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Chapters 1-7

Operant Conditioning

through reinforcement weak or rare response become strong, frequent responses

Classical Conditioning

through association, neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus

Eclectic Approach

the approach taken by most developmentalist in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories of development rather than adhering exclusively to one theory

Piaget's 4 Stages

1. Sensorimotor 2. Preoperational 3. Concrete Operational 4. Formal Operational

Cognitive Theory

emphasizes the structure and development of thought processes

Social Learning Theory

humans can learn from observing others, without personally experiencing any reinforcement


A grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. (behavior you can see, observe, and measure)

Learning Theory

describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned

Freud's Psychosexual Stages

1. Oral - mouth is the focus 2. Anal - anus & toilet training 3.Phallic - stimulation of the gentials 4. Gential - mature sexual interest that lasts throughout adulthood

Erikson's Psychosocial Stages

Birth to 1yr. = trust vs. mistrust 1yr to 3yr = autonomy vs shame & doubt 3yr to 6yr = initative vs guilt 6yr to 11yr = industry vs inferiority Adolesence = identity vs role confusion Young Adulthood = intimacy vs isolation Middle Adulthood = generativity vs stagnation Older Adulthood = integrity vs despair

Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory

the unconscious drives and motives often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior. FREE ASSOCIATION

Independent Variables

in an experiment, the variable that is introduced to see what effect it has on the dependent variable. (the variable manipulated; the tx. or special condition)

Dependent Variables

the variable that may change as a result of new condition or situation the experimenter adds (the variable measured)


All persons born within a few years of one another, a group of people whose shared age means that they travel through life together & they are all affected by the era.

Cross Sectional Research

A research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characterisitics


exists between two variables indicating the degree of relationship. Expressed in terms of the likelihood that one variable will (or will not) occur when the other variable does (or does not)

Naturalistic Observation

observation in a home, in a school, or in a public park, because such settings encourage people to behave as they usually do


Influencing all three systems and includes cultural valules, political philosophies, economic pattern & social conditions


local institiutions as school and church (the external networks) that surround, influence, and suport the Microsystems


elements of the person's immediate surroundings, such as family and peer group which shape human development


involves the connections between systems or between parts of a single system (refers to interactions among Microsystems)

Ecological Approach

A vision of how human development should be studied, with the person considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life.

Nature vs Nuture Debate

Nature supports GENETICS; Nuture supports ENVIRONMENT

3 Domains

Biosocial Development ;Cognitive Development; Psychosocial Development

Dizygotic Twins

twins who are formed when two seperate ova are fertilized by two seperate sperm at roughly the same time (Fraternal Twins)

Monozygotic Twins

twins who originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development (Identical Twins)


the process of getting used to an object or event through repeated exposure to it

Weight by age 1

20 lbs.


the strong, loving connection that forms as parents hold their newborn


a situation in which seemingly healthy infant, at least 2 months of age, suddenly stops breathing and dies unexpectedly while asleep

Average weight of Newborn

5 1/2 lbs to 9 lbs


substances and conditions that increase the risk of prenatal abnormalities

Age of Viability

about 22 weeks after conception

Function of the Placenta

protects and nourish the developing embryo sustaining life via the umbilical cord

Neural Tube

formed from the thin line called the Primitive Streak located down the middle of the embryol;22 days after conception the line becomes the Neural Tube developing into the CNS(brain and spinal cord)


the process, beginning about 10 days after conception, in which the developing organism burrows into the placenta for nourishment and protection

Period of the Embryo

Germinal Period, Embryonic Period, Fetal Period

Down Syndrome

A condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46, with 3 copies of chromosome 21

Spontaneous Abortion

the naturally occuring termination of a pregnancy before the embryo or fetus is fully developed

Dominant Gene

the gene which is more influential than the other; it entirely controls the characteristics

Recessive Gene

the less influential gene

How the Sex of the Baby is Detremined

by the 23rd pair chromosome, the sex chromosome, which is determined by the male X-sperm or Y-sperm; XX-Female XY-Male

Vision of Babies

least mature sense at birth, newborns are legally blind, can see only objects 4 to 30 inches away, 2mos. look more intently,14 weeks Binocular vision, 3 weeks looks more closely at mouths and faces

Fine Motor Skills

physical abilities involvong small body movements, especially of the hands and fingers

Gross Motor Skills

physical abilities involving large body movements, such as walking and jumping


A responsive movement that seems automatic because it almost always occurs in reaction to a particular stimulus

Rooting Reflex

causes babies to turn their mouths toward anything that brushes against their cheeks

Age Infants Creep, take 1st unaided steps, Grab and Hold objects

Creep: 8 to 10 mos; 1st Unaided Steps 12 mos; Grab and Hold objects 4 - 6 mos

Advantages of Breast Feeding

less likely to get sick provides antibodies, nutrients and micronutrients; better digestion


a disease of severe protein-calorie malnutrition during early infancy, in which growth stops, body tissues waste away, and the infant eventually dies


A disease of chronic malnutrition during childhood in which a protein deficiency makes the child more vulnerable to other disease, such as measles, diarrhea and influenza

Infant's Earliest Sensorimotor Activities at the stages of 2, 3, 5, and 6 according to Piaget

Stage 2: 1-4mos accommadiation and coordination of reflexes; Stage 3: 4-8 mos an awareness of things,responding to people and objects; Stage 5: 12-18mos experimentation and creativity (teddy bear in flushing toilet); Stage 6: 18-24mos considering before doing mental combinations


a language directed to babies spoken by mothers all over the world

Age Baby speaks First 2 Word Sentences

21 months


The extended repetition of certain syllables, begins between 6 and 9 mos of age

Differences in Skinner and Chomsky Language Theories

Skinner:language is learned by verbal learning, reinforced spontaneous babbling; Chomsky: language is learning is innate

A-not-B error

A-not-B error (also known as "stage 4 error" or "perseverative error") is a phenomenon uncovered by the work of Jean Piaget in his theory of cognitive development of children. The A-not-B error is a particular error made by young children during substage 4 of their sensorimotor stage.

Earliest Language

10 months

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