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Correct: incomplete information/inconsiderate of possibilities, improper comparison, qualified/limited conclusion, attack necessary condition (CR)
TIPS: strong pre-phrasing,
Approach: ignore order and topic, focus on: method of reasoning (causation/CR), validity (true/false), conclusion* (certainty and scope)
Correct: eliminates alternate causes, strengthens the cause-effect or lack of, eliminates reverse, strengthens supporting data
TIPS: pre-phrase (identify weaknesses and fill gaps), 1-100% strengthen
Sufficient Assumption (Justify)
Correct: Premises + ANSWER = Conclusion, new conclusion elements or premise elements not present in conclusion
Incorrect: elements common to conclusion and premises
TIPS: contain 'if', 'enables/allows conclusion to be properly drawn', 100% strengthen, usually conditional/percentages, use diagrams, focus on VERB to distinguish from NA (Assumption)
Necessary Assumption (Assumption)
Correct: supporter (connects new or rogue elements - like Justify/Sufficient Assumption) or defender (eliminates weaknesses), MBT if conclusion is true
TIPS: assumption or presupposition, NO 'if', logically negate contenders > correct answer attacks argument, focus on VERB to distinguish from SA (Justify)
1. Identify conclusion (bracket with 'C')
2. Strong or weak argument, scope and quantities
3. Identify question type
4. Pre-phrase answer
5. Divide into Contenders and Losers
6. Return to stimulus if stuck
Method of Reasoning
Incorrect: exaggerated, new elements/non-occurring elements, half right half wrong, reverse answer
- Before arrow
-All, any, every, if, in order to, the only, to be, when, whenever
- ACTIVATES NC or SUFFICIENT for NC to have occurred
- After arrow
- Depends upon, must, only, only if, only when, requires, then, until
- ACTIVATED by SC or NECESSARY for SC to have occurred
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