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AFAA Primary Group Exercise Certification Study Guide

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List 8 health benefits associated with regular participation in physical activity.
1. Lower risk of coronary heart disease
2. Lower risk of high blood pressure
3. Lower risk of Type 2 diabetes
4. Lower risk of breast cancer
5. Reduced depression
6. Improved cardiorespiraratory & muscular fitness
7. Lower risk of colon cancer
8. Prevention of weight gain
How can interval training improve aerobic performance?
Maximizes aerobic power and minimizes boredom
List 3 physiological adaptations that occur to improve exercise performance and state how or why improvements occurs.
1. Increased maximal blood flow - Performing aerobic exercise forces large volumes of blood which increases stroke volume.
2. Increased oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal - The cardiorespiratory system saturates blood coming from the lungs with oxygen efficiently. The high pulmonary ventilation assists with the removal of carbon dioxide during exercise.
3. Increased maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic power - Regular aerobic exercise causes an increase in the number of capillaries per muscle fiber.
Define energy and its food source.
Energy is the ability to do work and the source of energy is the sun.
What is an intercellular carrier of chemical energy produced by the body for muscular work?
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
List the 2 Energy Pathways
Anaerobic and Aerobic
Fill in the blanks below:
An anaerobic pathway consists of:
a. ATP-CP system/phosphagen system
1) Fuel source = __________
2) Intensity = __________
3) Duration = __________
4) List 3 examples of activities that utilize this system.
1) Fuel source = creatine phosphate
2) Intensity = very high
3) Duration = very short (1-15 sec)
4) Activities = sprinting, jumping, throwing, kicking, lifting heavy weights
Fill in the blanks below:
An anaerobic pathway also consists of:
b. A lactic acid system consists of:
1) Fuel source = __________
2) Intensity = __________
3) Duration = __________
4) List 3 examples of activities that utilize this system.
1) Fuel source = carbohydrate only
2) Intensity = high / moderate
3) Duration = short / medium (45-90 sec)
4) Activities = prolonged sprints, soccer, basketball, hockey, swimming, cycling
Fill in the blanks below:
An aerobic pathway consists of:
a. An aerobic system
1) Fuel source = __________
2) Intensity = __________
3) Duration = __________
4) List 3 examples of activities that utilize this system.
1) Fuel source = COH, fat, protein
2) Intensity = moderate / low
3) Duration = medium / very long (>3-5 mins)
4) Activities = sitting, reading, studying, watching TV, internet surfing, sleeping, walking, biking, rowing, skating, distance running, aerobics
Define: Aerobic
Aerobic is with oxygen or the presence of oxygen.
Define: Anaerobic
Anaerobic is without oxygen; usually w/short-spurt, high-energy activities
What is the term for:
After first 3-4 minutes of exercise, oxygen uptake has reached an adequate level to meet oxygen demand of the tissues; heart rate, cardio output, and pulmonary ventilation have attained fairly constant levels.
Steady state
What is the term for:
Oxygen debt referring to oxygen uptake remaining elevated above resting levels for several minutes during recovery.
Excess post-oxygen consumption (EPOC)
What is the term for:
Period in which the level of oxygen consumption is below what is necessary to supply ATP production.
Oxygen deficit
What is the term for:
Point at which the body can no longer meet its demand for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism is accelerated.
Anaerobic threshold
What is the term for:
Ability of the body to remove oxygen from the air and transfer it through the lungs and blood to the working muscles; related to cardiorespiratory endurance.
Aerobic capacity
What is the term for:
By-product of anaerobic metabolism of glucose; milk sugar.
Lactic acid
Aerobic vs. Anaerobic
1) Breakdown of glucose
2) Use of carbohydrates as fuel
3) Duration of activity
4) Level of EPOC
1a) Aerobic - Complete breakdown of glucose
1b) Anaerobic - Partial breakdown of glucose
2a) Aerobic - Can utilize carbs, fats, or proteins as fuel
2b) Anaerobic - Can only use carbs as fuel
3a) Aerobic - Long-duration of activity
3b) Anaerobic - Short-duration of activity
4a) Aerobic - Smaller EPOC
4b) Anaerobic - Greater EPOC
Aerobic vs. Anaerobic (cont.)
5) Intensity level
6) Product
7) Breakdown
5a) Aerobic - Submaximal work (moderate intensity)
5b) Anaerobic - Maximal work (high intensity)
6a) Aerobic - CO2 and H2O are end products
6b) Anaerobic - Lactic acid is the by-product
7a) Aerobic - Uses oxygen in chemical breakdown
7b) Doesn't need O2 in chemical breakdown
What is the term for:
Volume of blood ejected by each ventricle of the heart during a single systole.
Stroke volume
What is the term for:
Volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute.
Cardiac output
What is the term for:
Pumping action of the muscles in extremities and respiratory system along with venoconstriction to move oxygen-poor blood back to the heart.
Venous return
What is the term for:
Condition caused by ceasing vigorous exercise too abruptly so that blood remains in the extremities and may not be delivered quickly enough to the heart and brain.
Blood pooling
What is the term for:
Greatest volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after the deepest inspiration.
Vital capacity
What is the term for:
Dangerous condition that can occur if an individual holds their breath forming an unequal pressure in the brain. Dizziness, temporary loss of consciousness may occur.
Valsalva maneuver
What are blood pressure norms for a healthy person?
What blood pressure is considered high?
Resting BP for healthy person averages about 120/80.

High BP is considered 140/90+
What is the anatomical term for:
The point at which two or more bones meet and movement occurs: synovial, non-synovial.
Joint
What is the anatomical term for:
Bands or sheet-like fibrous tissues connecting bone-to-bone and reinforces joints from dislocation, non-elastic, limited ROM.
Ligament
What is the anatomical term for:
Band of dense fibrous tissues forming the termination of a muscle and attaching muscle to the bone with minimum elasticity.
Tendon
What is the anatomical term for:
White, semi-opague fiborous connective tissue; cushions and prevents wear on articular surfaces?
Cartilage
Describe the following anatomical terms.
a. Anterior / Posterior
b. Medial / Lateral
c. Supine / Prone
d. Superior / Inferior
e. Unilateral / Bilateral
a. Anterior / Posterior = Front / Back of body
b. Medial / Lateral = Midline of body / Head to trunk
c. Supine / Prone = Lying on back/Lying on stomach
d. Superior / Inferior = Upper half of body/lower half
e. Unilateral / Bilateral = One side of body affected / both sides equally affected
Define the following joint actions:
a) Flexion
b) Extension
c) Abduction
d) Adduction
e) Rotation
f) Circumduction
a) Bending of a joint between two bones
b) Increasing the angle between two bones - straightening previously in flexion
c) Movement AWAY from the midline of body
d) Movement TOWARDS the middle of body
e) Movement around the axis
f) Movement in which an extremity describes a 360 degree circle
What is the term for:
Muscle that is a prime mover, directly responsible for a particular action.
Agonist
What is the term for:
Muscle that acts in opposition to the action.
Antagonist
What is the term for:
Muscles that perform movement.
Primary movers
What is the term for:
Muscle that help perform the same task.
Assistors
What is the term for:
Muscle that contracts with no significant movement to maintain posture or fixate a joint.
Stabilizers
Define the following muscular contractions:
a) Isometric
b) Concentric
c) Eccentric
d) Isotonic
e) Isokinetic
a) Isometric - Tension increases, but muscle length remains the same
b) Concentric - Muscle shortens as positive work is done against gravity
c) Eccentric - Muscle fibers lengthen through range of motion
d) Isotonic - Tension remains constant as muscle shortens and lengthens
e) Isokinetic - Movements where muscles shorten at a constant rate (can't be done w/o specialized equipment)
Which 3 of the muscle contractions are used in a group exercise setting?
1. Concentric - shortening phase (at a joint)
2. Eccentric - lengthening phase (returning from shortening phase)
3. Isometric - static (held) position
Describe slow twitch muscle fibers and fast twitch muscle fibers.
Slow Twitch - Type I fibers - Designed for prolonged submaximal aerobic activity

Fast Twitch - Type II fibers - Able to generate quick, high-intensity contractions
List the musculoskeletal benefits of the following:
a. Weight-bearing activities
b. Increased muscular strength
c. Increased muscular flexibility
a. Weight-bearing activities - Increase bone density
b. Increased muscular strength - Increase both physical appearance and physical performance
c. Increased muscular flexibility - Improves tissues and helps facilitate movement
List 3 postural deviations of the back.
1. Scolious
2. Kyphosis
3. Lordosis
Define the stretch reflex, its purpose, and when it occurs.
Muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle maintains a constant length.
Explain why ballistic movements can be dangerous.
When ballistic movements are used, the muscle spindles sense the quick changes in muscle length and cause a muscular contraction.
List 6 classes of nutrients.
Water
Carbs
Protein
Fat
Vitamins
Minerals
List the different types of carbohydrates and give examples of each.
Simple - Sugars (table sugar, sucrose and sugar in milk and fruit

Complex - Glucose molecules linked together - polysacchrides (grains, legumes, veggies-potatoes)
What are vitamins?
Non-caloric, organic compounds needed in small quantities to assist in such functions as growth, maintenance, and repair.
Describe the difference between fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins.
FS - Stored in liver and can be toxic w/overdosing.
WS - Excreted by kidneys, not likely to be toxic.
Water are minerals?
Inorganic compounds that assist processed such as regulating activity of enzymes and maintaining acid-based balance and are structural components of body tissue.
List a minimum of 8 dietary guidelines for Americans outlined by the U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.
1. Consume variety of nutrient dense food/beverages among food groups, limit saturated fat/transfat, sugars, salts, and alcohol
2. To prevent weight gain over time, make small decreases in calories and increase activity
3. Engage in regular activity
4. Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day
5. Consume 3C of fat-free or lowfat milk products/day
6. Achieve physical fitness w/cardio, stretching, resistance, calisthenics
7. Consume 3+ oz whole grain products/day
8. Consume <10% calories from sat. fatty acids and <300 mg/day of cholesterol, keep transfatty acid as low as possible
Describe MyPyramid and how participants may benefit from this resource.
Offers personalized eating plans and interactive tools to help you plan/access food choices based on dietary guidelines for Americans. It will help give participants a better understanding of what to eat and how much exercise is needed to maintain a healthy lifestyle.
Review Appendix B: AFAA's Nutritional Supplement Policy and discuss what the role and responsibilities of a fitness professional are when it comes to the sale and distribution of nutritional supplements.
They can only be sold under MY name, where item is sold in good faith to only good candidates.
Explain the difference between an acute injury and a chronic injury.
Chronic - Most common, long-term

Acute - Sudden onset due to a specific trauma
List the part of the body in which each of the following chronic injuries occurs most often.
a) Plantar fasciitis
b) Chondromalacia
c) Achilles tendonitis
a) Plantar fasciitis - Inflammation of fascia/connective tissue in metatarsals. Most often occurs in arch of foot.
b) Chondromalacia - Overuse injury affecting articular cartilage of posterior surface, or patella. Most often occurs in the knee cap.
c) Achilles tendonitis - Inflammation of connective tissue that joins muscle to bone. Most often occurs in achilles tendon.
What is the difference between a muscle strain and a muscle sprain?
Strain - Overstretching or tearing of muscle or tendon.

Sprain - Tearing or overstretching of ligament.
List 3 ways to prevent injuries to vocal nodules.
Use microphone
Non-verbal cueing (gestures)
Relaxation (keep head, neck, jaw tension-free)
Pitch (speak without effort)
Posture (speak while in position)
Projection (speak out not up or down)
Environment (music at a moderate volume)
List 3 ways to prevent low-back pain.
Proper position
Exercise selection
Attention to knees and spine
List 3 ways to prevent shin splints.
Proper footwear
Quality flooring
Safe technique
List 4 things that may contribute to heat injuries, cardiovascular conditions, or exercise-induced conditions as they related to participants in physical activity.
Dehydration
No warm-up
Inappropriate clothing
Saunas/hot tub use after exercising
Family history
Smoking
Obesity
No sunscreen
What is the first-aid action for musculoskeletal injury?
RICE = Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
List 4 steps in recognizing an emergency.
1. Survey
2. Assessment
3. Prioritization
4. Implementation
What are the FITT Principle Training Variables?
F = Frequency
I = Intensity
T = Time
T = Type
Will one FITT variable affect another? How?
Yes. A significant increase in intensity will likely result in decreased duration of that exercise session.
Describe Principle of Overload.
To achieve a desired training/effect, body must be overloaded beyond its normal level or present capacities.
Describe Principle of Progression.
Exercise program should provide gradual increases or progressions in frequency/intensity/time/type.
Specificity of Training Principle (SAID) stands for what? Describe.
Specific
Adapt to
Imposed
Demands

Body will adapt to type of physiological stresses placed on it. In order to improve in certain areas, area must be rehearsed.
Describe Reversibility Principle.
If workload is decreased, detraining in performance will occur.
Describe Principle of Overtraining.
Body needs time to recover and muscloskeletal system needs time to rebuild - without sufficient rest, overtraining occurs.
List the health-related components of physical fitness.
Cardiorespiratory fitness
Muscular strength and endurance
Flexibility
Body composition
List the skill-related components of physical fitness.
Agility
Balance
Coordination
Power
Reaction time
Speed
Health Benefits vs. Enhanced Fitness Benefits
Outline the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans which reinforced the 1996 U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health.
1. All adults should avoid inactivity - some is better than none.
2. Should perform 2 1/2 hrs/wk moderate-intensity aerobic or 1 hr, 15 min of vigorous-intensity
3. Adults should perform 300 min/wk (5 hrs) of mod-intensity aerobic activity OR 150 min/wk of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity for more extensive health benefits.
4. Adults should also perform moderate- or high-intensity muscle-strengthening activities involving all major muscle groups on 2 or more days/wk.
Which other organization's training recommendations does AFAA support?
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
What does BMI stand for and what measurement constitutes an individual to be defined as obese?
BMI = Body Mass Index
>30% is defined as obese (this is about 32% of adults)
List 7 professional responsibilities of an instructor.
Personal Liability Coverage
Training and Certification
CPR/AED and First Aid Training
Facility Pre-Exercise Participation Screening
Medical Clearance and Pre-Exercise Testing
Environmental Monitoring
Emergency Response Plan
Define Par-Q.
Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire
What are the medical clearance recommendations for High-Risk participants?
Medical exam, medical clearance, and exercise testing before moderate to vigorous exercise.
- Men and women, any age, with 1+ major cardio / pulmonary / metabolic disease.
What are the medical clearance recommendations for Moderate-Risk participants?
Medical exam or clearance before exercise.
- Men and women, <2 atherosclerotic cardio disease, risk factors without symptoms
What are the medical clearance recommendations for Low-Risk participants?
Most instances do not require clearance.
- Men and women without symptoms and have less than 1 CVD risk factor.
List 10 exercise danger signs (participants should STOP exercise and instructor should assess the need for emergency response procedures).
Nausea and/or vomiting
Dizziness/unusual fatigue
Tightness or pain in chest
Loss of muscle control
Severe breathlessness
Allergic reaction
Blurred vision
Acute Illness
Metal Confusion
Cyanosis (blush coloring of skin)
Acute musculoskeletal injury
List 5 signs or participant complaints that would require exercise modification or cessation of exercise (not emergency response) until signs disappear.
Labored breathing
Excessive heart rate elevation
Evidence of strain/holding breath or unusual redness
Musculoskeletal pain
Lack of proper control
What should an instructor know about the effects of drugs and/or medications on exercise response?
Certain prescriptions / non-prescribed medications may elicit side effects during exercise.
List 6 symptoms of overtraining.
Fatigue
Anemia
Amenorrhea
Overuse or stress-related injuries
Increased resting heart rate
Slower recovery of heart rate
Constant muscle or joint soreness, leaning toward pain
Decrease in strength performance
List 6 AFAA recommendations to avoid overtraining.
Vary class type / intensity
Limit number of high impact classes
Perform warm-up and cool down
Limit amount of active demonstration
Decrease schedule, when medical or burnout
Nutritious diet
In terms of hydration and rehydration, AFAA recommends what?
Participants should monitor hydration levels and consume 8-12 oz. of fluid before exercise.
Hydrate before, during, and after exercise.
Describe the appropriate exercise attire that AFAA recommends.
Fabrics that breathe
Comfortable clothing that allows free movement
Shoes with proper design, support, and cushioning
According to AFAA, a group exercise instructor should generally teach at what class level?
Intermediate - with explanation and demonstration of modifications.
Instructors should evaluate an exercise from which two viewpoints?
Effectiveness (benefits) and Potential Risk (injury quotient)
AFAA 5 Questions - What are they?
1. What is the purpose of this exercise?
2. Are you doing that effectively?
3. Does the exercise create safety concerns?
4. Can you maintain proper alignment and form for the duration of the exercise?
5. For whom is the exercise appropriate or inappropriate?
List 14 exercises that AFAA does not recommend for a group exercise class due to the high-risk potential. Review appropriate modifications for each (pg. 33 in Study Guide).
1. Sustained unsupported forward spinal flexion
2. Sustained unsupported lateral spinal flexion
3. Repetitive or weighted deep knee bends
4. Bouncy (ballistic) toe touches
5. Rapid head circles
6. Full plough
7. Full cobra
8. Hurdler's stretch
9. Windmills
10. Supine dbl straight leg lifts w/o spinal stabilization
11. Prone combo dbl leg/dbl arm lifts
12. Painful, forced splits
13. Weight-bearing pivots on unforgiving surfaces
14. Plyometric moves from an elevated surface
List 10 basic postures in group exercise as well as 1 important alignment cue for each position.
1. Standing - Feet shoulder width apart
2. Squat - Knees do not extend past toes
3. Bent Over - Flex at the hips
4. Seated - Spine in neutral position
5. Supine - Engage ab muscles, pelvis is neutral
6. Prone - Engage ab muscles, pelvis is neutral
7. Side-Lying - Stack hips and shoulders w/sq. alignment
8. Kneeling - Shoulders down, neck in neutral alignment
9. Hand & Knee - Keep shoulders and hips squared
10. Moving - Posture and alignment, control ROM
AFAA recommends that every group exercise class include what?
Pre-class announcements
Warm-up activity - Preparation period
Body of workout - Cardiorespiratory/Muscular/Flexibility
Cool down / Stretching and/or Relaxation
List the definition, purpose, and duration of a proper warm-up.
Definition = Preparation period for a specific workout

Purpose = Increase core temperature and prepare muscles and joints for movement that follows

Duration = Dependent on class, typically 8-12 mins.
List and describe 2 common warm-up methods and discuss when the addition of preparatory stretches may be appropriate.
1. Movement rehearsal - Performing lighter or less intense versions of movements that will be used in the workout to follow
2. Limbering movements - Smooth, moderately paced, non-weighted, full-range movements that will be used in workout/core temp.
3. Preparartory stretching - Gentle stretches to ease muscles through ROM
List the definition, purpose, and duration of proper cardio respiratory training.
Definition = Continuous and rhythmic aerobic activities that target large muscles of the body to create an increased demand for oxygen

Purpose = Improve heart, circulatory, and pulmonary systems

Duration = Depending on class format, typically 20-45 mins.
List and describe 4 common cardiorespiratory training methods.
1. Continuous or Steady State - Intensity gradually increases, held at a steady state for majority of workout, then gradually decreases.
2. Interval - Timed bouts of higher intensity work followed by periods of lower intensity active recovery.
3. Intermittent - Less structured form of interval w/random interspersed peak movements followed by lower intensity movements.
4. Circuit - Bouts of activities/exercises performed in a station-to-station or sequential manner.
List several special considerations for cardiorespiratory training.
Monitoring intensity
Cross training
Intensity issues
Music speed
Range of Motion
Repetitive Stress Issues
Cardio cool down
List the definition, purpose, and duration of proper muscular strength and endurance training.
Definition = Involves working individual or groups of muscles against resistance to fatigue.

Purpose = Ability to perform everyday activities, increased muscle mass, increase metabolism, stronger bones, decrease risk of injury, improved posture and symmetry, and improved athletic performance.

Duration = Typically 45-60 mins.
List and describe 4 common muscular strength and endurance training methods.
1. Muscle Isolation (Prime Movement) - Used to a target specific muscle group by utilizing the primary movement (joint action) of that particular muscle. (Biceps curls, calf raises, deltoid raises)
2. Multi-Joint/Multi-Muscle - Involves more than one joint and target several muscle groups in the same exercise. (Example: Squat where joints used are hip, knee, ankle - and muscles used quads, glutes, hamstrings)
3. Torso Stabilization - Enhances ability to maintain proper spinal alignment and posture. Abdominal and back muscles work together in a co-contracting isometric manner.
4. Functional Training - Exercises that replicate movements commonly used in activities of daily living.
List several special considerations for muscular strength and endurance training.
Muscle balance
Range of motion
Speed and control
Intensity
Torso stabilization exercises
Resistance equipment techniques
Muscle conditioning exercises in the water
List the definition, purpose, and duration of proper flexibility training.
Definition = Focuses on joint mobility and muscle suppleness, muscle flexibility, and the reduction of muscular tension.

Purpose = Improves joint mobility, decreases risk of injury, and enhances physical performance.

Duration = Varies 5-10 mins. to full 60 mins. stretch class.
List and describe 3 common flexibility training methods.
1. Static Stretches - Placing target muscle(s) in elongated position and holding.
2. Dynamic Stretching/Full ROM - Stretching w/movement through full range of motion (ROM).
3. PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretches) - Involve an active contraction of the muscle prior to the stretch.
List several special considerations for flexibility training.
Intensity
Speed and control
Range of motion
Body temperature
List the definition, purpose, and duration of final class segment.
Definition = Closure of a workout including stretching, relaxation, and stress reducing techniques.

Purpose = Promote mind-body awareness, facilitate relaxation where heart rate and blood pressure are decreased, muscles relax, and stress is reduced.

Duration = Typically 5-10 mins.
List and describe 3 common relaxation methods.
1. Physical Focus: Uses on bodily systems and sensations as an effort to relax.
2. Mental/Abstract Focus: Uses imagination to increase relaxation.
3. Combination Focus: Combines physical and mental focuses for greater relaxation.
List several special considerations for a final class segment.
Heart rate monitoring
Saunas and hot tubs
Method selection (be sensitive to wording - non-spiritual)
Explain resting heart rate (RHR).
The number of heart beats per minute while in resting state.
How does increased cardiorespiratory fitness affect resting heart rate?
Decreases RHR.
What is the calculation for determining age-predicted maximal heart rate (MHR or HRmax)?
220 minus age = bpm
How do THRR and HRR differ?
THRR = Maximum heart rate
HRR - Factors in resting heart rate from rest to maximum
Explain recovery heart rate.
Reflects the speed at which heart rate returns to pre-exercise level and is an indicator of sufficient cool down period.
The preferred anatomical site for pulse checking is _________ while the secondary site is __________.
Primary - Radial
Secondary - Carotid
The AFAA-recommended counting time for heart rate is _____ seconds.
10
Once cued to begin, start counting beats with the number _____.
1
(Note: Multiply by 6 to determine exercise working heart rate.)
Describe the additional methods for monitoring intensity during exercise.
a. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE)
b. Talk test
a. How hard an individual is working on a scale of 1-10 (respective values 4-6 and 7-8)
b. Engaging in a conversation during exercise represents working at or near a steady state.
List 4 ways choreography can increase the intensity of a cardio (aerobic) workout.
1. Offer varied intensity options so participants can choose which level is best for them.
2. Break movements into "bite-size" pieces and build up.
3. Participants should leave feeling "successful."
4. Alternate higher intensity moves with lower intensity moves.
How would you define the word "rhythm"?
The beat and/or feel of the music.
Explain what is meant by a musical phrase.
Music phrases are linked together to create musical sections. Musical phrase consists of 32 beats and keeps movements corresponding.
What are the legal considerations when purchasing or creating music for group exercise?
Approved by performing rights and music companies.
List aerobic choreography examples for the following:
1. Low-Impact Aerobics (LIA)
2. Moderate-Impact Aerobics (MIA)
3. High-Impact Aerobics (HIA)
1. LIA - March, Step Touch, Squat/Plie, Grapevine
2. MIA - Skip, Twist, Plie/Releve, Knee Lifts w/Heel Lift
3. HIA - Jog, Jump, Hop, Jack
Define LIA, MIA, and HIA, and explain how they differ from one another.
LIA: Low-Impact - Keep one foot on/close to floor
MIA: Moderate- Impact - Both feet on floor, feet roll w/toe ball heel action
HIA: High-Impact - Both feet leaving the floor at the same time/alternating
To lessen injury risk and maintain motivation in Type A participants, list 3 types of workouts that provide different mechanical stresses to the body while allowing high-intensity options for advanced training.
1. Alternating low-impact and high-impact workouts reduces accumulative trauma and opportunity to develop overuse injuries.
2. Variety of workouts provide different mechanical stresses to the body while allowing high-intensity options (e.g., step training, kickboxing, cycling).
3. Strength training is critical for lowering injury risk from high-impact exercise.
List 4 motivational techniques to sustain a Type B participant for lifelong exercise adherence.
Feedback
Support
Recognition
Encouragement
List a minimum of 8 action steps an instructor should take to enhance exercise adherence for a novice participant.
Footwork
Directional
Rhythmic
Numerical
Functionality
Step
Alignment
Verbal/Non-Verbal
Visual Conspicuous
Discuss how exercises performed in water can help improve body weight, enhance the cardiovascular system, and prevent injuries.
Cost of energy is higher causing positive training results for cardio and weight management without fear or rough impact.
What is the difference between land and water when it comes to exercise design?
Similar - Should understand objective and allow progression.
State the difference between circuit and interval training methods.
Circuit - Cardio and strengthening in short timeframe (quick)

Interval - Strengthening and endurance, 3 energy systems
List and summarize 2 circuit training formats.
Super Circuit - Quick, intense cardio/weight setup for flow.

Peripheral Heart Action - Divided into several sequences, each targeting different muscle groups.
When instructing interval training, what does it mean by:
a) Work/active recovery ratio?
b) Work-to-recovery ratio?
a) Work/active recovery ratio is how much time is spent pushing hard then how much time recovering before repeating.
b) Work-to-recovery ratio is 1:1 = same amount of time spent pushing hard as recovering.
List a minimum of 4 things one should do to ensure they are riding properly.
Hands remain light on handlebars.
Too much gripping/body weight will tire upper body.
Ability to control speed.
Ability to control resistance.
List a minimum of 3 things an instructor should consider when designing an indoor cycling class.
Teaching off the bike
Counting
Sharpening focus
Positive affirmations
Goal setting
For group exercise, AFAA recommends a range between _____ to _____ repetitions on whether the focus is muscular strength or endurance.
8 to 12
List a minimum of 4 muscles that tend to be weaker than their opposing groups.
Abdominals
Rear Deltoid
Mid-Trapezius and Rhomboids
Lower Trapezius
External Shoulder Rotators
Spinal Erectors
Vastus Medias
Tibilis Anterior
List a minimum of 4 muscles that tend to be tight.
Front Deltoid
Pectorials
Hamstrings
Gastrocnemius
Internal Shoulder
Upper Trapezius
Spinal Erectors
Illiopsoas
Discuss "constant vs. variable" resistance and what form of equipment, used in a group exercise class would resemble variable resistance.
Constant resistance is a form of dynamic resistance targeting a muscle or muscle group using free weights.

Variable resistance is designed to achieve maximum muscle involvement and is usually carried out with specialized machines.
List 7 "Action Steps for Designing a Resistance Tubing Class."
1. Check tubing condition
2. Avoid pulling tubing toward face
3. Select appropriate resistance
4. Avoid gripping handles too tightly
5. Maintain wrist alignment
6. Maintain continuous tension
7. Maintain smooth and controlled pace
List a minimum of 4 strength training sequences appropriate within the group exercise setting.
1. Moving from one primary muscle group to the next (traditional weight room format).
2. Moving from single set of one exercise directly into a second, third, or more - and then repeating the entire series over again (super-, tri-, or giant-sets).
3. Moving through a series of exercise patterns including arm combinations, leg combinations, or arm & leg combinations (more choreographed format).
List 7 principles of Mat Science.
Balance
Extension
Alignment
Range of Motion
Progression
Flow
Breath
List a minimum of 4 class format guidelines.
1. Always begin with initial warm-up and breathing.
2. Move fluidly and mindfully with each exercise.
3. Develop appropriate levels of intensity of progression for each movement.
4. Always finish class with a cool down to relax and restore.
What are the guidelines for various step levels?
Level 1: 4" Non-Participant
Level 2: 4-6" New to Step Training Participant
Level 3: 4-8" Regular Stepper
Level 4: 4-10" Highly Skilled Regular Stepper
List the appropriate beats per minute (bpm) for:
a) Warm-up
b) Cardiorespiratory training
c) Muscular strength and endurance training
a) Warm-up = 120- 134 bpm
b) Cardiorespiratory training = 118 -128 bpm / 128 -135 bpm for advanced class
c) Muscular strength and endurance training = 120 - 130 bpm
List a minimum of 3 proper body alignment techniques.
Shoulders back and relaxed
Chest lifted and body erect
Ab muscles contracted
Neutral spine
Knees relaxed
Avoid hyperextension of joints
Avoid twisting of joints
List a minimum of 3 proper stepping techniques.
Full body lean - do not bend at waist
Focus on feet first - add arm movements when proficient
Watch platform periodically
Knee flexion <90 degrees
Step in center
Don't step w/back to platform
Step lightly
Allow whole foot to contact floor
Use proper lifting techniques
How can one prevent knee injury while stepping?
Keep ROM limited to no more than 90 degree angle when weight bearing.
Pivoting movement should only be performed when leg is not weight bearing or unloaded.
What does EIA stand for and how can it be prevented?
Exercise Induced Asthma
- Consult a physician for treatment/prevention
- Have inhaler available at all times
- Exercise intensity should start low to high
- Avoid outside (cold/high pollen) exercise in areas with high humidity
- Breathe through nose
List at least 6 exercise guidelines for participants with heart disease.
1. Participant should be screened
2. Comply with target heart rate and RPE guidelines
3. Alert instructor with signs or symptoms
4. Don't exceed level of expertise
5. Intensity should start low and work higher
6. Guidelines from physician should be followed
List at least 4 exercise guidelines for participants with arthritis.
1. Low impact exercise should be encouraged
2. Frequent low intensity exercise should be performed
3. Isometric exercises may be preferred
4. Extended warm-up / cool down
5. If pain lasts 2 hrs. after exercise, decrease intensity
5. Obesity / overweight are risk factors
List at least 4 precautions that should be taken for diabetic participants who are attending a group exercise class.
1. Blood glucose should be monitored.
2. Insulin should be injected into muscle not being used
3. Exercise should be avoided during peak insulin production
4. Always carry a carb snack
5. Type I should exercise at the same time every day
List 8 exercise guidelines for a participant with hypertension.
1. Emphasize cardio activity
2. Exercise daily for 30-60 minutes
3. High intensity/isometric activities should be avoided
4. Reps high, weight low for resistance training
5. Avoid valvsalva maneuver
6. Utilize RPE - meds may alter heart rate
7. Avoid positions with feet higher than head
8. Teach relaxation and stress management techniques
No one rule necessarily applies to all large-sized adults in terms of exercise precautions because:
It is possible that a large person is actually heavy and healthy (or "fat and fit").
What is the preferred method of monitoring exercise intensity in the older adult population and what is the appropriate range?
Cardio a low to moderate pace
Rating of Perceived Exertion of 1-10 is preferred
5-6 is target, noticeable increases in heart rate and breathing
What method of resistance training would be appropriate for older adults with arthritis and osteoporosis?
Slow stretching
Isometric exercises
List the 2 methods of stretching that are recommended for older adults.
Static
Slow Dynamic
List at least 4 program design guidelines for the older adult.
1. Participants should know how to monitor workload.
2. Be alert to over exertion.
3. Monitor intensity every 4-5 mins.
4. Slow/controlled movement w/full ROM recommended
List at least 3 exercise considerations during pregnancy.
1. Cardio changes - Blood volumes increase, causing increased demands.
2. Hormonal/anatomical - Special attention to stretching and strengthening.
3. Pelvic/floor muscles - Maintaining is essential.
List 5 things a fitness professional should consider prior to working with a pregnant person.
1. Goal is renewed energy.
2. Slow down - it's only 9 months.
3. Signs of overexertion.
4. Monitor for signs of modification.
5. Uncertain/adverse reactions should be referred to Dr.
Discuss at least 3 exercise modalities that pregnant women can perform along with any risks and modifications that should be taken.
1. High impact to low impact.
2. Modify tough movements.
3. No supine weight work after 20 weeks - roll on side.
List a minimum of 4 exercise recommendations outlined by the USDHHS and ACSM.
1. Participate in 60 mins. or more of physical activity 3-4 days/week.
2. Moderate intensity increasing breathing, heart rate, and sweat.
3. Encourage sustained activities that use large muscle groups.
4. Heart rate monitoring may be optional due to low risk.
List a minimum of 3 general guidelines to resistance training in children and adolescents.
Resistance training movements
Free weight training
Manual resistance training
Isometric training
Weight training machines
List a minimum of 3 "special considerations" regarding resistance training in children and adolescents.
1. Activity should be appropriate and varied.
2. Training should be comprehensive to increase motor skills/level.
3. Only when using good form, should resistance/weights be added.
4. Focus should be on participation and technique, not weight.
Discuss at least 4 ways to ensure a successful substitute teaching experience.
1. Having consistent policies in place.
2. Evaluating the situation.
3. Developing self-confidence.
4. Making the right connection.
List 7 services group exercise instructors should deliver in order to adhere to the "standard of care" outlined by the fitness industry.
1. Screening
2. Recommendation of Activities
3. Recordation of Activities
4. Recordkeeping
5. Leadership
6. Supervision
7. Emergency Response Concerns