising art director Charles T. Coiner with the design.[4][5][6][7] According to a few sources, however, it was sketched by Johnson, based on an idea utilized by the War Industries Board during World War I.[1][3] The eagle holds a gear, symbolizing industry, in its right talon, and bolts of lightning in its left talon, symbolizing power.[8]

All companies that accepted President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Re-employment Agreement or a special Code of Fair Competition were permitted to display a poster showing the Blue Eagle together with the announcement, "NRA Member. We Do Our Part."[1][2][3] Consumers were exhorted to buy products and services only from companies displaying the Blue Eagle banner.[1][3] According to Johnson,

"When every American housewife understands that the Blue Eagle on everything that she permits into her home is a symbol of its restoration to security, may God have mercy on the man or group of men who attempt to trifle with this bird." [9]

On September 5, 1935, following the invalidation of the compulsory code system, the emblem was abolished and its future use as a symbol was prohibited.

In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1933, DeBenneville "Bert" Bell formed a new National Football League franchise to replace the defunct Frankford Yellow Jackets, naming this team the Eagles in recognition of the NRA (a name the team retains to the present).[10][11]
Liberty League
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Share the Wealth Society
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Old Age Revolving Pension Plan
Dr. Francis Earl Townsend (January 13, 1867-September 1, 1960) was an American physician who was best known for his revolving old-age pension proposal during the Great Depression. Known as the "Townsend Plan," this proposal influenced the establishment of the Roosevelt administration's Social Security system. He was born just outside of Fairbury, Illinois, where a post office is memorialized in his honor.
National Union for Social Justice
Father Charles Edward Coughlin (October 25, 1891 - October 27, 1979) was a controversial Roman Catholic priest at Royal Oak, Michigan's National Shrine of the Little Flower church. He was one of the first political leaders to use radio to reach a mass audience, as more than thirty million tuned to his weekly broadcasts during the 1930s.[1] Early in his career Coughlin was a vocal supporter of Franklin D. Roosevelt and his early New Deal proposals, before later becoming a harsh critic of Roosevelt as too friendly to bankers.[2] In 1934 he announced a new political organization called the National Union for Social Justice. He wrote a platform calling for monetary reforms, the nationalization of major industries and railroads, and protection of the rights of labor. The membership ran into the millions, resembling the Populist movement of the 1890s.[3]
After hinting at attacks on Jewish bankers, Coughlin began to use his radio program to issue antisemitic commentary, and later to support at least some of the policies of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini.[4] The broadcasts have been called "a variation of the Fascist agenda applied to American culture".[5] His chief topics were political and economic rather than religious, with his slogan being Social Justice, first with, and later against, the New Deal. Many American bishops as well as the Vatican wanted him silenced, but it was the Roosevelt administration that finally forced the cancellation of his radio program and forbade the dissemination through the post of his newspaper, Social Justice.[6]
Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States
was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that invalidated regulations of the poultry industry according to the nondelegation doctrine and as an invalid use of Congress's power under the commerce clause. This was a unanimous decision that rendered the National Industrial Recovery Act, a main component of President Roosevelt's New Deal, unconstitutional.
First New Deal characteristics
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Second New Deal characteristics
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McNary-Haugen Bill
which never became law, was a highly controversial plan in the 1920s to subsidize American agriculture by raising the domestic prices of farm products. The plan was for the government to buy the wheat, and either store it or export it at a loss. It was co-authored by Charles L. McNary (R-Oregon) and Gilbert N. Haugen (R-Iowa). Despite attempts in 1924, 1926, 1927, and 1928 to pass the bill — it was vetoed by President Calvin Coolidge, and never approved. It was supported by then-Secretary of Agriculture Henry C. Wallace.

According to the bill, a federal agency would be created to support and protect domestic farm prices by attempting to maintain price levels that existed before the First World War. By purchasing surpluses and selling them overseas, the federal government would take losses that would be paid for through fees against farm producers.
Glass-Steagall Act, 1933
The Banking Act of 1933 (Pub.L. 73-66, 48 Stat. 162, enacted June 16, 1933) was a law that established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) in the United States and imposed banking reforms, several of which were intended to control speculation.[1] It is often referred to as the Glass-Steagall Act, after its Congressional sponsors, Senator Carter Glass (D) of Virginia, and Representative Henry B. Steagall (D) of Alabama.

The term Glass-Steagall Act, however, is most often used to refer to four provisions of the Banking Act of 1933 that limited commercial bank securities activities and affiliations between commercial banks and securities firms.[2] Starting in the early 1960s federal banking regulators interpreted these provisions to permit commercial banks and especially commercial bank affiliates to engage in an expanding list and volume of securities activities.[3] By the time the affiliation restrictions in the Glass-Steagall Act were repealed through the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act in 1999 by President Bill Clinton, many commentators argued Glass-Steagall was already "dead."[4] Most notably, Citibank's 1998 affiliation with Salomon Smith Barney, one of the largest US securities firms, was permitted under the Federal Reserve Board's then existing interpretation of the Glass-Steagall Act.[5] Clinton publicly declared, "The Glass-Steagall Act is no longer relevant."[6]

Many commentators have stated that the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act's repeal of the affiliation restrictions of the Glass-Steagall Act was an important cause of the late-2000s financial crisis.[7][8][9] Some critics of that repeal argue it permitted Wall Street investment banking firms to gamble with their depositors' money that was held in affiliated commercial banks.[10][11][12][13][14][15] Others have argued that the activities linked to the financial crisis were not prohibited (or, in most cases, even regulated) by the Glass-Steagall Act.[16] Commentators, including the American Bankers Association in January 2010, have also argued that the ability of commercial banking firms to acquire securities firms (and of securities firms to convert into bank holding companies) helped mitigate the financial crisis.[17]
Boston police strike
the Boston police rank and file went out on strike on September 9, 1919, in order to achieve recognition for their trade union and improvements in wages and working conditions. They faced an implacable opponent in Police Commissioner Edwin Upton Curtis, who denied that police officers had any right to form a union, much less one affiliated with a larger organization like the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Attempts at reconciliation between the Commissioner and the police officers, particularly on the part of Boston's Mayor Andrew James Peters, failed.

During the strike, Boston experienced several nights of lawlessness, although property damage was not extensive. Several thousand members of the State Guard, supported by volunteers, restored order. Press reaction both locally and nationally described the strike as Bolshevik-inspired and directed at the destruction of civil society. The strikers were called "deserters" and "agents of Lenin."[1]

Samuel Gompers of the AFL recognized that the strike was damaging the cause of labor in the public mind and advised the strikers to return to work. The Police Commissioner remained adamant and refused to re-hire the striking policemen. He was supported by Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge, whose rebuke of Gompers earned him a national reputation. The strike proved a setback for labor, and the AFL reversed its attempts to organize police officers for another two decades. Coolidge won the Republican nomination for vice-president of the US in the 1920 presidential election.
Calvin Coolidge
was the 30th President of the United States (1923-1929). A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics, eventually becoming governor of that state. His conduct during the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action. Soon after, he was elected as the 29th Vice President in 1920 and succeeded to the Presidency upon the sudden death of Warren G. Harding in 1923. Elected in his own right in 1924, he gained a reputation as a small-government conservative, and also as a man who said very little.

Coolidge restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessor's administration, and left office with considerable popularity.[1] As a Coolidge biographer put it, "He embodied the spirit and hopes of the middle class, could interpret their longings and express their opinions. That he did represent the genius of the average is the most convincing proof of his strength."[2] Coolidge praised the achievement of widespread prosperity in 1928, saying: "The requirements of existence have passed beyond the standard of necessity into the region of luxury."[3] Some later criticized Coolidge as part of a general criticism of laissez-faire government.[4] His reputation underwent a renaissance during the Ronald Reagan Administration,[5] but the ultimate assessment of his presidency is still divided between those who approve of his reduction of the size of government programs and those who believe the federal government should be more involved in regulating and controlling the economy.[6]
The Roaring Twenties-video
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The Great Depression & The New Deal-video
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What was the rate of unemployment during the depression era?
25 percent
Which President exhibited the "do nothing philosophy" during his tenure?
Calvin Coolidge
What was the rate of industrial production during the 1920s?
down 80 to 90 percent
Buying stocks on "margin" required the investment of how much money?
10 percent
Shortly after the crash in 1929 how much value had stocks lost?
fifty percent
Who was President at the beginning of the Great Depression?
Herbert Hoover
What was the name given to shanty towns in the depression era?
Hooverville
What companies benefitted from the Reconstruction Finance Corporation?
Banks, Insurance companies, and the railroads
Which President was adept at using the media to convey his message?
FDR
What sport did Roosevelt use in an analogy of the Great Depression?
football
What was the first problem that Roosevelt had to deal with in the depression?
the banking crisis
Which economic group "went into a tailspin" in the depression?
the farmers
What was the "dust bowl" of the 1930s?
the destruction of the top soil in the Great Plains
What were Roosevelt's radio addresses called?
fire side chats
Who assisted FDR in his New Deal programs?
Mrs. Roosevelt
What ended the recession of 1937-1938?
WWII
Why did Roosevelt reject the balanced budget idea?
government spending
How did World War II help end the Great Depression?
increase in government spending
What branch of government seemed a threat to the New Deal?
the supreme court
What is the legacy of the New Deal?
Well fair system
After World War I which nation enjoyed the highest standard of living?
U.S.
Which fuel change occurred in the US?
Electricity
Who led the way in auto production?
Henry Ford
In what nation were two-fifths of all the automobiles?
U.S.
What made possible the development of the suburbs?
Autobus, street cars, trains
What business "came of age" in the 1920s?
Advertising
What entertainment business enjoyed great development in the 1920s?
Sliverscreen, movies
In waht city did jazz develop?
New Orleans
Who became well known in the African-American community?
Marcos Garvey
What area of New York had the larges African American population?
Harlem
What music was blamed for the decline of moral values in the 1920s?
Jazz
What ended the sale of alcoholic beverages in the United States?
18TH Amendment
What nativist organization was revived in the 1920s?
KKK
Southern states passed laws that forbade the teaching of what subject?
Evolution
What even occurred in the Dayton, TN in 1925?
The Monkey Trial
Who was accused in the "Monkey Trial"?
Scoope
What sports event did Jack Dempsey and Gene Tunney participate in?
Boxing
What sport did Babe Ruth participate in?
baseball
Who had the nickname "Lucky Lindy"?
Charles Lindburge
Who became an overnight hero in the 1920s?
Charles Lindburge
Henry Ford
was an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry. As owner of the Ford Motor Company, he became one of the richest and best-known people in the world. He is credited with "Fordism": mass production of inexpensive goods coupled with high wages for workers. Ford had a global vision, with consumerism as the key to peace. His intense commitment to systematically lowering costs resulted in many technical and business innovations, including a franchise system that put dealerships throughout most of North America and in major cities on six continents. Ford left most of his vast wealth to the Ford Foundation but arranged for his family to control the company permanently.

Ford was also widely known for his pacifism during the first years of World War I, but also for being the publisher of antisemitic texts such as the book The International Jew.[1]
Warren G. Harding
(November 2, 1865 - August 2, 1923) was the 29th President of the United States (1921-1923). A Republican from Ohio, Harding was an influential self-made newspaper publisher. He served in the Ohio Senate (1899-1903), as the 28th Lieutenant Governor of Ohio (1904-1906) and as a U.S. Senator (1915-1921). He was also the first incumbent United States Senator and the first newspaper publisher to be elected President.[1][2]

His conservatism, affable manner, and make-no-enemies campaign strategy made Harding the compromise choice at the 1920 Republican National Convention. During his presidential campaign, in the aftermath of World War I, he promised a return of the nation to "normalcy". This "America first" campaign encouraged industrialization and a strong economy independent of foreign influence. Harding departed from the progressive movement that had dominated Congress since President Theodore Roosevelt. In the 1920 election, he and his running mate, Calvin Coolidge, defeated Democrat and fellow Ohioan James M. Cox in the largest presidential popular vote landslide (60.36% to 34.19%) since popular vote totals were first recorded in 1824.[3]

President Harding rewarded friends and political contributors, referred to as the Ohio Gang, with financially powerful positions. Scandals and corruption, including the notorious Teapot Dome scandal, eventually pervaded his administration; one of his own cabinet and several of his appointees were eventually tried, convicted, and sent to prison for bribery or defrauding the federal government.[4] Harding did however make some notably positive appointments to his cabinet.[5]

In foreign affairs, Harding spurned the League of Nations, and signed a separate peace treaty with Germany and Austria, formally ending World War I. He also strongly promoted world Naval disarmament at the 1921-1922 Washington Naval Conference, and urged U.S. participation in a proposed International Court. Domestically, Harding signed the first child welfare program in the United States and dealt with striking workers in the mining and railroad industries. He also cleaned up the Veterans Bureau in March 1923.[6] The nation's unemployment rate dropped by half during Harding's administration.[7] In August 1923, President Harding suddenly collapsed and died during a stop in California on a return trip from Alaska.[8] Vice President Calvin Coolidge succeeded him.

Historians have traditionally been resistant to giving Harding good presidential reviews due to the multiple federal department scandals during his administration; as a result, Harding has received low rankings as President.[9] His reputation, however, has increased among some historians for his conservative financial policies, fiscal responsibility, and his endorsement of African American civil rights.[10] Harding's creation of the Budget Bureau was a major economic accomplishment that reformed and streamlined wasteful federal spending.[10] In 1998, journalist Carl S. Anthony stated Harding was a "modern figure" who embraced technology and culture and who was sensitive to the plights of minorities, women, and labor.[11] President Harding contended with racial problems on a national level, rather than sectional, and openly advocated African American political, educational, and economic equality inside the Solid South.[12]
Charles Evans Hughes
(April 11, 1862 - August 27, 1948) was an American statesman, lawyer and Republican politician from New York. He served as the 36th Governor of New York (1907-1910), Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1910-1916), United States Secretary of State (1921-1925), a judge on the Court of International Justice (1928-1930), and the 11th Chief Justice of the United States (1930-1941). He was the Republican candidate in the 1916 U.S. Presidential election, losing narrowly to Woodrow Wilson.

Hughes was a professor in the 1890s, a staunch supporter of Britain's New Liberalism,[2] an important leader of the progressive movement of the 20th century, a leading diplomat and New York lawyer in the days of Harding and Coolidge, and was known for being a swing voter when dealing with cases related to the New Deal in the 1930s.[2] Historian Clinton Rossiter has hailed him as a leading American conservative.[3]
Herbert Hoover
August 10, 1874 - October 20, 1964) was the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933). Hoover was originally a professional mining engineer and author. As the United States Secretary of Commerce in the 1920s under Presidents Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge, he promoted partnerships between government and business under the rubric "economic modernization". In the presidential election of 1928, Hoover easily won the Republican nomination, despite having no previous elected-office experience. Hoover is the most recent cabinet secretary to be elected President of the United States, as well as one of only two Presidents (along with William Howard Taft) to have been elected without previous electoral experience or high military rank. America was prosperous and optimistic at the time, leading to a landslide victory for Hoover over Democrat Al Smith.

Hoover, a trained engineer, believed strongly in the Efficiency Movement, which held that the government and the economy were riddled with inefficiency and waste, and could be improved by experts who could identify the problems and solve them. He also believed in the importance of volunteerism and the role of individuals in playing a role in American society and the economy. Hoover, who had made a small fortune in mining, was the first of two Presidents to redistribute their salary (President Kennedy was the other; he donated all his paychecks to charity).[1] When the Wall Street Crash of 1929 struck less than eight months after he took office, Hoover tried to combat the ensuing Great Depression with volunteer efforts, public works projects such as the Hoover Dam, tariffs such as the Smoot-Hawley Tariff, an increase in the top tax bracket from 25% to 63%, and increases in corporate taxes.[citation needed] These initiatives did not produce economic recovery during his term, but served as the groundwork for various policies laid out in Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. After 1933 he became a leading conservative spokesman in opposition to the domestic and foreign policies of the New Deal. In 1947 President Harry S. Truman brought him back to help make the federal bureaucracy more efficient through the Hoover Commission. The consensus among historians is that Hoover's defeat in the 1932 election was caused primarily by failure to end the downward economic spiral. As a result of these factors, Hoover is ranked poorly among US Presidents.
Andrew Mellon
was an American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector, and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932.
Teapot Dome
was a bribery incident that took place in the United States from 1922-1923, during the administration of President Warren G. Harding. Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall leased Navy petroleum reserves at Teapot Dome and two other locations to private oil companies at low rates without competitive bidding. In 1922 and 1923, the leases became the subject of a sensational investigation by Senator Thomas J. Walsh. Fall was later convicted of accepting bribes from the oil companies.

Before the Watergate scandal, Teapot Dome was regarded as the "greatest and most sensational scandal in the history of American politics".[1] The scandal also was a key factor in posthumously further destroying the public reputation of the Harding administration, which was already unpopular due to its poor handling of the Great Railroad Strike of 1922 and the President's veto of the Bonus Bill in 1922.
Sheppard-Towner Act
was a U.S. Act of Congress providing federal funding for maternity and child care. It was sponsored by Senator Morris Sheppard (D) of Texas and Representative Horace Mann Towner (R) of Iowa, and signed by President Warren G. Harding on November 23, 1921.

The act provided for federally-financed instruction in maternal and infant health care and gave 50-50 matching funds to individual US states to build women's health care clinics. It was one of the most significant achievements of Progressive-era maternalist reformers.
Al E. Smith
(December 30, 1873 - October 4, 1944) was an American statesman who was elected the 42nd Governor of New York three times, and was the Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. He was the foremost urban leader of the efficiency-oriented Progressive Movement, and was noted for achieving a wide range of reforms as governor in the 1920s. He was also linked to the notorious Tammany Hall machine that controlled Manhattan politics; he was a strong opponent of prohibition.

As a committed "wet" (anti-Prohibition candidate), he attracted millions of voters of all backgrounds, particularly those concerned about the corruption and lawlessness brought about by the Eighteenth Amendment.[1] However he was unpopular among certain segments, including Southern Baptists and German Lutherans, who believed the Catholic Church and the Pope would dictate his policies. Most importantly, this was a time of national prosperity under a Republican Presidency, and Smith lost in a landslide to Republican Herbert Hoover. Smith attempted the 1932 nomination, but was defeated by his former ally and successor as New York Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt. Smith entered business in New York City, and became an increasingly vocal opponent of Roosevelt's New Deal.

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Charles Lindbergh
(February 4, 1902 - August 26, 1974) (nicknamed "Slim",[1] "Lucky Lindy", and "The Lone Eagle") was an American aviator, author, inventor, explorer, and social activist.

As a 25-year-old U.S. Air Mail pilot Lindbergh emerged suddenly from virtual obscurity to instantaneous world fame as the result of his Orteig Prize-winning solo non-stop flight on May 20-21, 1927, made from Roosevelt Field[N 1] located in Garden City on New York's Long Island to Le Bourget Field in Paris, France, a distance of nearly 3,600 statute miles (5,800 km), in the single-seat, single-engine purpose built Ryan monoplane Spirit of St. Louis. Lindbergh, a U.S. Army Air Corps Reserve officer, was also awarded the nation's highest military decoration, the Medal of Honor, for his historic exploit.

In the late 1920s and early 1930s, Lindbergh used his fame to promote the development of both commercial aviation and Air Mail services in the United States and the Americas. In March 1932, however, his infant son, Charles, Jr., was kidnapped and murdered in what was soon dubbed the "Crime of the Century". This eventually led to the Lindbergh family being "driven into voluntary exile" in Europe to which they sailed in secrecy from New York under assumed names in late December 1935 to "seek a safe, secluded residence away from the tremendous public hysteria" in America. The Lindberghs did not return to the United States until April 1939.

Before the United States formally entered World War II, Lindbergh had been an outspoken advocate of keeping the U.S. out of the world conflict, as had his father, Congressman Charles August Lindbergh, during World War I. Although Lindbergh was a leader in the anti-war America First movement, he nevertheless strongly supported the war effort after Pearl Harbor and flew many combat missions in the Pacific Theater of World War II as a civilian consultant even though President Franklin D. Roosevelt had refused to reinstate his Army Air Corps colonel's commission that he had resigned in April 1941.

In his later years, Lindbergh became a prolific prize-winning author, international explorer, inventor, and environmentalist.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
(September 24, 1896 - December 21, 1940) was an American author of novels and short stories, whose works are the paradigm writings of the Jazz Age, a term he coined himself. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century.[1] Fitzgerald is considered a member of the "Lost Generation" of the 1920s. He finished four novels: This Side of Paradise, The Beautiful and Damned, Tender Is the Night, and his most famous, The Great Gatsby. A fifth, unfinished novel, The Love of the Last Tycoon, was published posthumously. Fitzgerald also wrote many short stories that treat themes of youth and promise along with despair and age.

The Great Gatsby has been the basis for numerous films of the same name, spanning nearly 90 years; 1926, 1949, 1974, 2000, and an upcoming 2013 adaption. In 1958 his life from 1937-1940 was dramatized in Beloved Infidel.
H.L. Mencken
(September 12, 1880 - January 29, 1956), was an American journalist, essayist, magazine editor, satirist, critic of American life and culture, and a scholar of American English.[1] Known as the "Sage of Baltimore", he is regarded as one of the most influential American writers and prose stylists of the first half of the twentieth century. Many of his books still remain in print.

Mencken is known for writing The American Language, a multi-volume study of how the English language is spoken in the United States, and for his satirical reporting on the Scopes trial, which he dubbed the "Monkey Trial". He commented widely on the social scene, literature, music, prominent politicians, pseudo-experts, the temperance movement, and uplifters. A keen cheerleader of scientific progress, he was very skeptical of economic theories and particularly critical of anti-intellectualism, bigotry, populism, Fundamentalist Christianity, creationism, organized religion, the existence of God, and osteopathic/chiropractic medicine.

In addition to his literary accomplishments, Mencken was known for his controversial ideas. A frank admirer of Nietzsche, he was not a proponent of representative democracy, which he believed was a system in which inferior men dominated their superiors.[2] During and after World War One, he was sympathetic to the Germans, and was very distrustful of British "propaganda".[3] However, he overcame his inclination to embrace all things Bavarian, referring to Hitler and his followers as "ignorant thugs".
Scopes Trial
The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes and commonly referred to as the Scopes Monkey Trial, was a landmark American legal case in 1925 in which high school science teacher, John Scopes, was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act, which made it unlawful to teach evolution in any state-funded school.[1]

Scopes was found guilty, but the verdict was overturned on a technicality and he went free. The trial drew intense national publicity, as national reporters flocked to the small town of Dayton, Tennessee, to cover the big-name lawyers representing each side. William Jennings Bryan, three-time presidential candidate for the Democrats, argued for the prosecution, while Clarence Darrow, the famed defense attorney, spoke for Scopes. The trial set modernists, who said evolution was consistent with religion, against fundamentalists who said the word of God as revealed in the Bible took priority over all human knowledge. The trial was thus both a theological contest and a trial on the veracity of modern science regarding the creation-evolution controversy. The teaching of evolution expanded, as fundamentalist efforts to use state laws to reverse the trend had failed in the court of public opinion.[2]
fundamentalism
is the demand for a strict adherence to specific theological doctrines usually understood as a reaction against Modernist theology, primarily to promote continuity and accuracy. [1] The term "fundamentalism" was originally coined by its supporters to describe a specific package of theological beliefs that developed into a movement within the Protestant community of the United States in the early part of the 20th century, and that had its roots in the Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy of that time.[2] The term usually has a religious connotation indicating unwavering attachment to a set of irreducible beliefs.[3] "Fundamentalism" is sometimes used as a pejorative term, particularly when combined with other epithets (as in the phrase "right-wing fundamentalists").[4][5]
Sacco-Vanzetti Case
were anarchists who were convicted of murdering two men during a 1920 armed robbery in South Braintree, Massachusetts, United States. After a controversial trial and a series of appeals, the two Italian immigrants were executed on August 23, 1927.[1]

There is a highly politicized dispute over their guilt or innocence, as well as whether or not the trials were fair.[2][3] The dispute focuses on contradictory evidence. As a result, historians have not reached a consensus.
Marcus Garvey
(17 August 1887 - 10 June 1940)[1] was a Jamaican political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator who was a staunch proponent of the Black nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, to which end he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL).[2] He founded the Black Star Line, part of the Back-to-Africa movement, which promoted the return of the African diaspora to their ancestral lands.

Prior to the twentieth century, leaders such as Prince Hall, Martin Delany, Edward Wilmot Blyden, and Henry Highland Garnet advocated the involvement of the African diaspora in African affairs. Garvey was unique in advancing a Pan-African philosophy to inspire a global mass movement and economic empowerment focusing on Africa known as Garveyism.[2] Promoted by the UNIA as a movement of African Redemption, Garveyism would eventually inspire others, ranging from the Nation of Islam to the Rastafari movement (which proclaims Garvey as a prophet). The intent of the movement was for those of African ancestry to "redeem" Africa and for the European colonial powers to leave it. His essential ideas about Africa were stated in an editorial in the Negro World titled "African Fundamentalism" where he wrote:

"Our union must know no clime, boundary, or nationality... to let us hold together under all climes and in every country..."[3]
William Z. Foster
(February 25, 1881 - September 1, 1961) was a radical American labor organizer and Marxist politician, whose career included a lengthy stint as General Secretary of the Communist Party USA. He passed through the Socialist Party of America and the Industrial Workers of the World, as well as leading the drive to organize the packinghouse industry during World War I and the steel strike of 1919.
Huey Long
(August 30, 1893 - September 10, 1935), nicknamed The Kingfish, served as the 40th Governor of Louisiana from 1928-1932 and as a U.S. Senator from 1932 to 1935. A Democrat, he was noted for his radical populist policies. Though a backer of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election, Long split with Roosevelt in June 1933 and planned to mount his own presidential bid for 1936.

Long created the Share Our Wealth program in 1934 with the motto "Every Man a King", proposing new wealth redistribution measures in the form of a net asset tax on corporations and individuals to curb the poverty and homelessness endemic nationwide during the Great Depression. To stimulate the economy, Long advocated federal spending on public works, schools and colleges, and old age pensions. He was an ardent critic of the Federal Reserve System's policies. Charismatic and immensely popular for his programs and willingness to take forceful action, Long was accused by his opponents of dictatorial tendencies for his near-total control of the state government.

A leftist populist, he was preparing to challenge FDR's reelection in 1936 in alliance with radio's influential Catholic priest Charles Coughlin, or run for president in 1940 when Franklin Roosevelt was expected to retire. However, Long was assassinated in 1935; his national movement faded, while his state organization continued in Louisiana.

Long expanded state highways, hospitals and educational institutions. His governance has had critics and supporters, debating whether he was a dictator, demagogue or populist.[1]
Harry Daugherty
was an American politician. A key Ohio Republican political insider, Daugherty is best remembered for his service as Attorney General of the United States under Presidents Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge.
Despite his status as a key political leader of the Ohio Republican Party from the 1880s through the first decade of the 20th Century, Daugherty was himself only briefly a statewide elected politician, serving just two terms in the Ohio General Assembly, working closely during the last two years with Governor William McKinley. Although he sought national office several times, Daugherty was thwarted in his effort to obtain the nomination of his party and was never elected to office again.
Daugherty remained an influential figure behind the election of several Congressmen and U.S. Senators. In 1920 he was the campaign manager for Warren G. Harding for President of the United States at the Republican National Convention. Following Harding's successful election Daugherty was named Attorney General of the United States. In this capacity despite his personal law and order proclivities Daugherty was instrumental in winning Presidential pardons for jailed anti-war dissidents such as Eugene V. Debs.
Twice the subject of federal corruption investigations, in 1924 Daugherty was forced to resign his post as Attorney General by the late Harding's Presidential successor, Calvin Coolidge.
Teapot Dome scandal
was a bribery incident that took place in the United States from 1922-1923, during the administration of President Warren G. Harding. Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall leased Navy petroleum reserves at Teapot Dome and two other locations to private oil companies at low rates without competitive bidding. In 1922 and 1923, the leases became the subject of a sensational investigation by Senator Thomas J. Walsh. Fall was later convicted of accepting bribes from the oil companies.
Before the Watergate scandal, Teapot Dome was regarded as the "greatest and most sensational scandal in the history of American politics".[1] The scandal also was a key factor in posthumously further destroying the public reputation of the Harding administration, which was already unpopular due to its poor handling of the Great Railroad Strike of 1922 and the President's veto of the Bonus Bill in 1922.[2]
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
proposed by John L. Lewis in 1938, was a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955. The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 required union leaders to swear that they were not Communists. Many CIO leaders refused to obey that requirement, later found unconstitutional. The CIO merged with the American Federation of Labor to form the AFL-CIO in 1955.
The CIO supported Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal Coalition, and was open to African Americans. Both federations grew rapidly during the Great Depression. The rivalry for dominance was bitter and sometimes violent. The CIO (Committee for Industrial Organization) was founded on November 9, 1935, by eight international unions belonging to the American Federation of Labor.
In its statement of purpose, the CIO said it had formed to encourage the AFL to organize workers in mass production industries along industrial union lines. The CIO failed to change AFL policy from within. On September 10, 1936, the AFL suspended all 10 CIO unions (two more had joined in the previous year). In 1938, these unions formed the Congress of Industrial Organizations as a rival labor federation. In 1955, the CIO rejoined the AFL, forming the new entity known as the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO).
A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States
was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that invalidated regulations of the poultry industry according to the nondelegation doctrine and as an invalid use of Congress's power under the commerce clause. This was a unanimous decision that rendered the National Industrial Recovery Act, a main component of President Roosevelt's New Deal, unconstitutional.