Chapter 8: Water and Minerals

Terms in this set (94)

Gender:
- Men have greater bone density than females
(however removal of testes can increase osteoporosis)
- Women have greater bone loss at menopause
(women account for 2/3 cases of osteoporosis)

Increased age

Body weight
- After age and gender the next risk factor for osteoporosis is being underweight or losing weight
- Women who are thin throughout life and especially those who lose 10% or more of their body weight after the age of menopause face a hip fracture twice as high as that of most other women

Family history
Decreased dietary calcium and vitamin D intake
Estrogen Deficiency (women) cause bone loss
- 80 year old has lost length in her neck due to collapse of her spinal cord, but has not grown shorter compared to a 50 year of women
- Estrogen begin to stop when menopause starts
- Basically, if u start off with low bone mass before you even lose it you have a greater chance of getting osteoporosis

Ethnic Background
- People with african descent have denser (strong, thicker) bones than people do of European descent, so they have lower risk of osteoporosis
- Hips fractures are more likely in an 80 year old white women than in black women of the same age

Poor nutrition involving calcium and vitamin D
- Affects bone deposits and withdrawal
- Those who form more calcium deposits in their early years have much more to lose before suffering ill effects

Lack of physical activity
- Bone and muscle strength go hand in hand
- Active bones from an active person are much stronger
- To keep bones healthy do weight bearing exercises such as dancing, jogging, etc...

Use of tobacco and Alcohol
- Smoking is hard on the bones
- Bones are a lot less dense than those of non smokers
- Women who smoke lose a lot of bone density

Possibly excess protein, sodium, caffeine, and soft drinks and inadequate vitamin K
- Women who don't drink milk as often as children or teenagers have lower bone density and greater risks of fractures than those who drink milk regularly
- Even in childhood, those who avoid drinking milk may be prone to fractures than their milk drinking peers
;