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Must Be True

Correct: paraphrased or combined answers from information in the stimulus


Correct: incomplete information/inconsiderate of possibilities, improper comparison, qualified/limited conclusion, attack necessary condition (CR)

TIPS: strong pre-phrasing,


Approach: ignore order and topic, focus on: method of reasoning (causation/CR), validity (true/false), conclusion* (certainty and scope)


Correct: eliminates alternate causes, strengthens the cause-effect or lack of, eliminates reverse, strengthens supporting data

TIPS: pre-phrase (identify weaknesses and fill gaps), 1-100% strengthen

Sufficient Assumption (Justify)

Correct: Premises + ANSWER = Conclusion, new conclusion elements or premise elements not present in conclusion

Incorrect: elements common to conclusion and premises

TIPS: contain 'if', 'enables/allows conclusion to be properly drawn', 100% strengthen, usually conditional/percentages, use diagrams, focus on VERB to distinguish from NA (Assumption)

Necessary Assumption (Assumption)

Correct: supporter (connects new or rogue elements - like Justify/Sufficient Assumption) or defender (eliminates weaknesses), MBT if conclusion is true

TIPS: assumption or presupposition, NO 'if', logically negate contenders > correct answer attacks argument, focus on VERB to distinguish from SA (Justify)


TIPS: strong pre-phrase,

LR Strategy

1. Identify conclusion (bracket with 'C')
2. Strong or weak argument, scope and quantities
3. Identify question type
4. Pre-phrase answer
5. Divide into Contenders and Losers
6. Return to stimulus if stuck

Main Point

Correct: conclusion AND summary

Incorrect: true but not summary

Method of Reasoning

Incorrect: exaggerated, new elements/non-occurring elements, half right half wrong, reverse answer

Sufficient Condition

- Before arrow
-All, any, every, if, in order to, the only, to be, when, whenever
- ACTIVATES NC or SUFFICIENT for NC to have occurred

Necessary Condition

- After arrow
- Depends upon, must, only, only if, only when, requires, then, until
- ACTIVATED by SC or NECESSARY for SC to have occurred

RC Strategy

Approach: V1 and V2 + reduced core word for viewpoints, E1 and E2 for evidence and A1 and A2 for advocates.

TIPS: get interested, examine relationship of E and C in each paragraph, note degrees of certainty, focus on flow/structure/intent

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