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its about cells and stuff
Terms in this set (38)
When categorizing epithelial cells by function, what are the two main categories?
glandular (for secretion) and lining
When categorized by shape, what are the possible types of LINING epithelial cells?
squamous, cuboidal, and columnar
What are the two subcategories of squamous epithelial cells?
endothlium (ex.=blood vessels ) and mesothelium (lining of body cavities)
What is the difference between simple and stratified epithelium?
simple is one layer, stratified is multi-layered (Note: always refer to the base to determine this)
What is the functional advantage of the simple squamous arrangement?
rapid exchange of substances across the cell membrane
Where in the body are simple squamous cells found?
blood vessels (endothelium); loop of Henle and alveoli (mesothelium)
Describe the simple cuboidal cell.
roughly as tall as it is wide. The nucleus is round and sits in the middle of the cell.
Where are cuboidal cells found?
renal tubules, thyroid, pancreatic duct, ovaries
What is the functional advantage of cuboidal cells?
lots of mitochondria for active transport
What is the functional advantage of the simple columnar cell?
What kind of "attachments" can be found on simple columnar cells?
microvilli, cilia, and sterocilia
Where are simple columnar cells found?
fallopian tube and gallblader
Describe the appearance of a columnar cell.
taller than it is wide, nucleus is round or oval and lies closer to the basal end.
If the cells at the top of several layers of stratified epithelium have no nucleus, what does this imply?
The cells are keratinized and lost their nuclei in the process
What kinds of surfaces would contain keratinized cells?
What would be non-keratinized?
mucous membranes, esophagus
Although rare, columnal and cuboidal stratified cells can be found where?
large ducts of salivary and sweat glands
What kind of special epithelial cell is dome shaped and can change geometry in the presence of tensile forces?
What is the only place in the body transitional cells are found?
urinary bladder, urethra, and ureters
There is a row of cells under the microscope. All the cells are attached to the basal lamina, but have different heights, and the nuclei are also at different heights. What type of cells are these?
What additional structure may be visible on pseudostratified columnar cells?
the golgi appratus (adjacent to the nucleus)
In a pseudostratified columnar arrangement, what are the shorter cells called?
What are often found among pseudostratified columnar cells of the trachea? (Hint: they secrete mucous and can be considered unicellular glands)
In glandular epithelial cells, where in the cell are the secretory molecules stored?
What glands are capable of secreting proteins, lipids, and carbohydrate-protein complexes?
What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands?
exocrine glands secrete onto a surface. endocrine glands secrete into the bloodstream
How do endocrine and exocrine glandular epithelial cells form ?
1. exocrine-epithelial cells grow down into the connective tissue, forming a duct
2. endocrine- after downgrowth, the stalk of the di=uct deteriorates and closes up. The area surrounding the enclosed gland becomes populated with capillaries
In an exocrine gland, what are the capsule and septum collectively?
In the exocrine gland, what is the terminal end of the parenchyma called?
What are the three basic types of acini shapes?
acinar, tubular, tubuloacinar
What is the difference between the compound and simple glands?
in simple glands, the main duct is unbranched. in compound glands, there is multiple branching, of the main duct, and the branches of the main duct.
what types of simple gland shapes are there?
simple acinar, simple tubular, simple branched acinar, simple branched tubular, and simple coiled tubular
How do merocrine glands function and give an example?
secretion via exocytosis; salivary glands
How do holocrine glands function and give and example?
secretion via cell disintegration; sebaceous glands
How do apocrine glands function and give and example?
pinching off of the apical part of the cell; mammary glands
Which end of an epithelial cell is eosinophilic and which end is basophilic?
basophilic-basal (stains purple/blue)
eosinophilic-apical (stains pink)
Compare mucous cells and serous cells.
Mucous-larger, foamy looking, flattened nuclei
Serous-round nuclei, smaller
Salivary glands are mixed serous and mucous cells. What shape do the serous cells take?
demilune (half moon shape)
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