32 terms

Dimensions of Human Behavior chapter 8

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Norms
the culturally defined standards or rules of conduct
Culture
a tool kit of symbols, stories, rituals, and worldviews that people may use in varying configurations to solve different kinds of problems
Cultural relativism
the position that behavior in a particular culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture
biological determinism
the attempt to differentiate social behavior largely on the basis of biological and genetic endowment
Othering
labeling people who fall outside of your own group as abnormal, inferior, or marginal
postmodernism
a term used to describe contemporary culture as a postindustrial culture in which people are connected across time and place through global electronic communications; emphasis is on the existence of different worldviews and concepts of reality
ideology
set of shared beliefs about the way things are and should work
ethnocentrism
Our tendency to elevate our own ethnic group and its social and cultural processes over others
symbol
Something, verbal, or nonverbal, that comes to stand for something else
worldview
an idea of reality, a "concept of nature, of self, of society"
ethos
the "tone, character, and quality of [people's] life, its moral and aesthetic style and mood; it is the underlying attitude toward themselves and their world that life reflects"
cultural innovation
Culture is not static; it is adapted, modified, and changed through interactions over time
cultural conflict
conflict over the meaning of cultural symbols
culture of poverty
a term coined by Oscar Lewis to describe the unique culture and ways of those who are impoverished; it has been used over time to look at impoverished people as having cultural deficits
practice orientation
seeks to explain what people do as thinking, intentionally acting persons who face the impact of history and the restraints of structures embedded in our society and culture; It asks how social systems shape, guide, and direct people's values, beliefs, and behavior
Asks how people, as human actors or agents, perpetuate or shape social systems
social structure
the ordered forms and systems of human behavior in public life. Includes cognitive, emotional, and behavioral frameworks that are mapped onto who we are as people. Influences how we construct ourselves
cultural hegemony
the dominance of a particular way of seeing the world
human agency
asserts that people are not simply puppets, the pawns of history and structure; people are also active participants, capable of exercising their will to shape their lives. Helps to counteract cultural hegemony
common sense
what people have come to believe everyone in a community or society should know and understand as a matter of ordinary, taken-for-granted social competence
customs
come into being and persist as solutions to problems of living
tradition
process of handing down from one generation to another particular cultural beliefs and practices. A process of ratifying particular beliefs and practices by connecting them to selected social, economic, and political practices
assimilation
The process in which the cultural uniqueness of the minority group is abandoned, and its members try to blend invisibly into the dominant culture
accommodation
The process of partial or selective cultural change. Nondominant groups follow the norms, rules, and standards of the dominant culture only in specific circumstances and contexts
acculturation
Mutual sharing of culture
bicultural socialization
A nonmajority group or member mastering both the dominant culture and his or her own
race
a system of social identity based on biological markers such as skin color that influences economic, social, and political relations
phenotypes
physical or biological characteristics
racism
discriminatory thoughts, beliefs, and actions based on the assignment of an individual or group to a racial classification
ethnic identity
how ethnic groups define themselves and maintain meaning for living individually and as a group
socioeconomic status
social, economic, and political relations developed around education, economic, and occupational status; social class
social class
A way of ascribing status, prestige, and power. It is based on education, income, and occupation
gender
What our culture symbolizes and means by maleness and femaleness
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