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45 terms

Bio 211 Final Review - Ch 23

Anatomy and Physiology 2 Final Review Chapter 23 - Midlands Tech
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Digestive function: Chief cells
secretes inactive enzyme pepsinogen
activated into pepsin by HCI and by pepsin itself (a positive feedback mechanism)
Digestive function: Parietal cells
secretes HCI (denatures food proteins, activates pepsin, and kills many bacteria) and Intrinsic Factor (Glycoprotein required for absorption of vitamin B12 in small intestine)
Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: Mouth
Salivary amylase and lingual lipase begin to break down starch; no nutrient absorption
Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: stomach
Denaturation of proteins; Enzymatic digestion of proteins by pepsin; Secretes intrinsic factor required for absorption of vitamin B12
Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: small intestines
Delivery of bile, enzymes, and bicarbonate from the liver and pancreas; absorbs carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: Large intestines
Bacteria ferment indigestible carbohydrates; Vitamins, water, and electrolytes are reclaimed
Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: parietal cells
HCI denatures protein in food, activates pepsin, and kills many bacteria; Intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein required for absorption of vitamin B12 in small intestine
Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: chief cells
Inactive enzyme pepsinogen; Activated to pepsin by HCl and by pepsin itself
Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: liver
Process bloodborne nutrients; Store fat-soluble vitamins; Perform detoxification; Produce ~900 ml bile per day
Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: gallbladder
Stores and concentrates bile by absorbing its water and ions
Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: pancreas
Pancreatic islets secrete insulin and glucagon; •Acini secrete pancreatic juice (Watery alkaline solution neutralizes chyme)
Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: hepatic portal vein
Transports carbohydrates and lipids to the liver
Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: villi
Motile fingerlike extensions (~1 mm high) of the mucosa; increases surface area of proximal duodenum for nutrient absorption
Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: microvilli
Projections (brush border) of absorptive cells; Bear brush border enzymes; increases surface area of proximal duodenum for nutrient absorption
Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: lacteal
lymphatic capillaries of the small intestines that take up lipids
Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: salivary glands
glands in the mouth that secrete saliva (begins to break down starch and moistens food to aid in swallowing)
Function: Pepsin
secreted by parietal cells in the stomach; digests proteins
Function: Bile
Created by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; emulsifies lipids
Function: HCl
Hydrochloric Acid secreted from parietal cells of the stomach; denatures protein in food, activates pepsin, and kills many bacteria
Function: secretin
released by intestinal cells and causes secretion of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice by duct cells
Function: lipases
Secreted by the pancreas to break down fats
Function: gastrin
Released by gastrendocrine cells; stimulates motility of the digestive tract and stimulates the secretion of HCl
Function: vitamin K
Synthesized in the large intestines from bacterial metaboliam
Function: salivary amylase
produced by the salivary glands in the mouth and begin to break down starch
Function: pancreatic amylase
produced by the pancreas and completes the breakdown of starch in the small intestines
Function: Cholecystokinin
secreted by intestinal cells; stimulates contraction of the gallbladder
Function: intrinsic factor
secreted by parietal cells in the stomach; Needed for absorption of vitamin B12
Function: proteases
secreted by the pancreas; aids in the digestion of proteins
Function: bicarbonate ions
produced by the liver and pancreas; needed for nutrient absorption in the small intestine
Function: chylomicrons
water-soluble lipoproteins created within cells
Function: brush border
The microvilli of the duodenum; Trypsinogen is activated to trypsin; digests carbohydrates
Layers of the GI tract
Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis externa (the external muscular layer), and serosa
Major functions of the liver
Process bloodborne nutrients; Store fat-soluble vitamins; Perform detoxification; Produce ~900 ml bile per day
Function and location: Villi
fingerlike projections of the mucosa of the small intestine; increase surface area for absorption of nutrients
Function and location: Microvilli
make up the brush border of the small intestine; increase surface area for absorption of nutrients
Function and location: Rugae
the long, longitudinal folds made by the mucosa and submucosa of the stomach when it collapses inward (is empty)
Function and location: Plicae Circulares
deep, permanent folds of the mucosa and submucosa of the duodenum; slows chyme allowing for more time to absorb nutrients
Function and location: Cystic Duct
connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct; bile drains into the bile duct
Function and location: Duodenum
the first segment of the small intestines between the stomach and the jejunum; most active absorption happens here
Function and location: Jejunum
the second segment of the small intestine extending from the duodenum to the ileum; absorption of carbohydrates and proteins
Function and location: Ileum
the third segment of the small intestine extending from the jejunum to the large intestine; absorbs vitamin B12 and bile salts
Function and location: Cecum
the entrance into the large intestine; absorb fluids and salts that remain after digestion and absorption
Function and location: Chyme
semifluid, creamy mass consisting of partially digested food and gastric juice; in the stomach and moves into the small intestine
Function and location: Peristalsis
progressive, wavelike contractions that move foodstuffs through the intestines
Function and location: Haustra
the pocketlike sacs of the wall of the large intestine; contract to help to move chyme through the large intestine