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1588 defeat of Spanish Armada

occurred after Spain attacked the English naval force in the English Channel because of religious differences and England slaughtered most of the ships and a powerful storm defeated the rest, marked the beginning of England's powerful and confident imperial attitude


one of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formerly worked by village farmers, caused many displaced farmers to immigrate to the New World


a system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land, the nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere, many turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth


the return of the Stuart monarchy (1660) after the period of republican government under Oliver Cromwell


first permanent English settlement in North America, original settlers suffered from disease, economy stabled after tobacco was cultivated

Joint-stock companies

an association of individuals in a business enterprise with transferable shares of stock, much like a corporation except that stockholders are liable for the debts of the business, provided financial means for colonization

House of Burgesses

the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in Virginia in 1619, the first system of representative self-government, later upset King James I who made Virginia a royal colony directly under his control

Sir Walter Raleigh

an English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas, sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, which failed


a native Indian of America, daughter of Chief Powahatan, who was one of the first to marry an Englishman, John Rolfe, and return to England with him; about 1595-1617; Pocahontas' brave actions in saving an Englishman paved the way for many positive English and Native relations

Powhatan's Confederacy

a few dozen small tribes dominated by the chieftain Powhatan

Act of Toleration

a religious statute that guaranteed toleration to all Christians, but decreed death penalty for those who denied the divinity of Jesus, protected the Catholic minority


the second plantation colony, the fourth English colony to be planted, founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore, guaranteed toleration to all Christians through its Act of Toleration, flourished due to its tobacco industry

Plantation colonies

Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia; exported commercial agricultural products; slavery; cities, schools, & churches slowly emerged due to plantation & farms; religious tolerance

Barbados Slave Code

notorious code that denied the most fundamental rights to slaves and gave masters complete control


a term that designates a confederacy of five tribes originally inhabiting the northern part of New York state, consisting of the Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida, Onondaga and Mohawk

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