TEXES History 8-12 (Exact same World and US Histories as Social Studies 7-12)

Terms in this set (467)

The design of caravels underwent changes over the years, but a typical caravel of the late 15th century may be described as a broad-beamed vessel of 50 or 60 tons burden; some were as large as 160 tons. About 75 feet (23 m) long, the typical caravel had two or three pole masts, lateen-rigged (i.e., with triangular sails). Later versions, the redonda, replaced the main lateen sail which required a large crew by a square sail which also made for more speed when running offshore. Caravels were usually built with a double tower at the stern (the aftercastle, or sterncastle) and a single tower (or none) in the bow (the forecastle). Top speed for a caravel was about 8 knots; the average was 4 knots for 90-100 miles in a day. In the north, the rudder had replaced the side oar for steering. In the Mediterranean, lateen sails working as windfoils allowed sailing upwind. Building techniques improved to allow the construction of larger crafts with multiple masts. The magnetic compass consists of a magnetized pointer (usually marked on the North end) free to align itself with Earth's magnetic field. A compass is any magnetically sensitive device capable of indicating the direction of the magnetic north of a planet's magnetosphere. The face of the compass generally highlights the cardinal points of north, south, east and west. The first known metal astrolabe in Western Europe is the Destombes astrolabe made from brass in tenth-century Catalonia.[19] Metal astrolabes improved on the accuracy of their wooden precursors.
Portuguese explorer Prince Henry, known as the Navigator, was the first European to methodically explore Africa and the oceanic route to the Indies. From his residence in the Algarve region of southern Portugal, he directed successive expeditions to circumnavigate Africa and reach India. In 1420, Henry sent an expedition to secure the uninhabited but strategic island of Madeira. In 1425, he tried to secure the Canary Islands as well, but these were already under firm Castilian control. In 1431, another Portuguese expedition reached and annexed the Azores. It was only on the return voyage that he actually discovered the Cape of Good Hope, in May 1488. Dias returned to Lisbon in December of that year, after an absence of sixteen months.The discovery of the passage around southern Africa was significant because, for the first time, Europeans realized they could trade directly with India and the other parts of Asia, bypassing the overland route through the Middle East, with its expensive middlemen. The official report of the expedition has been lost. the first European to reach India through sea. This discovery was very significant and paved the way for the Portuguese to establish a long lasting colonial empire in Asia. The route meant that the Portuguese wouldn't need to cross the highly disputed Mediterranean nor the dangerous Arabia, and that the whole voyage would be made by sea. After decades of sailors trying to reach India with thousands of lives and dozens of vessels lost in shipwrecks and attacks, Gama landed in Calicut on the 20 May 1498. Reaching the legendary Indian spice routes unopposed helped the Portuguese Empireimprove its economy that, until Gama, was mainly based on trades along the Northern and coastal West Africa. These spices were mostly pepper and cinnamon at first, but soon included other products, all new to Europe which lead to a commercial monopoly for several decades. Gama headed two of the armadas destined for India, the first and the fourth, the biggest armada, only four years after his arrival from the first one. For his contributions he was named in 1524 as the Governor of India, under the title of Viceroy, and given the newly created County of Vidigueira in 1519.
Had holdings in Egypt, Sudan, Nigeria, the Gold Coast, Kenya, Uganda, Somalia, South Africa, Rhodesia, India, Burma, Pakistan, Malaysia, New Guinea, Belize, Australia, and New Zealand. By 1922 the British Empire held sway over about 458 million people, one-fifth of the world's population at the time.The empire covered more than 33,700,000 km (13,012,000 sq mi), almost a quarter of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power it was often said that "the sun never sets on the British Empire" because its span across the globe ensured that the sun was always shining on at least one of its numerous territories. The growth of Germany and the United States eroded Britain's economic lead by the end of the 19th century. Subsequent military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied heavily upon its empire. The conflict placed enormous financial and population strain on Britain, and although the empire achieved its largest territorial extent immediately after the war, it was no longer a peerless industrial or military power. The Second World War saw Britain's colonies in South-East Asia occupied by Japan, which damaged British prestige and accelerated the decline of the empire, despite the eventual victory of Britain and its allies. India, Britain's most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence two years after the end of the war.
French Indochina came to be around 1885. France obtained control over northern Vietnam following its victory over China in the Sino-French war (1884-1885). French Indochina was formed in October 1887 from Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina (which together form modern Vietnam) and the Kingdom of Cambodia; Laos was added after theFranco-Siamese War in 1893. The federation lasted until 1954. In the four protectorates, the French formally left the local rulers in power, who were the Emperors of Vietnam,Kings of Cambodia, and Kings of Luang Prabang, but in fact gathered all powers in their hands, the local rulers acting only as figureheads. French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858 and by the mid-1880s they had established a firm grip over the northern region. From 1885 to 1895, Phan Đình Phùng led a rebellion against the colonizing power. Nationalist sentiments intensified in Vietnam, especially during and after World War I, but all the uprisings and tentative efforts failed to obtain any concessions from the French overseers. French West Africa was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Upper Volta (nowBurkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger. The capital of the federation was Dakar. The federation existed from 1895 until 1960. France invaded Madagascar in 1883 in what became known as the first Franco-Hova War.[66] At the end of the war, Madagascar ceded the northern port town of Antsiranana (Diego Suarez) to France and paid 560,000 francs to Lambert's heirs.[67] In 1890, the British accepted the full formal imposition of a French protectorate on the island, but French authority was not acknowledged by the government of Madagascar. To force capitulation, the French bombarded and occupied the harbor of Toamasina on the east coast, and Mahajanga on the west coast, in December 1894 and January 1895 respectively.[68] A French military flying column then marched toward Antananarivo, losing many men to malaria and other diseases. Reinforcements came from Algeria andSub-Saharan Africa. Upon reaching the city in September 1895, the column bombarded the royal palace with heavy artillery, causing heavy casualties and leading Queen Ranavalona III to surrender.[69] France annexed Madagascar in 1896 and declared the island a colony the following year. All focused on trade to generate economic prosperity.
Established in 1934 in what represents present-day Libya. Italian Libya was formed from the colonies of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania which were taken by Italy from the Ottoman Empire in 1912 after the Italo-Turkish War of 1911 to 1912. started in 1911 and was characterized initially by a major struggle with Muslim native Libyans that lasted until 1931. During this period, the Italian government controlled only the coastal areas of the colony. After the Italian Empire's conquest of Ottoman Libya in the 1911-1912 Italo-Turkish War, much of the early colonial period had Italy waging a war of subjugation against Libya's population. Ottoman Turkey surrendered its control of Libya in the 1912 Treaty of Lausanne, but fierce resistance to the Italians continued from the Senussi political-religious order, a strongly nationalistic group of Sunni Muslims. This group, first under the leadership of Omar Al Mukhtar and centered in the Jebel Akhdar Mountains of Cyrenaica, lead the Libyan resistance movement against Italian settlement in Libya. Italian forces under the Generals Pietro Badoglio and Rodolfo Graziani waged punitive pacification campaigns which turned into brutal and bloody acts of repression. Resistance leaders were executed or escaped into exile. The forced migration of more than 100,000 Cyrenaican people ended in Italian concentration camps. After two decades, Italy predominated. In the 1930s, the policy of Italian Fascism toward Libya began to change, and both Cyrenaica and Tripolitania, along with Fezzan, were merged into Italian Libya in 1934.
The English Civil War lasted from 1642 to 1651. Charles I was beheaded in punishment for committing treason in ignoring Parliament and calling for the continuation of the war. He was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 and for Cambridge in the Short (1640) and Long (1640-49) Parliaments. He entered the English Civil War on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians. Nicknamed "Old Ironsides", he was quickly promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to become one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army, playing an important role in the defeat of the royalist forces. Cromwell was one of the signatories of King Charles I's death warrant in 1649, and as a member of the Rump Parliament (1649-53) he dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England. He was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland during 1649-50. Cromwell's forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country - bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars. During this period a series of Penal Laws were passed against Roman Catholics (a significant minority in England and Scotland but the vast majority in Ireland), and a substantial amount of their land was confiscated. Cromwell also led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651.The Glorious Revolution was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascending of the English throne as William III of England jointly with his wife Mary II of England. James II removed from the throne of England. His overthrow began the modern English parliamentary democracy. The Revolution was made to preserve our ancient indisputable laws and liberties, and that ancient constitution of government which is our only security for law and liberty.
was a period of radical social and political upheaval inFrance that had a lasting impact on French history and more broadly throughout the world. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed within three years. French society underwent an epic transformation, as feudal, aristocratic and religious privileges evaporated under a sustained assault from radical left-wing political groups, masses on the streets, andpeasants in the countryside.[1] Old ideas about tradition and hierarchy-of monarchy, aristocracy, and religious authority-were abruptly overthrown by new Enlightenment principles of equality, citizenship and inalienable rights.Amidst a fiscal crisis, the common people of France were increasingly angered by the incompetency of King Louis XVI and the continued indifference and decadence of the aristocracy. This resentment fueled radical sentiments, and the French Revolution began in 1789 with the convocation of the Estates-General in May. The first year of the Revolution saw members of the Third Estate proclaiming the Tennis Court Oath in June, the assault on the Bastille in July, the passage of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in August, and an epic march on Versailles that forced the royal court back to Paris in October. The next few years were dominated by struggles between various liberal assemblies and a right wing of supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.A republic was proclaimed in September 1792 and King Louis XVI was executed the next year. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution. The French Revolutionary Wars began in 1792 and ultimately featured spectacular French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine - achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular sentiments radicalized the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and theJacobins and virtual dictatorship by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror from 1793 until 1794 during which between 16,000 and 40,000 people were killed.[2] After the fall of the Jacobins and the execution of Robespierre, the Directoryassumed control of the French state in 1795 and held power until 1799, when it was replaced by the Consulate under Napoleon Bonaparte.
was a Germanphilosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. His ideas played a significant role in the establishment of the social sciences and the development of the socialist movement. He is also considered one of the greatest economists in history.[4][5][6][7] He published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Capital (1867 -1894). hold that all societies progress through the dialectic of class struggle: a conflict between an ownership class which controls production and a lower class which produces the labour for goods. Heavily critical of the current socio-economic form of society, capitalism, he called it the "dictatorship of thebourgeoisie", believing it to be run by the wealthy classes purely for their own benefit; and he predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, capitalism would inevitably produce internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism.[9] He argued that under socialism society would be governed by the working class in what he called the "dictatorship of the proletariat", the "workers' state" or "workers' democracy" Russian Revolution: the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled theTsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Russian SFSR. The Emperor was forced to abdicate and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in theGregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar was in use in Russia at the time). In the second revolution, during October, the Provisional Government was removed and replaced with a Bolshevik (Communist) government. The February Revolution (March 1917) was a revolution focused around Petrograd (now St. Petersburg). In the chaos, members of the Imperial parliament or Duma assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government. The army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution and Nicholas II, the lastEmperor of Russia, abdicated. The Soviets (workers' councils), which were led by more radical socialist factions, initially permitted the Provisional Government to rule, but insisted on a prerogative to influence the government and control various militias. The February Revolution took place in the context of heavy military setbacks during the First World War (1914-18), which left much of the Russian army in a state of mutiny.
Rural, urban, Suburban, and exurban areas of the continent. Settlement nearness to water, nearness to food, nearness to transportation all important to a settlement succeeding. Urban centers build wherever, no zoning, built on a grid pattern, streets radiate from our center. Geographic location, population growth, available transporation, industrial factors that determine patterns of urban growth. Urban Spatial Interaction of People, Goods, and Services focus on concentric zone theory, central business district, transition zone, low income residential, middle income residential, commuter residential and high income estates. Sector theory is that the city has special areas zoned for special purposes such as San Antonio and military bases and Austin for government and education. Multiple nueclei theory includes many central business districts due to rapidly growing cities and swallowing up smaller cities, Houston for example. Urban problems include overcrowding, cost of living (food, clothes, housing, transporation, recreation, and waste disposal), availability of jobs, availability of equal education, crime (violence, theft, arson, and murder). Major urban locations in the World in the US include New York, Boston, Washington D.C. Los Angeles, Houston, St. Louis, and New Orleans. Canada's include Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, Latin America include Mexico City, Rio de janeior, Sao Paulo, Buenos Aires. In Europe there is Rome, Paris, London, Berlin. Africa includes Cairo, Cape Town, Dakar, Casablanca. Asia includes Istanbul, Moscow, Tehran, Calcutta, Beijin, and Jakarta.
The US has a mixed economy that is market and command economy so that there is free and private enterprise but does have a small government role. The role of government in a market economy is to safeguard the market system, support public welfare programs, provide public goods and services, stabilize the economy by giving positive and negative incentives, and protecting the public against harmful activities. Role of government in regulating a market economy is the economy is regulated to maintain a free market where competition is encouraged, the federal reserve system serves the money need of all parts of the country, and the government controls monetary and fiscal polciey. The economic regulation has its costs and benefits as regulation helps maintain a balance in the economy by preventing monopoly and encouraging competition, government regulation increases the efficiency of some projects of both private industry and public agencies, some large and expensive projects need government financing or support to succeed in the short or long run, and government regulation takes away some local control of the projects. The government protects and consumer/produces in a market economy. The consumer has their rights to safety, honesty, and free choice in the goods and services they decide to own and use. Consumers influence the economy by deciding how to spend their money, consumers are free to choose how to spend their income, and the way they spend affects and the quality and quantity of products and services that producers offer. Consumers buy products based on their own economic interests. Consumers are free to acquire, use and dispose of private property and the goods and services they buy. Conditions that led to consumer protection include monopolies, consumer fraud, and product hazards.
Vast changes around the world occurred from 1870-1914, particularly in Europe. Italy and Germany both became unified nations, Russia became an autocracy, and Austria and Hungary formed a dual monarchy. Imperialism created bitter rivalries over power. White Man's Burden became prevalent. Missionary motives were to spread Christianity, French established colonies in West Africa, and the British Empire expanded so much that the sun never actually set on the British Empire as it stretched all over the globe. The US pushed for westward expansion towards Alaska and Hawaii, and after the Civil War ended there was rapid industrialization throughout the country and more immigration to the West. The Monroe Doctrine and the 1898 Spanish American War spurred feelings of nationalism. In India the Indian National Congress of 1885 was established as a democratic political party to support Indian independence from Britain. The Mexican Revolution overthrew Profioro Diaz and his government and eventually established the PRI party and the Mexican Constitution of 1917. The Meiji Restoration in Japan occurred when the constitution was accepted in 1889 to impress Western government with Japan for progress and to provide the Japanese people with a voice in government. Sino-Japanese War fought over control over Korea. The Treaty of Shimonoseki recognized Korean independence. Southeast Asia colonies continued with the French in Indochina, the US in the Philippines, and the British in Burma, the US in Guam, Germany in the Mariana and Carolina Islands, the Netherlands in Indonesia, and the French in New Caledonia. The British were also in Jamaica and Bahamas, US in the Panama Canal Zone, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands. The Netherlands were in Curacao, Aruba, and Bonaire, and the French were in Guadalupe in St. Martin and others.
Migration to North America occurred over the land bridge over the Bering Sea around 8000 BC. The land bridge began melting so many people began emigrating to eastern tip of Asia. By 2000 BC, they had migrated as far as Greenland. The Ancient Dorset culture in the eastern Arctic were hunters of seal and caribous. They lived in skin tents that were raised on low stone walls and built snow houses for the winter months. They made weapons from bone and stone and had crude art objects. The Thule culture of the western Arctic were whal hunters and they traveled and hunted by kayaks and uniaks, main mode of travel was the sled dogs. They wore skin clothing from the animals that other tribes traded for whale blubber. In 800 AD they migrated east and absorbed the Dorset people into their culture. The Canadian and US Indians established cultures in the Great Basin by 1 AD and there were hunters, fishers, and gatherers in California and the Northwest by 200-400 AD. The Southwestern Indians were the Hohokams and were located by the Salt and Gila Rivers in Arizona where they migrated to from NW Mexico. They were cultivators and were known for their irrigation and pottery. Their religion was linked to Mexico, and their descendents were the Pima and Papago Indians. the Mogollan Culture was known for their brown pottery, pit houses, and for living in the Four Corners area. The Anasazi Culture were descendants of the Moogollon people and began as basket makers but eventually went to pottery in 400 AD. They built pit houses, stone houses, and lived in cliffs. They farmed, hunted, and gathered, and abandoned the Four Corners area in 1300 AD. Their descendants are the Pueblo people and are split into many tribes and manylanguages. Lived in more definitive villages and multistoried houses. Height of culture was 1000-1300 AD.
was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the third President of the United States (1801-1809). At the beginning of theAmerican Revolution, he served in the Continental Congress, representing Virginia and then served as a wartime Governor of Virginia (1779-1781). Just after the war ended, from mid-1784 Jefferson served as a diplomat, stationed in Paris. In May 1785, he became the United States Minister to France. Jefferson was the first United States Secretary of State (1790-1793) serving under President George Washington. With his close friend James Madison he organized the Democratic-Republican Party, and subsequently resigned from Washington's cabinet. Elected Vice President in 1796, when he came in second to John Adams of the Federalists, Jefferson opposed Adams and with Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which attempted to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts. Elected president in what Jefferson called the Revolution of 1800, he oversaw the purchase of the vast Louisiana Territory from France (1803), and sent the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806) to explore the new west. His second term was beset with troubles at home, such as the failed treason trial of his former Vice President Aaron Burr. With escalating trouble with Britain who was challenging American neutrality and threatening shipping at sea, he tried economic warfare with his embargo laws which only damaged American trade. In 1807, President Jefferson signed into law a bill that banned the importation of slaves into the United States.
John Adams was chosen the president and was decided by three votes in the electoral college. Thomas Jefferson defeated Adams in 1800 and ended Federalists power. Jeffersonian Republicans/Jacksonian Democrats controlled presidency from 180-41, 1845-59, 853-61, 1885-89, 1893-97, 1913-21, 1932-53. Whigs controlled from 1841-45 and 1849-53. Modern Republicans controlled from 1861-85, 1889-93, 1897-1913, 1921-33, 1953-61, 1969-77, 1981-93. National Republican Whig issues were over public lands, the second bank of the US, high tariffs, and slavery. Andrew Jackson who was in office from 1829-37 and his issues were farmers, debtors, frontier pioneers, slaveholders, South and West, universal white male suffrage, increase in elective office, and the spoils system. The Whig leaders included Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. Coalition leaders consisted of bankers, merchants, industrialists, Southern planters, and they all favored high tariffs. William Henry Harrison elected in 1840, and was first president to die in office and was a Whig candidate. Zachary Taylor was elected in 1848 as a Whig candidate. Took a moderate stance on slavery and angered many Southerners. In 1850 the major parties split over question of slavery. Democrats split North and South, the Republican party was extremely successful in the 1860 election and Abraham Lincoln was elected to the presidency. From 1860-1932 the Republican party became known as the Grand Old Party (GOP) from third party to major party status. The party had business and financial interests and farmers, laborers, and newly freed African Americans boosted the party to popularity.
Desire of the Axis Powers, Germany, Italy and Japan for more territory. Totalitarianism was the total government control, territorial control. Italian Facsism started under Mussolini unlimited power of government and state, there was no freedom of speech, press, etc. In germany, Hilter's dictatorship wanted more territory and control, Japan branched out and was in need of more natural resources and wanted help from Germany. Militarism was the military and industrial leaders in control of government. Japan wanted control of Shangtung province of China. In Germany, Hitler's regime had a powerful army motorized, called lightning war. The Air force was called the Luftwaffe and ordered the Blitzkrieg of Britain. In Italy Mussolini used armored forces and got his ideas from the Spanish conquest. Nationalism became the standard for Germany, Italy, and Japan. All wanted territory. In Germany Hitler annexed Austria, wanted the Sudentenland (Czech area) back with lots of Germans living there. Disobeyed treaty of Versailles when he invaded Poland, despised Communists and Jews and role of government was to get rid of them. The Anti-Comitern united Germany and Japan against communism. In Italy, Mussolini attacked Ethiopia and disobeyed the Treaty of Versailles as well. Desired port city of Flume on Adriatic Sea. Japan defeated the Chinese costal borders and took control of them. Signed the Anti-Comitern Pact with Germany. Became the Axis Powers with Rome and berlin. Russia desired Finland. Imperialism in Germany started in rule of Austria, Hitler's desire for the world power, and desire to restore the Third Reich. Italy wanted to restore the Roman Empire, Japan desired rule over Manchurian China, and Russia desired Slavic countries, warm water port, and fertile farm lands. Failure of Allied appeasement with little done to stop German aggression. Munich agreement permitted German annexation of the Sudetenland. Failure of collective security, League of Nations could not supply collective security, not enough power. American neutrality legislation, Roosevelt's declared US neutrality when WWII broke out, neutrality ended with French demise and aid to Britain. Limited naval ship building and Brand-Kellogg Treaty in which states resolved to not use war to resolve disputes or conflicts.
There was more government involvement in the national economy. New US trading partners were found in Japan and Germany, and the European Community or EC, began as the Common Market. The formation of OPEC is a group of twelve oil producing countries. Formation of ARAMCO with the US and Arab Oil Company and it has the largest amount of crude oil reserves. The oil boom was during the years of 1945-85, but it has gone bust since then due to too much speculation over the price of it. High tech/computer chips brought the rise of technology in computers, phones, video games, etc. and the rise of research consortiums. A collaborative effort by a group of institutions or corporations to investigate or research something of mutual interest. Rise of light industries, high tech associated with it. Human rights began a strong movement with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which finally gave African Americans full rights as American citizens and integration began. Minimum wage and labor laws were enacted and all states had to comply or face heavy fines. Rising expectations for the government to do something about these problems eventually gave way to the legislation under LBJ to be passed. Right to education was paid for by the government in forms of loans and grants. Legal and illegal immigration and refugee problems began arising from Mexican immigrants to the US, Palestinians expelled from Israel and fled to the US and other Arab nations during times of revolution in the 1980s. Latin Americans and Asians escaped revolutions and rebellions to the US. urbanization after WWII brought population booms, industry booms, and economic booms. Air travel became more common and was perfected. World wide television, satellite hookup began the technological innovation and the spread of information faster.
Brown vs. Board of Education in Topeka Kansas in 1954. Supreme Court ruling which threw out separate but equal, opened door for elimination of segregation of public schools. Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955 started with Rosa Parks who took a front seat in the bus and refused to give it up to a white man. She was arrested and four days later, MLK JR urged the black community within the city to boycott the bus system. The boycott ended within a year with the beginning of desegregation. Marked the start of MLK Jrs. passive resistance of his peaceful movement, which culminated with the Civil Rights Acts of the 1960s. Martin Luther King was the leader of the peaceful Civil Rights Movement and gave the famous speech "I Have a Dream" in 1963. He led the Montgomery bus boycott and won the Nobel Peace Prize Laureate in 1964. He was assassinated by a sniper at a black sanitation worker strike in April of 1968. Black Muslim group was a more militant movement and was led by Elijah Muhammad born in 1934, original last name was Poole, wanted separation of society from whites. Malcolm X first followed Elijah but broke off from the separatist ideas of Mohammed in favor of creating a society in which there could exist honest white/black brotherhood. In 1965 a dispute between the Black Muslims and Malcolm X resulted in Malcolm X's murder in February. Black Panthers founded by Bobby Seale in 1966 in California, both inspired by Malcolm X. Used the 10 point system in their organization. 10 point system, power to determine destiny of black community, full employment of all blacks, end to robbery of blacks by whites, decent housing for blacks, education relevant to black needs, exemption of blacks from military service, end to police brutality, release of all black political prisoners, trial of blacks by blacks and black juries, UN supervised plebiscite, land bread, housing, education, clothing, justice, peace. Ran a publication of successful newspaper. Wide admiration from young blacks in North and West Coast ghettos.
Believed that there was too much bureaucracy and cut down on domestic agencies and programs. He cut down the department of Health, Education, and Welfare to the cabinet level in 1953. He believed that government should help people in need, but not allow dependence on the government. He handed over some federal programs to the states. He extended social security coverage and increased federal minimum wage requirements. He supported the St. Lawrence Seaway in cooperation with Canada to open seaway from Great Lakes to the Atlantic ports. He supported the Federal Aid Highways Act to extend highways throughout the country. The government subsidies for farmers to rotate crops with soil enriching crops. There were union problems with automation and Teamsters. Foreign policy dictated the Eisenhower Doctrine, or the containment of communism in the Middle East, and is largely considered the prelude to the Cold War. Ended the Korean War, 7 months of peace talks were successfully held and kept communist powers out of S. Korea. The Cold war continued with the strong source of Soviet and US distrust very high. The Middle East and the Suez Canal caused issues and the US offered to help Egyptian leader, Nasser with the Nile Dam. the USSR offered aid to Nasser, but Eisenhower and the Secretary of State Dulles withdraw due to the Soviet offer of involvement. Nasser was enraged and he cut off use of the Suez Canal. France and Britain retaliate and ask for US support but US refuses. Israel launches an attack on EGYPT and the UN steps in at the request of the US. The Hungarian uprising was because of Nikita Kruscheve, Berlin threat of blocking off the city. A US U-2 flight shot down over Soviet territory and the summit over Hungary was cancelled by Kruschev.
Offers a pledge to help conquer the uncharted areas of science and space, unsolved problems of peace and war, unconquered pockets of ignorance and prejudice, unanswered question of poverty and surplus. His domestic policy included establishing the Peace Corps which provides jobs to help impoverished nations. the Alliance for Progress, good neighbor policy with Latin America, hopes to raise standards of living there. The Department of Urban Affairs and was shot down by Congress along with many other social programs. The Housing Act of 1961 included urban renewal and public housing. Established a space program, NASA, American goal, to be the first on the moon before 1970, John Glenn first man in space in 1962. The 1962 Executive order prohibited racial discrimination in housing provided by the federal government. commission of Equal Employment Opportunities pushed for non-discriminatory hiring practices in the private sector. Interstate Commerce Commissions ban of discrimination on all public interstate transportation. Placed a large number of black leaders in important position, such as Marshal Thurgood, the first African American on the Supreme Court Justice. The ratification of 23rd and 24th amendments Washington in DC residents, mainly black, gain right to vote and repeal. His foreign policy included the disastrous Bay of Pigs attack on Cuba, the 1961 meeting with Nikita Kruschev building of arms. The berlin wall was built and he sent additional US troops to West Berlin. The quarantine of Cuba in 1962 where USSR equipping Cuba with arms and nuclear warheads, however Kruscheve ordered the removal. The Nuclear rest-ban treaty in 1963 between USSR and US hotline created between the two powers for constant communication. Tensions with Vietnam began, and the US sent troops to S. Vietnam to ward off communist takeover. The Domino Theory upheld, threat of communist takeover in other countries is successful in Asia. JFK assassinated November 22, 1963 by Lee Harvey Oswald. Jack ruby shot Oswald as he was escorted to jail by police. FBI investigation enseued, but the files were eventually closed. There are many discrepancies and conspiracy theories.
LBJ's goal to set the foundations of a Great Society. His domestic goals were those that he thought all Americans sought. These included education for their children, improving life for their families, protection of liberty, pursuit of peace, and justice for all, which included the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that included rights for African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and women. The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 was targeted toward the war on poverty, with job training for the poor and loans to encourage rurual farm cooperatives and urban businesses, aid to migrant workers, and a domestic Peace Corps. He was elected to his own term in 1964 and approved the Housing Act, provided federal funds for constructing low-middle income housing. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Robert Weaver was appointed and was the first black to serve in a Presidential Cabinet. LBJ expanded Social Security benefits, aid to higher education, efforts to curb water pollution, National Foundation for the Arts and Humanities created. MLK was assassinated and riots in over 170 cities occurred. Created the medicare Act, which was created guarantee a minimum level of health care for Americans. Voting Rights Act of 1965 was headed by Rev. James J. reed and authorized federal agents to register voters where state officials still discriminated on basis of race. Registration of a million new black voters by 1968 election was its goal. The Immigration Act of 1964 was a package that LBJ had Congr*ess pass that were Kennedy's major bills. His foreign policy included the Dominican Republic where Juan Bosh was a democratic leader ousted by the military, who then attempted to overthrow and LBJ sent troops to stabilize the Dominican Military to remain in power. The US backed Israel to counteract the Soviet's backing of Egypt. There was a six day war between Egypt and Israel over the Suez Canal. Jerusalem was sieged by Israel along with Golan Heights and west bank of Jordan River. the Gulf of Tonkin happened during the Vietnam War, initially supported by Congress and people. US destroyers were deployed under Maddox and Turner Joy. The Rolling Thunder campaign was to have 536,000US troops to Vietnam by 1968. Student protests grew quite rambunctious and on March 31, 1968 LBJ suspended US bombing in Vietnam and announced he would not run for reelection.
Include the legal basis of rights and the laws that protect rights such as the US Constitution and Bill of Rights, other constitutional amendments as well as federal, state, and local laws and ordinance. Courts defend rights and judicial review provides the Supreme Court and Court of Appeals the power to declare nul void laws that are Unconstitutional. A dual court system means that courts exist at the federal and the state level to protect rights. Leaders protect their rights to exercising the right to vote, ratification of constitutional amendments or propositions. Initiative to propose changes by gathering signatures on a petition to propose legislation by the legislature or by public approval through a referendum election. Expressing opinions through nonbonding referendums. Leaders protect rights of citizens that they are represented by their leaders in a republican form of government. Popular elections of those who make the decisions of government for the people. Read and review news reports, listen to campaign speeches and political debates, distinguish fact from opinion, analyze issues and candidates and make judgments and stay informed and involved. Responsibilities of leaders include serving on juries such as grand juries where they charge individuals with crimes, petit juries that try cases such as civil and criminal court (money/damage, or charged with a crime and select juries) Serving in the armed services means all men between the ages of 18 and 22 must register with the Selective Service Administration which processes draftees when a draft is called. Function of the armed forces is to protect against foreign invasion, ensure domestic peace, civilians control the military, the President, a civilian is the commander in chief, the Secretary of Defense is a civilian. congress control the military's budget.
Pontiac fought with the British and sided with the French in the French-Indian War, British raised price of goods sold to Indians, and signed the Proclamation of 1763. Britain tried to raise money to repay its debts by taxing sugar (Sugar Act), tax on printed documents (Stamp Act), tax on glass, paper, lead, and silk (Townshend Acts), and on tea to cut out American merchants (Tea Act). The reaction of colonist to the Townshend Acts was that colonists agreed not to import British goods and formed the Sons of Liberty, which was led my Patrick Henry and supported the Boston Tea Party. Britain's response to the Tea Part was the Intolerable Acts, which consisted of a soldier in every colonists home, banned town meetings and closed the port of Boston. The Quebec Act set procedures of governance of Quebec. The Committee of Correspondence was a shadow government organized by the patriots of the colonies and superseded the local governments and royal officials. Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense and argued for break away from England. Main ideas of the Declaration of Independence are basic rights on which the nation is founded, the wrongs committed by Britain, declares colonies to the US. Major battles of the American Revolution were Concord/Lexington- shot heard round the world, Bunker Hill, Long Island, Saratoga (turning point for Americans and French provide aid to Americans. war at sea, John Paul Jones was the leader and is called the father of the navy. Yorktown is where General Cornwallis surrendered on October 17, 1781, and the Treaty of Paris was signed on April 19, 1983 and ended the revolution.
Constitution divides powers between the federal government and the states. Federalism is the sharing of power between the national government and states (division of powers), federal (national) government has power to act for the nation as a whole, states have power over important local matters. Powers of federal government include making coin money, regulate trade between states and with other countries, declare war, create and maintain armed forces, make copyright and patent laws, establish postal offices and foreign policy, create federal courts and admit new states. Powers of the states include creating corporation laws, regulated trade within the state, establish and maintain schools, establish local governments, and make laws about marriage and divorce. They conduct elections and provide for public safety. Shared powers (concurrent), provide for public welfare, administer criminal justice, charter banks, raise taxes, and borrow money. Congress is the legislative branch with the purpose to make laws. House of Representatives qualifications are two year terms, 25 years of age, citizen of US for 7 years, resident of area representing. Senate qualifications are six year terms, must be 30 years of age, citizen of US for 9 years, resident of state representing. President of the executive branch, purpose to carry out the laws, qualifications must be a natural born citizen of the US, 35 years of age, resident within the US for at least 14 years. Vice-Presidents qualifications same as President. Term of office is 4 years, limited to 2 terms. Judicial branch, the purpose is to interpret laws.
Divided power between federal government and states. Federal government coins money, regulates trade and declares war. State governments regulate trade within their borders, decide who can vote in state election, have power over schools and local governments, have power not explicitly given to federal government. They share powers such as the power to build roads, administer criminal justice, provide for public welfare, charter banks, raise taxes, and borrow money. Worked out the large state plan and small state plans of Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan for equal representation and the Great Compromise fixed the problem and combined the Virginia and New Jersey Plans. The Three-fifths Compromise settled the question of counting slaves for representation. National capital was established in Washington D.C. between Maryland and Virginia. Leaders here included Ben Franklin, who was the oldest person at the Convention. George Washington was the president of the convention, Alexander Hamilton was the federalist, James Madison, secretary of convention, Edmund Randolph wrote the Virginia Plan, William Patterson, wrote the New Jersey Plan. Roger Sherman from Connecticut wrote the Great Compromise. Concept of the separation of powers, three branches of government each with its own powers. Executive carries out the laws, is commander in chief, recommend and initiate legislation, sets foreign policy and acts as chief diplomat, leads the political party that elected him to office, appoints heads of federal departments and has the power to veto legislation. The Legislative sets taxes to pay for programs and services of government, borrows money to help pay for government services and programs, regulates trade to protect and encourage American business interests, prints and coins money, establishes national postal service, creates federal courts to try cases and determine the constitutionality of actions, has the power to impeach, elects President if no candidate receives a majority in the election, proposes Constitutional amendments, approves major Presidential appointments. The Judicial uses judicial review to determine the constitutionality of an act of government, reviews decisions made by other courts, tries cases involving the violation of federal law. The system of checks and balances, executive checks on the legislative branch and on the judicial branch, the legislative branch checks on the executive and the judicial, and the judicial checks on the executive and legislative.
Acid rain is sulphur and nitrogen oxides from industrial pollution chemically combines with precipitation which is already an extremely weak solution of carbonic acid and become dangerously acidic. Eastern US and Canada are now between 4 and 4.5 pH, a very a acidity. Lakes are becoming devoid of life. 75% of the fir trees and 40% of the spruce trees were dead or damaged by 1983 in Eastern Canada. In Vermont, 50% of the trees have died. Air currents cause acid rain to cross international boundaries and cause political incidents. Desertification is caused by human activity by careless farming practices, overgrazing, or cutting trees for firewood/lumber. World-wide total area is larger than Brazil is considered to be a human-made desert. The Greenhouse Effect is caused by industrial burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) and the release of nitrous oxide, methane, and CFC. Effects of it have been that the carbon dioxide has nearly doubled in the atmosphere in this century. Income short-wave radiation from the sun penetrates carbon dioxide but carbon dioxide blocks escape of heat. Possible 2 to 4 degree warming trend in high latitudes. Potential release of huge quantities of water currently locked in glaciers and ice caps. Sea level could rise as much as 6 ft by 2100 AD and would cause devastation to low lying coastal areas and would influence rainfall, ocean currents and the wind system. Ozone damage naturally absorbs large amounts of ultraviolet radiation. Cholorfluorcarbons break up ozone molecules. 3 million square mile hole in ozone discovered in 1985 over Antarctica. Sharp world wide increase in skin cancer. Water pollution comes from wastewater, pesticides, mine tailings, liquid chemical wastes, acid rain, thermal pollution, wastes from animal and plant matter. Sewage such as human wastes, garbage, wastewater contribute to it and agricultural reasons such as animal wastes, fertilizers and pesticeds contribute to it. Spread and causes disease and spreads virus and bacteria and causes damage to life due to ingestion of chemicals and metals. Ruins recreational use of water, kills waterfowl, shellfish and other wildlife, and there is loss of oxygen in water due to overpopulation of algae and bacteria when sewage dumped in water. Control of this can be done by treating the sewage, pretreatment of industrial waste and drinking water standards.
Air pollutants are airborne gases and aerosols that occur in concentrations that threaten the well being of living organisms or disrupt the orderly functioning of the environment by primary air pollutants when they are emitted into the air and then there are the secondary pollutants formed by chemical reactions such as acid mists and smog. Sources can be natural such as fires, pollen, wind erosion, volcanic decay, and volcanic eruptions. They can also be made by humans such as motor vehicles, pulp and paper mills, iron and steel mill, oil refineries, smelters, chemical plants, fuel combustion, refuse burning, crop dusting, and cultivation. Types of air pollution can be carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, compounds of sulfur, suspended particles, indoor pollutants and noise pollution. Effects of it are on the human respiratory system such as sneezing, coughing, displaces oxygen in the blood, stress on the heart, lung disease, damage to the nervous system, and impairs heart and kidney function. Fluoride and lead effect dairy cattle and zoo animals, especially cats who clean themselves, plant sensitivity, fish, and radiation. Effects on air pollution include strong winds and unstable air increase in rate of dilution and temperature inversion which is an extremely stable air condition that enhances air pollution problems. Regions with high potential for air pollution tend to have topographic relief, hills and mountains. Effects on weather and climate include urban air pollutants affecting precipitation, cloudiness, fog development, alter the local radiation balance and intensify the greenhouse effect.
Comparative advantage and disadvantages of trade is the ability of a party to produce a particular good or service at a lower marginal and opportunity cost over another and the country should specialize in exporting and producing products it has a relative, or comparative, advantage in when compared to other nations, and it should import those products. Absolute advantage is where a country should specialize in exporting and producing products it has a relative, or comparative, advantage in when compared to other nations, and it should import those products, where labor is the only input. Absolute disadvantage is when a country making all goods will be specializing in the production of goods that use an inferior technology to that used in the country with an absolute advantage. New products available is a good sign that international trade is working with the present market. International trade promotes and improves economic well being of all parties and promotes self sufficiency. It also reduces hatred, prejudices and conflict, as economics know no boundaries. International currency fluctuations depends on international conditions and situations, IMF and international bankers influence debtor countries and has a widespread effect and impact on global society. Floating exchange rates abolished the gold standard because values changed constantly and gives you the true value of the exchange rate. Fixed exchange rates on the other hand is used in a few countries that practice command economics and have an artificial value and will eventually collapse. Effects of international financial conditions on the US economy include the balance of payment, the value of the dollar for imports and export, long term contracts for business, travel conditions, how much foreign investors are willing to invest in the US and come to the US, and how American investors are willing to invest or travel to other countries. The US is the most dependent country in the world.
This field includes pharmacology such as the development of penicillin, antibiotics, and vaccines. Public health began in 1922 when insulin was discovered by Banting and Best. In 1928, Griffith discovered bacterial transformation in pneumonia, and in 1945 Alexander Fleming won the Nobel Prize for medicine in discovering penicillin. Mental health began when Freud's psychoanalysis influenced American mental health movements. mental health clinics began opening such as Chestnut Lodge Hospital, Stockbridge Institute formed, and the Menninger Clinic for the mentally ill, and school began opening counseling centers for students in the 1920s. Research began over proteins thought to be carriers of genetic information, the Iron lung was developed for polio patients in 1928, electron microscope developed in the 1930s. Barbara McClintock discovered jumping genes in 1931, Phenobarbital was developed for the treatment of seizures, and advances in anesthesia for safer surgery were developed. Sanitation was vastly improved after WWII with the outcome of the Holocaust. Nutrition was a focus after WWI with health programs being developed in schools and the development of five basic food groups helped people learn how to eat properly. FDA recommended a certain number of nutrients to be eaten per day. Artificial organs and joints were developed such as artificial heart, larynx, hearing aids, synthetic arteries, artificial skin, synthetic, plastic, and metal joint replacements, prosthetics, and kidney dialysis. Organ transplant research took place at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. Cyclosporine was invented to make acceptance of donor organs possible and then the Japanese developed FK-506 which was better than the former. Genetic engineering and research began with artificial insemination, cloning, in vitro fertilization, species hybridization, animal husbandry, and horticulture. Research altered codes to eliminate disease, produce new material, human genes inserted into bacteria produces insulin, and more research into genetic codes to eliminate diabetes and other diseases. Machines include x-ray technology, cat scans, ionizing radiation, and MRIs.