unit 13 psych ryan laflamme
Terms in this set (80)
the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.
anything that causes personal distress or maladaptive behaviour
The number or proportion of cases of a particular disease or condition present in a population at a given time.
the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual
The degree to which a condition or traits shared two or more individuals or groups
a contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders
The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
a psychological disorder that is usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially.
A psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
generalized anxiety disorder
An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
Anxiety disorder characterized by persistent and uncontrollable thoughts and irrational beliefs that cause the performance of compulsive rituals that interfere with daily life.
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder.
major depressive disorder
A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
inability to experience pleasure
experience marked by dramatically elevated mood, decreased need for sleep, increased energy, inflated self-esteem, increased talkativeness, and irresponsible behavior
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.
Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
Dissociative disorder characterized by the sudden and extensive inability to recall important personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature.
traveling away from familiar surroundings with amnesia for the trip and possible amnesia for personal information
dissociative identity disorder
A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
a type of schizophrenia marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity
type of schizophrenia characterized by severely disturbed thought processes, frequent incoherence, disorganized behavior, and inappropriate affect.
A type of schizophrenia that is dominated by delusions of persecution along with delusions of grandeur.
a schizophrenic disorder that is characterized by a mixture of symptoms and does not meet the diagnostic criteria of any one type.
False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
a legal term describing one's inability to be responsible for one's action due to the condition of the mind
An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
antisocial personality disorder
A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
culture bound disorders
Koro, Windigo, Mal de ojo, Taijin Kyofusho, Anorexia Nervosa
A physiological or psychological dependence on a drug
chronic, progressive, degenerative cognitivedisorder that accounts for more than 60% of all dementias
the loss of memory
According to the lecture, all of the following are examples of environmental factors that influence mental health disorders EXCEPT:
Severe disturbances in eating behavior characterized by preoccupation with weight concerns and unhealthy efforts to control weight.
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
Some aspect of sleep is abnormal, leading to negative health consequences.
Any unnecessary or improper use of chemical substances for nonmedical purposes
Treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth.
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
interpreting your ucounscious thoughts
In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
In psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
A humanistic therapy based on Carl Roger's beliefs that an individual has an unlimited capacity for psychological growth and will continue to grow unless barriers are placed in the way.
Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.
A therapy that is based on the application of learning principles to human behavior and that focuses on changing overt behaviors rather than on understanding subjective feelings, unconscious processes, or motivations; also known as behavior modification.
therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals, permitting therapeutic benefits from group interaction
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning
An approach to treatment that involves confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response
A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
cognitive behavior therapy
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
therapy that treats the family as a system. views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
A form of therapy focusing on improving communication between partners
regression to the mean
Statisticians will often describe how extreme performances, both good and bad, tend to be followed by more average levels of performance. This ________ might be one explanation for why many psychotherapy patients improve regardless of the type of therapy received.
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
the study of the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
A civil proceeding in which people are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities against their will.
brain surgery on human patients intended to relieve severe and otherwise intractable mental or behavioral problems
A now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.
a measure of how much hostility, criticism, and emotional overinvolvement are used when speaking about a family member with a mental disorder
A medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
psychologist who treats people serious psychological problems or conducts research into the causes of behavior
In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
Psychoanalytic technique in which a patient's dreams are described in detail and interpreted so as to provide insight into the individual's unconscious motivations.
Any therapy that attempts to discover relationships between unconscious motivations and current abnormal behavior.
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
Getting better with the passage of time without receiving any therapy.
social skills training
A behavior therapy designed to improve interpersonal skills that emphasizes shaping, modeling, and behavioral rehearsal.
physiological interventions intended to reduce symptoms associated with psychological disorders
trans-cranial magnetic stimulation
(TMS) a method of stimulating brain cells, using a powerful magnetic field produced by a wire coil placed on a person's head; it can be used by researchers to temporarily inactivate neural circuits
deep brain stimulation
electrical stimulation applied through surgically implanted electrodes; used to treat some anxiety and mood disorders