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Terms in this set (128)
The sinoatrial (SA) node, or the __, sets the rate of the heart's contractions by sending action potentials through the specialized conduction fibers to the atria.
The left AV valve is forced __ when the left ventricle begins to contract, __ blood back flow into the left atrium.
The right atrium has openings from __.
superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, coronary sinus
Match the structure indicated by each arrow.
A- ascending aorta
B- right atrium
C- inferior vena cava
D- pulmonary trunk
E- pulmonary veins
The two basic types of blood vessels are __, which carry blood away from the heart, and __, which carry blood toward the heart.
Which are correctly identified as great vessels?
inferior vena cava, aorta, superior vena cava
A large loss of blood would result in a(n) __ in the venous return to the heart.
Place in the correct order the sequence of events resulting in the action potential for cardiac muscle cells.
1) Na+ ions enter causing depolarization.
2) Depolarization causes opening of voltage-gated K+ channels.
3) Slow voltage gated-Ca2+ channels open causing a Ca2-induced Ca2 release
4) Plateau occurs
5) Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels close
6) Repolarization occurs returning to the resting membrane potential
The system responsible for transport of the blood in the body is which of the following options?
Cardiac output is determined by __ __ and heart rate.
Inotropic agents increase stroke volume by which mechanism?
increasing Ca2+ levels, increasing contractility
The __ __ is the ability to reach threshold without stimulation.
Like the right atrium, the left atrium also has __.
Atrial contraction causes which to occur?
compresses the openings of the great veins, pushes blood into ventricles
Match each structure with the letter indicator.
A- Right atrioventricular valve
B- Aortic semilunar valve
C- Left atrioventricular valve
D- Fibrous skeleton
E- pulmonary semilunar valve
The heart is a relatively small, conical organ approximately the size of a person's __.
Which options are part of the cardiac muscle cells?
sacrolemma, T tubules, myofibrils
The volume of blood pumped by one ventricle in one minute is defined as __ __.
Put the sequence of events in the correct order to describe the initiation and conduction of an action potential through the heart.
1) SA node fires action potential
2) Action potential reaches AV node via gap junctions
3) Action potential is delayed at the AV node.
4) Action potential travels down the bundle branches.
5) Action potential travels up the purknje fibers
During the refractory period, cardiac muscle __.
cannot be restimulated.
The __ __ carries blood away from the right ventricle.
The heart is composed of which structures?
Right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium
The cells of the __ node are the pacemaker of the heart.
The endocardium is composed of a __ squamous epithelium, called an endothelium, and a layer of __ connective tissue.
After load is fairly constant in healthy individuals but can increase and cause heart problems when a patient has diseases that cause narrowing or __ of the arteries.
Match each structure indicated by the letter.
A- Coronary sinus
The heartbeat is initiated by the specialized cardiac muscle cells of the __, which are located in the posterior wall of the right atrium, adjacent to entrance of the __.
sinoatrial node/superior vena cava
The pulmonary circulation consists of the __ atrium and __ ventricle as well as the pulmonary arteries and veins.
Place the options in the correct order for the opening of ion channels in a cardiac nodal cell from resting membrane potential through an action potential.
slow voltage-gated Na+ channels, fast voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, voltage-gated K+ channels
The myocardium is the __ of the three heart wall layers.
An individual with a weak heart may have limitation exerting themselves because they have little __ __.
Which are essential to maintain good blood circulation and ample perfusion?
open and unblocked blood vessels, continual pumping action of heart
The __ atrium and vetricle are prominent when viewing the heart from the posterior view.
Match each structure with the indicator letter.
A- opening of coronary sinus
B- right atrioventricular valve
C- papillary muscle
D- aortic semulunar valve
E- left atrioventricular valve
The major wave from in an ECG (EKG) are __ wave, __ complex, and __ wave.
P, QRS, T
The heart is innervated by the __ nervous system.
Arteries carry blood __ the heart.
The delivery of blood per unity time per gram of tissue is called __.
Which pumps and channels are associated with cardiac node cells?
Fast voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, Na-K ATPase, Na+ leak channels, slow voltage-gated Na+ channels
Match the valve with its structure.
Right atrioventricular- three triangular-shaped cusps of dense connective tissue
Semilunar- three half-moon shaped cusps of dense connective tissue
Left atrioventricular- two triangular-shaped cusps of dense connective tissue
The resting heart rate for an infant is higher than that of an adult because the smaller heart results in a __ stroke volume.
Cardiac output is defined as the amount of blood pumped by one __ and is expressed as liters per minute.
The systemic circulation begins with the chambers on the __ side of the heart.
Match the structure with the letter indicator.
A- blood flow into right atrium
B- blood flow into right ventricle
C- left atrium
D- pulmonary semilunar valve
E- blood flow into left ventricle
Sympathetic innervation of the heart __ heart rate.
When ventricular contraction ceases, blood is prevented from flowing back into the ventricles from the arterial trunk but first entering the pockets of the __ __ between the cusps and the chamber wall.
The fibrous skeleton of the heart serves to __.
isolate the atria from the ventricles, stabilize the heart valves, and provide an attachment site for cardiac muscle
Which are anatomic features that are significant in the normal function of the heart?
two sides of the heart, great vessels attached to the heart, two sets of valves within the heart
Match the structures and borders of the heart with the letter indicator in the diagram.
A- Right border
B- Sternal angle
D- Left border
E- inferior border
The right atrioventricular opening is covered by the __ valve.
right atrioventricular, tricuspid
The changes in Q-T segment can result in a(n) __ heart rate called tachyarrythmia.
The amount of blood that leaves the heart during the ventricular contraction is called the __ __.
The pulmonary circulation includes the movement of __ blood to through the right side of the heart.
Match the structure with the letter indicator.
A- sinoatrial node
B- atrioventricular node
C- atrioventricular bundle
D- Purkinje fiber
E- left bundle
The cardiovascular system consists of two circulations: the __ circulation and the __ circulation.
Identify three major vessels that empty into the right atrium: __, __, and __.
superopr vena cava, inferior vena cava, coronary sinus
Cardiac node cells contain leak channels for __ and __.
The thin strands attached to atrioventricular valves are called __.
During the final stage of the cardiac cycle as the atria release and blood returns to fill the ventricle which valves reopen?
The atrial reflex is initiated when __ in the atrial walls are stimulated by an increase in venous return.
The chordae tendineae attach to the lower surface of cusps of the __ valve and prevent the valve from flipping into the atrium when the right ventricle is contacting.
Which events occur during the atrial contraction and ventricular filling phase of the cardiac cycle?
Blood flow into the atria from the veins is restricted, SA node initiates atrial contraction, the ventricles have reached their EDV
The AV node is located in the floor of the right atrium between the right __ and the opening for the __.
AV valve, coronary sinus
Contraction of the atria finishes filling the ventricles through the open __ valves while the ventricles are in __.
Which valves are closed in the isovolumetric phase of the cardiac cycle?
Bicuspid valve, mitral valve, tricuspid valve, pulmonary semilunar valve
Which cell cannot exhibit tetany?
cardiac muscle cell
Purkinje cells begin within the __ of the heart and extend through the walls of the __.
__ require stimulation to have an action potential but __ cells do not.
Oxygen-poor blood enters which chamber of the heart?
The right atrioventricular valve is also called the
The only arteries in the body that carry oxygen-poor blood are the coronary arteries.
Left ventricular contraction propels blood through which valve?
Put the pattern of circulation into the correct order, beginning with the pulmonary circulation.
1- Blood leaves the right side of the heart
2- Blood enters the pulmonary arteries and travels to the lungs
3- Blood enters the pulmonary veins
4- Blood enters the left side of the heart
5- Blood enters the systemic arteries
6- Blood delivers oxygen to the tissues, and then enters systemic veins
Pulmonary arteries carry highly oxygenated blood.
The external layer of the heart wall is the
Match the heart valve with its description.
1. Between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
2. Between left ventricle and ascending aorta
3. Between right atrium and right ventricle
4. Between left atrium and left ventricle
1- Pulomary semilunar valve
2- Aortic semilunar valve
3- Tricuspid valve
4- Bicupid valve
Oxygenated blood flows from the __________ to the __________ before being pumped into the systemic circulation.
left atrium, left ventricle
Check all of the ways in which the heart chambers are involved in pulmonary circulation.
Oxygenated blood enters the left atrium. Deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation enters the right atrium. Once in the heart, deoxygenated blood is pumped from the left atrium to the left ventricle.
Place the heart wall structures in the order you would find them, beginning with the most superficial one first.
1- Fibrous layer of the pericardial sac
2- Serous layer of the pericardial sac
3- Pericardial cavity
The pericardium consists of a tough, fibrous connective tissue outer layer called the __________ pericardium.
The inner layer of the pericardium is a thin, transparent layer of simple squamous epithelium called the __________ pericardium.
Match the component of the heart wall with the correct explanation or definition.
1) Thin serous membrane of the outer surface of the heart [epicardium]
2) Thick middle layer of the heart [myocardium]
3) Covers surfaces of the heart valves [endocardium]
4) Composed of cardiac muscle cells [myocardium]
5) The inner surface of the heart [endocardium]
6) Also known as the visceral pericardium [epicardium]
The wall of the __________ is much thicker than any other chamber in the heart which allows for stronger contractions to pump blood through the systemic circulation.
Match the vessel with its associated chamber.
1) Inferior and superior vena cava [right atrium]
2) Pulmonary trunk [right ventricle]
3) Pulmonary veins [left atrium]
4) Aorta [left ventricle]
Match the component of the heart with its description.
1) Chambers of the heart that receive blood from from the venous system [atria]
2) Chambers of the heart that pump blood into the arterial system [ventricles]
3) Separates the right atrium and ventricle from the left atrium and ventricle [septum]
4) Separates the atria from the ventricles [fibrous skeleton]
What are the primary blood vessel types and their functions? Check all that apply.
Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Veins carry blood back to the heart. Capillaries are the sites of exchange between the blood and the lungs or body cells.
Serous fluid secreted by both the parietal and visceral layers of the pericardium, and released into the pericardial cavity, lubricates the membranes and facilitates the almost frictionless movement of the heart when it beats.
The coronary sinus is a large vein that collects venous blood from all areas of the heart and drains it directly into the left atrium of the heart.
The sinoatrial (SA) node is referred to as the _____________ of the heart.
What are the structures included in the heart's conduction system? Check all that apply.
Purkinje fibers, atrioventricular bundle, atrioventricular (AV) node, sinoatorial (SA) node
In modifying cardiac activity, the parasympathetic innervation comes from the cardioacceleratory center in the brain and the sympathetic innervation comes from the cardioinhibitory center in the brain.
The main functions of the cardiovascular system are the transport and exchange of respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes throughout the body.
Occlusion of blood vessels tends to lead to:
inadequate blood supply and damage to body tissues.
Which can be used to characterize blood flow in the human body?
a: There is a unidirectional blood flow.
b: Arteries always carry oxygenated blood.
c: Veins always carry deoxygenated blood.
d: Arteries carry blood away from the heart.
e: Veins carry blood toward the heart.
a, d, e
The pulmonary trunk receives blood from the right ventricle and conducts it toward the lung. The pulmonary trunk is a(n) _________.
The left ventricle and aorta are part of which circuit of the cardiovascular system?
The base of the heart faces in the _____________ directions.
posterior and superior
The pericardial cavity is between the:
viscereal and parietal layers of the serous pericardium
The pericardium helps prevent overfilling of the heart and it lessens the friction of movements during heartbeats.
SA nodal cells are autorhythmic.
Vagal tone refers to the:
decreasing of the heart rate below its inherent rhythm by parasympathetic stimulation.
What is the sequence of events in the transmission of an impulse through the heart muscle?
a: AV node
b: AV bundle
c: SA node
d: Through the atria
e: Through the ventricles
f: Bundle branches
g: Purkinje fibers
c, d, a, b, f, g, e
Someone with a heart block would have:
a long P-R interval
During a cardiac cycle, how many of the four chambers contract at any one time?
During ventricular systole:
the semilunar valves open and the AV valves close
The opening and closing of the heart valves is caused by:
pressure changes of alternating contraction and relaxation during the cardiac cycle.
Blood moves into and then out of a heart chamber because:
it moves along its pressure gradient, and that gradient depends on contraction and relaxation during the cardiac cycle.
The shutting of the semilunar valves occurs during which phase?
early ventricular diastole
Cardiac reserve is greater in a nonathletic individual than in a highly trained athlete.
Preload is the stretch of the heart wall as determined by the amount of blood returned by the veins.
Which of the following would cause a decrease in cardiac output?
an increase in after load
Coronary vessels are open when the heart is:
Which heart chambers would contain deoxygenated blood?
right atrium and right ventricle
Which correctly describes the heart's apex?
projects slightly anteroinferiorly toward the left side of the body
The layer of the heart wall composed of cardiac muscle tissue is the:
The heart valves:
permit the passage of blood in one direction
Which valve prevents the backflow of blood into the left ventricle when the ventricles relax?
aortic semilunar valve
Which type of muscle cell exhibits a longer refractory period?
cardiac muscle cell
In an ECG, what does the T wave denote?
repolarization of the ventricles
In an EKG, the P wave is generated when the:
Which segment of the ECG reflects the plateau phase of ventricular muscle cells' action potentials?
Cardiac output is the amount of blood that is pumped:
by a single ventricle in one minute
Parasympathetic innervation of the heart occurs via:
Sympathetic innervation of the heart:
a: increases the heart rate
b: decreases the heart rate
c: increases the force of contractions
d: decreases the force of contractions
e: has no effect on contraction force
The left ventricle walls are typically thicker than the right ventricular wall.
During ventricular contraction the semilunar valves close in order to permit the blood to enter the large arterial trunks that carry blood away from the heart.
Though the autonomic innervation by autonomic centers in the brainstem cannot initiate a heartbeat, it can increase or decrease the heart rate.
Purkinje fibers are small fibers within the atria that conduct impulses rapidly.
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