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Anatomy Chapters 1-6

STUDY
PLAY
Anatomy
the study of body structure.
Physiology
the study of how the body functions
Inorganic Compounds
are usually simple molecules that often consist of only one or two different elements.
Organic Compounds
always contain carbon & hydrogen & usually are associated with living things.
Homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
Protons
positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom.
Neutrons
the particles of the nucleus that have no charge
Electrons
negatively charged particles found outside the nucleus
Intracellular
Within a cell
Extracellular
located or occurring outside a cell or cells
Enzymes
proteins that speed up chemical reactions in the body
Endoplasmic Reticulum
internal transport system of the cell, modifies proteins, and synthesizes lipids
Ribosomes
site of protein synthesis
Proteasomes
site of destruction of old or damaged proteins
Golgi Apparatus
Synthesis of carbohydrates. Packaging of materials for secretion from the cell.
Mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
Lysosomes
Contains digestive enzymes
Centrioles
Organize the spindle fibers during cell division.
Cilia
Sweep materials across the cell surface.
Flagellum
Enables a cell to move
Microvilli
Increase a cell's surface area for absorption
Cytoskeleton
Protein microfilaments that give shape to a cell, support the membrane and microvilli, and provide for attachment and movement.
DNA
Double strand of nucleotides in the form of a double helix.
Cell Membrane
Outer boundary of a cell and is made of phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins.
Nucleus
Within the cytoplasm and is bounded by a double layered nuclear membrane with many pores.
Cytoplasm
A watery solution of minerals, gases, organic molecules, and cell organelles that is found between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
Mitosis
One cell with the diploid number of chromosomes divides into two identical cells, each with the diploid number of chromosomes.
Meiosis
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Isotonic
A solution with the same salt concentration as in cells. (0.9%)
Hypotonic
A solution with a lower salt concentration than in cells. (0%)
Hypertonic
A solution with a higher salt concentration than in cells. (3%)
Diffusion
Movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
Osmosis
The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
Active Transport
Requires the energy of ATP to move molecules from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration.
Phagocytosis
Involve a cell engulfing something. Ex: a white blood cell engulfing bacteria.
Synapse
Where neurons meet, the small place bewteen them.
Epidermis
The outer layer of the skin
Dermis
The inner layer of the skin
Exocrine Glands
Gland that releases its secretions through tubelike structures called ducts
Endocrine Glands
glands of the endocrine system that release hormones into the bloodstream
Stratum Corneum
The outermost epidermal layer, consists of many layers of dead cells; all that is left if their keratin.
Red Bone Marrow
Found in spongy bone. Produces red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells.
Yellow Bone Marrow
Found in compact bone in the diaphysis. Mostly adipose tissue.
Hinge joint
movement in one plane
Condyloid Joint
movement in one plane with some lateral movement
Pivot Joint
rotation
Gliding joint
Side to side movement
Saddle
Movement in several planes