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Ralph Nader

The man who achieved national celebrity status as an advocate of consumer protection laws is _______.

US Congress

The ideological groups, Americans for Democratic Action and the American Conservative Union, produce ratings for members of _______.


Independent lawyers and lobbyists in Washington who offer to influence government policies for a price are known as _______s.


Interest-group PAC contributions account for about ____ percent of Senate campaign contributions

Thurgood Marshall

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was directed by its Legal Defense and Education Fund during the 1950s under the leadership of _______.

astroturf lobbying

The practice of interest groups funding locally based activities to give the impression of grassroots support for their cause.


Interest-group PAC contributions account for ____ percent of House campaign contributions


Interest-group PAC contributions account for ____ percent of Senate campaign contributions

Ethics in Government

The _________ Act limits post-government employment in an effort to reduce the potential for corruption.


Former members of Congress must wait ____ year/s before lobbying Congress.

senior citizens

The most politically powerful age group in the population.


The tendency of democratic governments to allow the faint preferences of a majority to prevail over the intense feelings of minorities.

The Business Roundtable

What lobbying organization is composed of the chief executive officers of the largest corporations in America?

electoral system

The system that is organized to represent geographical constituencies.

interest-group system

The system that is organized to represent economic, professional, ideological, religious, racial, gender, and issue constituencies.

necessary evil

James Madison viewed interest groups as a _________ in politics.


James Madison identified ___________ interests as the most prevalent in politics.

accurate information

Experienced lobbyists develop a reputation for _________.

Abortion-rights activists

Set of interest groups that have played a key part in recent judicial confirmations.


According to pluralist theorists, policy in a democracy is the result of various special-interest groups reaching _________.

institutional sclerosis

Over time, the buildup of special protections, privileges, and treatments in society results in _________.

internal conflict

Iron triangles are more likely to develop in specialized policy areas over which there is relatively little _________.

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