How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

233 terms

Language Arts

K-6
STUDY
PLAY
semantic
"prior knowledge, meaning"
syntactical cueing system
"structure, ""does that sound correct?"""
graphophenomic cueing
"visual clues, relationship between sounds and symbols"
cloze test
fill in words deliberately omitted
antectdotal notes
observations while students work
techniques to enhance Oral Language Development
"cloze, open disucssions, read alouds, echo reading, storytelling, etc."
phonological awareness
ablity to identify and manipulate large parts of spoke language (like rhyming and alliteration)
alphabet knowlege
identify and name all upper and lower case letters
concept of print
"understand print contains meaning, directionality, concept of a word, letter knowlege, phoenomic awareness, literacy language (author, title, etc)"
revision
clarifying content
editing
grammar and misspellings
literature circles
book clubs
oral language development
verbal skills
components of fluency
"accuracy, automaticity, rate, prosody"
phonemic awareness
ability to hear and manipulate the sounds of spoken language
phonics
understanding of relationships between written letters of the alphabet and sounds of spoken language
fluency
"ability to read quickly, accurately, and properly"
word recognition phases
"pre-alphabetic, partial-alphabetic, full-alphabetic, graphophoenemic, and morphemic"
calculate words per minute
words * 60/seconds
calculate words correct per minute
words-errors * 60/seconds
PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS
"LEARNING TO ASSOCIATE 44 ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS WITH THEIR SYMBOLS, I.E. LETTER COMBINATIONS"
PHONICS
"EMPHASIZES RELATIONS BETWEEN PHONEMES AND GRAPHEMES, MOST COMMON TEACHING METHOD UNTIL 1930; ESSENTIAL SKILL FOR BEGINNING READING"
WILLIAMS HOLMES MCGUFFEY
EARLY PHONICS PROPONENT; WROTE READING BOOKS IN 1836 COMBINING PHONICS AND MORALS
RUDOLF FLESCH
"20TH CENTURY PHONICS PROPONENT; WROTE ""WHY JOHNNY CAN'T READ"" 1955"
PHONICS ADVANTAGES
"1) DECODING TOOL, 2) EFFECTIVE FOR AUDITORY LEARNERS, 3) CREATES GOOD SPELLERS"
PHONICS DISADVANTAGES
"1) INEFFECTIVE FOR VISUAL LEARNERS, 2) INCONSISTENT ""RULES"", 3) FREQUENT EXCEPTIONS"
ANALYTIC PHONICS
PHONICS USED IN CONTEXT WITH ACTUAL MATERIALS; BEST PHONICS APPROACH
SYNTHETIC PHONICS
LEARNING PHONICS AS ISOLATED RULES; LEAST EFFECTIVE PHONICS APPROACH
STRUCTUAL ANALYSIS
"BREAKING A WORD INTO ITS PARTS/SYLLABLES; EXAMPLE SEPARATING THE PREFIX AND/OR SUFFIX FORM THE ROOTWORD, SEPARATING COMPOUND WORDS, VOWEL-CONSONANT ANALYSIS"
CONTROLLED VOCABULARY
LIMITING THE NEW WORDS A CHILD MEETS AT A GIVEN TIME
CONTEXT CLUES
"IMAGES, PRIOR KNOWLEDGE, TEACHER PROMPTS (1ST SOUND OF A WORD, ETC.)"
TYPES OF LANGUAGE CUES
"SYNTACTIC CUES, SEMANTIC CUES, PHONEMES AND GRAPHMES"
SYNTACTIC CUES
"SYNTEX - STRUCTURE; GRAMMAR, WORD ORDER, WORD ENDINGS, WORD FUNCTION"
SEMANTIC CUES
WORD MEANING
PHONEMES AND GRAPHEMES
SOUNDS & SYMBOLS (PHONICS)
SCAFFOLDING
"SUPPORTING CHILDREN OF ALL AGES, INVOLVES DEMONSTRATING, GUIDING AND TEACHING"
5 STAGES OF SCAFFOLDING
"MODELING, SHARING, INTERACTING, GUIDNG, ALLOWING INDEPENDENCE"
3 READING STAGES
"PER MATHA COMBS (2006): EMERGENT, DEVELOPING, TRANSITIONAL"
EMERGENT READING STAGE
TRANSITION FROM SPEAKING TO READING AND WRITING
DEVELOPMING READING STAGE
"MIDDLE-1ST TO LATE-2ND GRADE; MORE INDEPENDENT, TEXT SHOULD HAVE MANY DECODABLE WORDS"
TRANSITIONAL READING STAGE
"2ND GRADE AND BEYOND, STILL USING SOME INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS"
READING STRATEGIES
"ACTIVATING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE, PREDICTING/ASKING QUESTIONS, VISUALIZING, DRAWING INFERENCES, DETERMINING IMPORTANT IDEAS, SYTHESIZING INFO, REPAIRING UNDERSTANDING, CONFIMRING, USING PARTS OF BOOK, REFLECTING"
R.S 1 - PRIOR KNOWLEDGE
MAKING CONNECTIONS BETWEEN TEXT & READER'S WORLD
R.S. 2 - PREDICTING/QUESTIONING
KEEPS READERS ENGAGED
R.S. 3 - VISUALIZING
CREATING MENTAL PICTURES
R.S. 4 - INFERENCES
GATHER CLUES FROM TEXT & THINK AHEAD
R.S. 5 - DETERMINING IMP. IDEAS
DISCERNING MAIN IDEAS VERSUS MINOR IDEAS IN TEXT
R.S. 6 - SYNTHESIZING INFO
COMBINING NEW INFO W/ OLD TO CREATE ORIGINAL IDEA
R.S. 7 - REPAIRING UNDERSTANDING
STOP & CLARIFY WHEN CONFUSED
R.S. 8 - CONFIRMING
CONFIRMING ORIGINAL PREDICTIONS THROUGHOUT READING OF TEXT
R. S. 9 - USING PARTS OF BOOK
"USE CHARTS, DIAGRAMS, INDEXES, ETC. TO IMPROVE UNDERSTANDING"
R. S. 10 - RELFECTING
"REFLECT ON WHAT JUST READ THROUGHOUT READING OF WORK, FORMAL AND INFORMAL"
BASIC STEPS IN TEACHING READING STRATEGIES
"MODEL STRATEGY, EXPLAIN IT, THEN DESCIRBE HOW TO APPLY IT, USE GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS/THINKING MAPS"
DOUBLE ENTRY JOURNAL
LEFT COLUMN HAS DIRECT QUOTES & PAGE # OF TEXT; RIGHT COLUMN HAS READERS IDEAS ABOUT IT
VOCABULARY BUILDING STRATEGIES
"WORD WALL, USE OF IDIOMS, DICTIONARIES, GLOSSARIES, ANTONYMS, SYNONYMS, HOMONYMS, WORD PARTS, WRITING VOCAB WORDS IN THEIR OWN SENTENCES, ALWAYS BEST IN CONTEXT"
READING COMPREHENSION METHODS
"STORY MAPPING, STORY WEBBING, MNEMONIC (MEMORY RELATED) DEVICES, PUZZLES, RIDDLES, THINK ALOUDS"
SQ3R
"R.COMP. STUDY PLAN: SURVEY, QUESTION, READ, RECITE, REVIEW"
READING COMPREHENSION SKILLS
"IDENTIFY SUPPORTING DETAILS, FACTS, MAIN IDEA, ESSENTIAL MESSAGE, AUTHOR'S PURPOSE, FACT VS OPINION, POINT OF VIEW, INFERENCE, CONCLUSION"
4 LEVELS OF READING COMPREHENSION
"IN ORDER: LITERAL (FACTS), INTERPRETIVE (READ BETWEEN THE LINES), CRITICAL (READ BEYOND THE LINES) & CREATIVE"
MULTIPLE REPRESENTATIONS OF INFORMATION
"CHARTS, TBLES, GRAPHYS, PICTURES, PRINT, NON-PRINT MEDIA"
CRITICIAL THINKING SKILLS
"ANALYSIS, SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION ((ALL BASED ON REASON))"
BLOOM'S TAXONOMY
"6 LEVELS OF COMPREHENSION: KNOWLEDGE, COMPREHENSION, APPLICATION, ANALYSIS, SYNTHESIS, EVALUATION"
B.T. KNOWLEDGE LEVEL
STUDENTS GIVE BACK INFO ON PAGE
B.T. COMPREHENSION LEVEL
"STUDENTS SHOW THEY CAN GIVE THE MEANING OF TERMS, IDIOMS, FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE & OTHER ELEMENTS"
B.T. APPLICATION LEVEL
DRAWING INFO FROM STORY INTO POSSIBLE SCENARIOS FOR THEIR OWN LIVES
B.T. ANALYSIS LEVEL
EXAMING SMALLER COMPONENTS OF STORY IN DEPTH
B.T. SYNTHESIS LEVEL
MOVING FROM SPECIFICS TO GENERALITIES
B.T. EVALUATION LEVEL
"JUDGE IF PASSAGE IS FACT, OPINION, PROPOGANDA, TRUE, FALES, BIASED, OBJECTIVE, ETC."
COMPREHENSION ASSESSMENT
"ORAL QUESTIONS, WRITTEN QUESTIONS, CLOZE TEST"
CONVERGENT QUESTION
1 RIGHT ANSWER
DIVERGENT QUESTION
MORE THAN 1 RIGHT ANSWER
CLOZE TEST
A PASSAGE WITH OMITTED WORDS THE TEST TAKER MUST SUPPLY
DESCRIPTIVE WRITING
"MAKES FICTION BELIEVABLE TO READER, CREATES CONNECTION"
FAST READERS
TEND TO HAVE BETTER COMPREHENSION
WHOLE LANGUAGE
"ADVOCATES LEARNING TO READ & WRITE AT SAME TIME, NOT SEQUENTIALLY"
UNDIFFERENTIATED WRITING STAGE
WRITING STAGE 1; APPROX AGES 3 - 5; CHILD MAKES RANDOM MARKS ON PAGE
DIFFERENTIATED WRITING STAGE
WRITING STAGE 2: APPROX AGE 4; CHILD STARTS TO INTENTIONALLY BUILD A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOUNDS AND WRITING
PICTOGRAPHIC WRITING STAGE
WRITING STAGE 3: APPROX AGES 4 - 6; MOST IMPORTANT STAGE
PROCESS WRITING
"CURRENT PREVAILING APPROACH, COMBINES CREATIVE AND MECHANICALLY CORRECT METHODS"
PREWRITING STAGE
PROCESS WRITING STAGE 1: COLLECT INFO
COMPOSING / WRITING STAGE
"PROCESS WRITING STAGE 2: IN CLASS STUDENTS CONSULTING WITH EACH OTHER WHILE WRITING, NOT CONCERNED WITH MECHANICS"
REVISING STAGE
PROCESS WRITING STAGE 3: POLISHING AND IMPROVING COMPOSITIONS
EDITING / EVALUATION / POSTWRITING STAGE
"PROCESS WRITING STAGE 4: STUDENTS (ALONG WITH TEACHER) READ AND CORRECT EACH OTHER'S WRITING, TEACH"
REWRITE STAGE
"PROCESS WRITING STAGE 5: AFTER RECEIVING BOTH PRAISE & CONSTRUCTIVE CRITICISM FROM PEERS AND TEACHER, STUDENTS DO FINAL REVISION"
STANDARD AMERICAN ENGLISH
LANGUAGE USED IN U.S. SCHOOLS
NON-STANDARD ENGLSIH
"SPOKEN BY MINORITIES, NOT TO BE ERADICATED BUT COMPLIMENTED BY ADDITION OF S. A. ENGLISH"
NOVEL
"EXTENDED FICTIONAL PROSE NARRATIVE, FROM ITALIAN WORD ""NOVELLA"" - ""TALE, PIECE OF NEWS"""
MODES FOR A NOVEL
"REALISM, ROMANTICISM, IMPRESSIONISM, EXPRESSIONISM, NATURALISM, NEOCLASSICISM"
THEME
"WHY = STATEMENT OF REALITY ""LOVE CONQUERS ALL."" ETC. MAIN POINT OF THE STORY; SOMETIMES EXPLICIT, SOMETIMES IMPLICIT"
INTERCALARY CHAPTER
"CHAPTER THAT ALTERNATES BETWEEN THE ""REAL"" STORY AND PREIPHERAL OR PARALLEL STORIES"
TOPIC
"IDEA IN A PHRASE, E.G. ""MAN'S INHUMANITY TO MAN"", THEME CHANGES THIS TO A STATEMENT"
MOTIF
"A STORY DETAIL OR ELEMENT THAT REPEATS THROUGHOUT THE WORK; E.G. LONELY ROADS, SHADOWS, EMPTY HOUSES, ETC."
SETTING
WHERE AND WHEN OF THE NOVEL
STYLE
"5TH ELEMENT OF A NOVEL INVOLVES WORD CHOICE, SYNTAX (ORDER AND LENGTH OF SENTENCES), BALANCE BETWEEN NARRATION AND DIALOGUE, NARRATIVE VOICE (1ST OR 3RD PERSON), ETC."
1ST FOUR ELEMENTS OF NOVEL
"PLOT, CHARACTER, THEME, SETTING"
SHORT STORIES
"DIFFERS FROM PARABLE, FABLE, FOLKTALE...EMPHASIS ON CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT. BECOME POPULAR IN 19TH CENT. SAME ELEMENTS AS NOVEL"
POETRY
"PERHAPS THE OLDEST ART; EMOTIONAL EXPRESSON IN RHYME, VERSE, METER. AN ACQUIRED TASTE IN OUR MODERN CULTURE"
VERSE
SECTION OF A POEM
STANZA
GROUPING OF LINES WITH A METRICAL ORDER
RHYME SCHEME
"REPEATED RHYME (ABAB, ETC.)"
END RHYME
RHYMING WORD AT END OF LINE
INTERNAL RHYME
AT LEAST ONE RHYMING WORD WITHIN THE LINE
SLANT RHYME
APPROXIMATE RHYME
MASCULINE RHYME
1 SYLLABLE WORD OR STRESSES THE FINAL SYLLABLE OF POLYSYLLABIC WORD
FEMININE RHYME
"RHYME OF 2 OR MORE SYLLABLES, STRESS DOES NOT FALL ON LAST SYLLABLE"
FREE VERSE
"LINES OF POEM ARE UNRHYMED, NO RHYTHM "" VERS LIBRE"""
BLANK VERSE
"NO RHYME, BUT DOES HAVE RHYTHM, THEREFORE CLOSED FORM"
METER
PATTERN OR MEASURE OF STRESSED OR ACCENTED WORDS WITHIN A LINE OF VERSE
IAMBIC METER
ALTERNATING STRESSED AND UNSTRESSED SYLLABLES
IAMBIC PENTAMETER
"10 SYLLABLES OF RISING AND FALLING STRESSES (SHAKESPEAR, MILTON)"
FOOT
BASIC MEASURING UNIT IN A LINE OF POETRY
FORM
PATTERN OR DESIGN OF A POEM
OPEN FORM
"NO RULES REGARDING NUMBER OF LINES, RHYME SCHEME OR METER"
CLOSED FORM
"SET NUMBER OF LINES, RHYME, SCHEME AND METER"
SONNET
14 LINES
PETRARCHAN SONNET
"ITALIAN, 2 PARTS; 1ST 8 LINES (OCTAVE) SETS UP PROBLEM, 2ND 6 LINES (SESTET) GIVES ANSWER/RESOLUTION"
SHAKESPEAREAN SONNET
ENGLISH
COUPLET
"2 LINE STANZA, END RHYME"
HEROIC COUPLET
"FIRMLY END-STOPPED, IAMBIC PENTAMETER"
EPIC
VASTNESS OF SIZE AND RANGE
BALLADS
"SIMPLER, FOLKSY"
BALLAD STANZA
"4 LINES, ABCB"
LITERARY BALLAD
"COLERIDGE'S ""THE RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER"
LYRIC
POETRY WITH MUSIC
ELEGY
LYRIC LAMENTING SOMEONE'S DEATH
ODE
"PART OF LYRIC FAMILY, LONGER AND BROADER IN MEANING THAN ELEGY"
VILLANELLE
COURTLY LOVE POEM
TERCETS
3 LINE STANZAS
QUATRAIN
4 LINE STANZAS
SESTINA
"MOST DIFFICULT OF ALL CLOSED FORMS; SUNG BY MEDIEVAL TROUBADOURS; SIX 6-LINE STANZAS, SIX END WORDS IN A CERTAIN ORDER, REPEAT THESE 6 WORDS IN A CLOSING TERCET"
EPIGRAM
"SHORT, ABRUPT POEM, OFTEN CYNICAL;"
"POPE
WILDE"
DOGGEREL
POETRY HORRIBLY DISTORTED TO MAKE RHYME
LIMERICK
AABBA
AUBADE
CLOSED FORM POETRY; SUBJECT LOVERS AT DAWN
DRAMA
PLAYS USED AS EARLY AS 1ST GRADE
FREYTAG'S PYRAMID
"STAGES OF DRAMA, 5 ACTS: INTRODUCTION, COMPLICATION, RISING ACTION, CLIMAX, FALLING ACTION, DÉNOUMENT/CONCLUSION"
ESSAY
"STRAIGHT-FORWARD ACCOUNT OF WRITER'S OPINION ON A SUBJECT: EXPOSITIORY, ARGUMENTATIVE, PERSUASIVE, CRITICAL, NARRATIVE"
SATIRE
"MODE OF WRITING TO EXPOSE, DENOUNCE AND RIDICULE BAD PEOPLE/QUALITIES; GULLIVER'S TRAVELS"
ROMANTICISM
"IDEALISTIC WORLD-VIEW, PERFECTIBLE"
REALISM
"BALANCED WORLD-VIEW, GOOD & BAD"
NATURALISM
"MORE CYNICAL WORLD-VIEW, EVIL OFTEN TRIUMPHS OVER GOOD"
HYPERBOLE
EXAGGERATION
IRONY
"INVERSION/REVERSAL, DOING OR SAYING THE UNEXPECTED; INCONGRUITY"
TRADITIONAL LITERATURE
"ANCIENT STORIES, 7 TYPES"
PARABLES
TRAD.LIT. REALISTIC STORY WITH A MORAL
FABLES
TRAD.LIT. NON-REALISTIC STORY WITH A MORAL; AESOP
FAIRY TALES
"TRAD.LIT.: MAGIC INVOLVED, GOOD ALWAYS WINS OVER EVIL, STEREOTYPES; SNOWWHITE, RAPUNZEL, GRIMM'S ETC."
FOLKTALES
"TRAD.LIT. USES COMMON LANGUAGE, ALWAYS FOR ENTERTAINMENT, RARELY MORALISTIC"
MYTHS
"TRAD.LIT. STORIES THAT ATTEMPT TO EXPLAIN THINGS THE TELLER DOES NOT UNDERSTAND ""POURQUOI TALES"""
LEGENDS
"TRAD.LIT. EXAGGERATED STORIES ABOUT REAL PEOPLE, PLACES AND THINGS"
MODERN LITERATURE
4 CATEGORIES
NOVELS
MOD.LIT. REALISTIC FICTION
ROMANCES
MOD.LIT. IDEALIZED LIFE-VIEW
CONFESSIONS
MOD.LIT. ONE CHARACTER REVEALS PERSONAL THOUGHTS AND IDEAS
MENIPPEAN SATIRES
ALLOWS READER TO SEE THE WORLD THROUGH THE EYES OF ANOTHER; CHARLIE & CHOC FACTORY MAKES READER LOVE CANDY
PLOT
"STORY LINE WITH DEFINITE ORDER , CONFLICT, PATTERN AND STRUCTURE"
CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER
SEQUENTIAL PLOT ORDER
FLASHBACK
KIND OF PLOT ORDER
FORESHADOWING
ANOTHER KIND OF PLOT ORDER
CONFLICT
"IN THE PLOT, UNSETTLED ISSUE WITH SELF, OTHERS, SOCIETY OR NATURE"
SUSPENSE PATTERN
"IN THE PLOT, ELEMENT OF DOUBT AND UNCERTAINTY"
CLIFFHANGER PATTERN
A PLOT HAVING EACH CHAPTER END WITH AND EXCITING UNSOLVED EVENT
FORESHADOWING PATTERN
"IN PLOT, THE GIVING OF A CLUE/HINT TO FUTURE"
SENSATIONALISM PATTERN
"IN PLOT, A SERIES OF EXCITING EVENTS OCCUR"
CLIMAX
HIGHEST POINT OF INTEREST IN A BOOK
FALSE CLIMAX
PSYCHE !
DENOUEMENT
ENDING OF BOOK
OPEN DENOUEMENT
NOT ALL OF READERS' QUESTIONS ANSWERED
CLOSED DENOUEMENT
ALL OF READERS' QUESTIONS ANSWERED
PROGRESSIVE STRUCTURE
READER MUST FINISH STORY TO HAVE ALL QUESTIONS ANSWERED
EPISODIC STRUCTURE
EACH CHAPTER IS A STORY IN ITSELF
SETTING
TIME AND PLACE OF STORY
BACKDROP SETTING
SETTING NOT ESSENTIAL TO THE STORY
INTEGRAL SETTING
SETTING ESSENTIAL TO THE STORY
LITERAL SETTING
THE STORY COULD ACTUALLY OCCUR WHERE AUTHOR SETS IT.
ROUND CHARACTER
"FULLY DEVELOPED, DESCRIBED, REVEALED"
FLAT CHARACTER
UNDEVELOPED CHARACTER
DYNAMIC CHARACTER
CHARACTER WHO UNDERGOES CHANGE IN THE STORY
STATIC CHARACTER
CHARACTER WHO UNDERGOES NO SIGNIFICANT CHANGE IN STORY
PROTAGONIST
CHARACTER WHO STRUGGLE FOR SOMEONE OR SOMETHING
ANTAGONIST
PROTAGONIST'S ENEMY
STOCK CHARACTER
"FILL IN CHARACTER, SPECTATORS AT THE STORY'S BASKETBALL GAME, ETC."
FOIL
CHARACTER WHO SERVES TO BETTER UNDERSTAND ANOTHER CHARACTER BY CONTRAST
ALLEGORICAL CHARACTER
CHARACTER WHO STANDS FOR A QUALITY OR CONCEPT
WAYS TO REVEAL CHARACTERS
"DESCRIBE THE FOLLOWING: THE CHARACTER, HIS ACTIONS, HIS SURROUNDINGS, HIS SPEECH, HIS THOUGHTS, HIS APPEARANCE, HIS REACTIONS, WHAT OTHERS SAY ABOUT HIM, HOW OTHERS REACT TO HIM."
3 COMMON THEMES IN TRADITIONAL LITERATURE
"SURVIVAL OF THE UNFITTEST (ROBINSON CRUSOE), PICARESQUE--ROGUEISH LOWBORN ADVENTURING THROUGHOUT ALL SOCIAL LEVELS (DON QUIXOTE), REVERSAL OF FORTUNE (HEIDI)"
DENOTATION
WORD'S CLEAR PRECISE MEANING
CONNOTATION
WORD'S IMPRESSION OR FEELING BEYOND EXACT MEANING
FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
"SIMILE, METAPHOR, PERSONIFICATION"
SIMILE
"DESCRIPTION USING LIKE, THAN OR AS: ""RICHER THAN CROESUS"" ""BRIGHT AS THE SUN"""
METAPHOR
"CALLING SOMETHING BY A DIFFERENT NAME ""SHE'S PURE GOLD"""
PERSONIFICATION
HUMAN ATTRIBUTES GIVEN TO INANIMATE OBJECTS
ALLITERATION
REPETION OF SOUNDS
CONSONANCE
REPETITION OF CONSONANTS
ASSONANCE
REPETITION OF VOWELS
ONOMATOPOEIA
"WORD SOUNDS LIKE ACTION IT DESCRIBES ""POP, SPLAT, BUZZ, UGHH"" ETC."
RHYTHM
FLOW OR CADENCE WHICH HELPS CREATE MOOD/FEELING
IMAGERY
"DESCRIPTION OF SMELLS, FEELINGS, SOUNDS, OR SIGHTS OF A PERSON, PLACE, THING OR EVENT"
UNDERSTATEMENT
"OPPOSITE OF HYPERBOLE, SERVES ACCENTUATE BY MINIMIZING"
ALLUSION
"A REFERENCE TO AHISTORICAL, LITERARY, OR OTHERWISE GENERALLY FAMILIAR CHARACTER EVENT TO MAKE AN IDEA UNDERSTANDABLE"
WORD PLAY
PUN
PARODY
AN IMITATION OF SOMETHING ELSE
DICTION
LANGUAGE OF THE PEOPLE
SYMBOLISM
"USE OF ONE PERSON, PLACE, OR THING TO REPRESENT ANOTHER (DEATH OF PET TO REPRESENT LOSS OF CHILDHOOLD)"
AUTHENTICITY
A STORY'S BEING CONVINCING AND BELIEVABLE; ESSENTIAL COMPONENT FOR JUVENILE LIT.
APOSTROPHE
DIRECT ADDRESS OF SOMEONE OR SOMEHTING THAT IS NOT PRESENT
BATHOS
DELIBERATE ANTICLIMAX TO MAKE A POINT OR DRAW ATTENTION TO A FALSENESS
PATHOS
QUALITY THAT AROUSES EMOTIONS OR PITY
ENJAMBMENT
THE RUNNING ON OF THE SENSE ANSTRUCTURE OF ONE LINE OF POETRY INTO THE NEXT
OXYMORON
"FORM OF PARADOX WITH CONTRADICTORY WORDS DESCRIBING EACH OTHER ""JUMBO SHRIMP"""
PARADOX
"SITUATION, ACTION OR FEELING THAT APPEARS TO BE CONTRADICTORY BUT ON INSPECTION TURNS OUT TO BE TRUE OR MAKE SENSE ""PEN IS MIGHTIER THAN THE SWORD"""
SARCASM
"HARSH VERBAL IRONY ""LOWEST FORM OF WIT"""
TONE
VOICE OR ATTITUDE OF THE SPEAKER/WRITER
CULTURAL PLURALISM
"ASERTS THAT STRENGTH LIES IN DIVERSITY OF RACES, LANGUAGES, ETHNICITIES AND CULTURES"
MULTICULTURALISM
MANY CULTURES COMBINING TO FORM A BETTER SOCIETY
ASSIMILATIONISM
"PROMOTES A NATIONAL CULTURE, CONSIDERS MICROCULTURES AS DEFICIENT UNTIL THEY BECOME PART OF OF THE NATURAL CULTURE"
PLURALISM
A FUNCTIONAL SOCIETY SHOULD RECOGNIZE AND ACCEPT MICROCULTURES AS THEY ARE
ALTERNATIVE USES OF LIT
"HELP MINORITIES AND ""EXCEPTIONAL"" CHILDREN FEEL SAFE AND ACCEPTED; TEACHERS MUST MAKE CERTAIN TO INCLUDE LIT. OF ALL CULTURES IN THEIR CLASSROOMS"
BIBLIOTHERAPY
TREATING PROBLEMS WITH BOOKS; GIVING THE RIGHT BOOK TO THE RIGHT CHILD AT THE RIGHT TIME
TITLE IX
FORBIDS SEX DISCRIMINATION
8 COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES
"PREDICTING, CONNECTING (TO OWN LIVES), VISUALIZING, QUESTIONING, IDENTIFYING (WORK'S MAIN INFO), SUMMARIZING, MONITORING, EVALUATING"
NRT test
"Bell-shaped curve, percentile, norm-referenced test"
CRT test
criterion referenced test
formative evaluation
during the process of learning
summative evaluation
at the end of a time or course
portfolio
collection of student work
independent level
95% of the words read correctly
instructional level
90-94% of the words understood
frustration level
89% or lower of words comprehended
antecdotal records
"formative data, description or explanation"
observational assessment
checklist
running record
teacher looks at the text the student is reading and marks each word messed up