TEXES History 8-12 (Exact same World and US Histories as Social Studies 7-12)
Terms in this set (467)
Geographic Features Needed to Establish Civilizations
Nearness to fresh water, fertile land and adequate rainfall, a hospitable climate, close or on transportation routes, and is in a defensible position are all necessary components for civilization. Water is necessary to sustain any kind of life, and plants are required to sustain any kind of life around the land, and in order for the plants to prosper, the land must be fertile. In order for plants to grow well, the climate must be hospitable to sustain any kind of life. Trade needs to be established with other societies in order for the society in question to grow. Most societies have enemies, and in order to protect the society from invader, the land must have natural or political barriers to keep them out.
Characteristics of Established Civilizations
Government, division of labor, learned persons, capital goods, towns, transportation structures, military, efficient food production, defined culture, and spatial exchange.
Monotheism vs. Polytheism
The belief in one deity over multiple deities. Monotheism is characteristic of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. Polytheism is characteristic of Hinduism, Shintoism, and Wicca.
These are monotheistic faiths emphasizing and tracing their common origin to Abraham or recognizing a spiritual tradtion identified with him. These include Judaism, Christianity, or Islam.
Appeared around 2200 BC and developed ethical monotheism. There were two Jewish kingdoms at Israel and Judea. The primary prophet is Moses.
Appeared around 30 AD and rose out of Judaism. Spread to Europe during the Holy Roman Empire where it became the religion of the empire. It is the second largest religion in the world today. The primary prophet is Jesus.
Appeared around 650 AD and is an extension of Judaism and Christianity. Muslim Empire eventually grew out of the Arabian Peninsula and went all the way around the Mediterranean at its height in 1000 AD. The primary prophet is Muhammad.
Culture and diversity is enabled by this. Its role is chiefly to facilitate communication and to make specific and detailed thought possible. Legacies from one generation to another give identity and pride with a sense of belonging to a community or even a nation that maintains a distinct culture and is how people interact in many ways and is how legacies are passed down.
Most are associated with pre-historic societies. Has been used to make a wide variety of different tools throughout history, including arrow heads, spear points, etc. Can be made of ground or chipped stone. They enabled pre-historic societies to hunt, plant, and conduct day to day life. They used to make clothing, furniture, and to put food on the table and to have the food you need to cook the food and therefore need the means to do so.
Consists of irrigation (application of water to land or soil) and domesticated animals such as cow and oxen to help harvest. Was key to the development of sedentary human civilization.
One of the main components of transportation and is one of the six simple machines. First appeared around the mid-4th millennium BC and was developed to help with the agricultural demands and to transport people from one place to another.
Representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols. Ancient cultures needed a reliable means for transmitting information, keeping records, and other activities.
Abstract study of topics encompassing quantity, structure, space, change, and has no generally accepted definition. Predates writing, and each society had their own numeral system. Study of it began with the Ancient Greeks between 600-300 BC.
Process of working with bronze and iron to create individual parts, assemblies, or large scale structures. Can include ships, bridges, mechanical parts, jewelry and needs several types of tools. Earliest dated evidence of this comes from 5000-4000 BC.
Developed one of the first forms of practical mathematics. This involved being able to count up to one million. They developed the concepts of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, in addition to fractions. They also developed methods to calculate the area of rectangles and triangles and the volume of pyramids and cylinders. Medicine involved setting bones using wood splints and cushioned with linen. They had a calendar that was 365 days long and was divided into 12 months of thirty day with five extra days at the end of the year.
Their math was very advanced and rigorous. Pythagoreous developed his theorem to find the area of a right triangle. Euclid wrote his book Elements about the structure of math and geometry. Archimedes invented the water screw, discovered pi, and proved specific gravity when he place a large object in water and how it displaced it. First society to be able to calculate the circumference of the earth. Medicine was developed by Hippocrates, who is considered the father of medicine and was a lasting influence on Islamic and medieval European medicine.
Galen was one of the most prominent Romans. He also contributed greatly to anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology and neurology. Architecture and engineering in Rome is famous for advanced accomplishments. They mastered the art of building arches into bridges, aqueducts and producing buildings with multiple stories. Roads were very common at the time of the ancient Romans and were vital to the Roman state. Built amphitheaters which contained many arches and were used for large oratories or plays. Most architecture commonly used was cement and concrete.
Mathematics emerged in here around 1200 BC and was composed in Sanskrit. Aryabhata was the first in line of great mathematical astronomers and worked on the approximation of the year. He also discovered the length of the year, which he calculated by using the stars. Discovered that earth rotates on an axis and advocated an astronomical model that was based on a heliocentric model. Explained eclipses in terms of shadows cast by and falling on earth. The concept of zero is implicit in Aryabhata's system as a place holder for powers of 10. Decimals were first recorded here and are known as the nine signs.
Began with the Xia dynasty around 2010 BC. Medicine began in the Shang dynasty with herbal cures, acupuncture, massage, exercise and dietary therapy. The Chinese also discovered the pulse and how to measure it, in addition to studying balance. Balance is known as yin and yang, or having good health in entire body. Practiced acupuncture as being a method to relieve the body of pain and to treat/prevent disease. Technology included the abacus, lanterns, compass, gunpowder, paper, and printing. The Tang dynasty was a time of great innovation. Saddles and stirrups were developed around 200 BC, and the earliest representation of them was found to date to 320 CE in a Jin dynasty tomb. The wheelbarrow dates to 118 AD from the Han dynasty. Paper is considered one of the great inventions of China and has been traced to 105 CE during the Han dynasty. Porcelain is one of China's great inventions and was developed in the Shang dynasty and is derived from pottery.
Empire began around 610 with Muhammad receiving visions and his crowd of followers growing. City states began appearing around 632. Medicine and free hospitals began developing around the Islamic Golden Age. Important advances in human anatomy were made. The few doctors also advanced knowledge of vision and skeletal knowledge, as well as the use of plants as remedy. Surgical procedures were practice for the first time and established the free hospitals for the needy and poor. There was a rapid expansion during the 7th century and urbanization and maritime routes became increasingly popular. Astrolabe was used by navigators to help locate and predict positions of the sun, moon, and stars. They also used the compass starting in 1232 in order to direct transportation. The sail lateen was adopted from the Romans after Muslim conquests.
Germanic Kingdoms and Charlemagne
The German kingdoms were united under Charlemagne before 800. He added the Lombards, Saxons, French, Avars, and Moors to his kingdom. United most of Europe in this way and expanded Christianity. Crowned Roman Emperor in 800 AD and restored much of the unity of the old Roman Empire and developed modern Europe.
Was comprised of manors and towns and was the organizing principle of the rural economy. Flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Derived from holding of land in exchange for service or labor and revolves around the lords of the manors or towns, vassals, and fiefs. The Lord is supported economically from his own direct landholding. Towns came to being with large amounts of serfs working on manors. They eventually undermined feudalism as soon as they appeared, and helped many serfs become free and learn a trade.
Series of religious wars blessed by Pope Urban II and the Catholic Church with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places around Jerusalem. Main crusades occurred 1095-1291 against Muslims in the Levant. The later crusades failed. Resulted in the weakening of the Byzantine Empire.
Revival of Trade and Growth in Towns
Resurgence of trade was a prime cause in the revival of towns and their population growth. Towns provided greater markets and by producing goods for merchants to sell. Geographical features such as rivers helped transport commerce and grow towns.
Rise of European Nations
England rose to prominence once William the Conqueror successfully invaded England from France and became King of England. He created the 'Small Council' which evolved into Parliament. Henry II expanded England's territory to include western France and established the judicial system. The Magna Carta remains that cornerstone of English law and their constitution. In France, Louis IX reigned 1226-70 and was known for his Christian faith. He established and maintained the French justice system. He commissioned the Establishment which was a set of ordinance and customs designed to guide judges. He also led several Crusades. France beat England in Hundred Years War and England lost its power on the continent.
Economy was among the most advanced in Europe and Mediterranean for many centuries. Trade was the biggest foundation of their economics. All the power in the empire was centered on Constantinople, which flourished and became the largest and wealthiest city in Europe. Had a centralized government. The senate and civil administration really didn't have any kind of power next to the emperor. The most popular trade route was the Silk Road which reached its peak during the empire. The art of the empire glorified Christianity. Forms were spread by trade and conquest to Italy and Sicily and influenced on Renaissance art. Classical antiquity was cultivated in the empire, especially in science. Cultivated literature, philosophy, and law within classical antiquity. Byzantine Law formed after Roman Law and politics.
Started in 622 in Muhammad and by 750 they had reached Spain. Centered in Cairo and Baghdad. Cairo lasted as a predominant center from 909-1171. Abbasid lasted until 1543. Reached its height in 1000 AD with the Abbasid Caliphate. They systematized the study of algebra and began to consider its relationship with geometry. Most developments in astronomy made during the Golden Age from the 8th-15th centuries. Created azimuth, alhidades, sundials, quadrants. Had a great concern for geography, originated with their religion. Far flung empire enabled scholars and explorers to compile large amounts of geographical and climactic information and produced very accurate maps. Religious, political, and military leader in Muhammed who started the entire empire. Religious works were the Quran, the Hadith, the Five Pillars of Faith.
Known as the land between the rivers and corresponds to modern day Iraq. Reigned from 3100 BC to 539 BC. Tigres River and Euphrates River and are the two most important rivers in W. Asia. Mesopotamia is located between the two rivers. The Sumerians were an ancient civilization and historical region in southern Mesopotamia and settled between the 4500-4000 BC by non-Semitic people. Developed one of the first forms of writing. The Babylonians emerged as an independent state in 1894 BC. Created an empire out of territories of former Akkadian empire.
Civilization of NE Africa. Coalesced around 3150 BC and ended around 332 BC when Egypt fell under Greek rule. Nile River is the basis of the entire society and is the longest river in the world. Most of the historical and cultural sites of the society lay along the riverbanks. The Sahara desert which constitutes most of Egypt's territory and is sparsely inhabited. Divided into two regions, the north and south and the two were united in 3000 BC. The Old Kingdom was a name given in the year 3rd BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak. Middle Kingdom was a period in history from 2055 BC to 1650 BC. The New Kingdom referred to the Egyptian Empire covers the Eighteenth-Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. Cleopatra was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, a family of Greek origin that ruled after Alexander the Great's death. Giza Pyramids are on the Giza plateau contains three pyramid complexes in which the Great Sphinx is located
Ancient Greek Civilization
All of Greece sits on a peninsula. This allowed Greeks to travel all over the Mediterranean region. The Interior plain was very sunny and dry and most plain were ringed by mountains. The Athenian Plain is one of the most fertile plains in the country. The rugged coastline ended up being of great strategic importance because it offered citizens protection from foreign invaders.
Early Ancient Greeks
The Minoans were a Bronze Age civilization that arose on the island of Crete and came to dominate the Agean Sea. Settlement between the 8th and 7th millennia BC. The Myceneans was another Bronze Age civilization that lasted from 1900-1100 BC. They took over the Minoans around 1400 BC.
Development of Ancient Greece
Athens was the most powerful city state for the arts, learning, and philosophy. Home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum and was the cradle of Western Civilization. Defeated by Sparta in the Peloponnesian War. Sparta was a prominent city state in ancient Greece and emerged as a political entity around the 10th century and became dominant in 650 BC. Overall leader in Greco-Persian War. Domination ended in the Battle of Lectura in 371 BC when Thebes won the battle. The Athenian democracy was developed around 550 BC. Only 20% of the population was eligible to vote. Assembly meetings were the central events of democracy. Spartan totalitarianism was where two kings ruled militaristically. Kings were just figureheads, only those who had gone through.
Greeks and War
Greco-Persian war was also called the Persian War. Lasted from 499-49 BC. Persian empire was trying to conquer the Greeks by absorbing the Greek colonies. Ended with Peace of Callias in 449. Peloponnesian War was fought between Athens and Sparta from 431-404 BC. Divided into three phases Ended in 404 when the Spartans crushed the Athenian fleet and they surrendered the following year.
Greek Contributions to Civilization
Homer was the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey and is revered as the greatest of the Greek poets and is described as the teacher of Greece. Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian and lived from 484-25 and is called the Father of History. Was the first to test accuracy to a certain extent and arranged them in a constructed narrative and wrote The Histories. Thuycydides was a Greek historian and Athenian general and has been dubbed father of scientific history because of his strict standards of evidence gathering and analysis. Also father of political realism. Wall painting goes back to the Minoans and Mycenaeans and the most well known is the elaborate frescoe of the Grave of Phillipp. Mosaics were copied or adapted paintings that often depicted mythological subjects. Scuplture was painted in strong and bright colors. Limited to clothes and hair. Math was developed in the 7th century BC to 4th AD. Use of generalized mathematical theories and proofs is key difference between Greek math and others. Thales, Pythagoras are the most highly regarded. Science is based on logical thinking and mathematics, Miletus is regarded as being the father of science. Based on everyday life. Philosophy arose in the 700 BC and dealt with political, philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology, logic, and biology. Religion consisted of gods and goddesses. Based on polytheism, heriarchies of deities. Zeus had power over all others.
Alexander the Great and Hellenism
King of Macedon. Lived 356-323 BC. Tutored by Aristotle until 16 years of age. By 30 had created one of the largest empires of ancient world. Succeeded Father in 336 after he was assassinated. His conquests after lead to great cultural diffusion from India, Babylon, Persia, and Asia Minor. Hellenism occurred between Alexander the Great and emergence of ancient Rome. Greek cultural influence and power at zenith in Europe and Asia. Experienced prosperity and progress in the arts, literature, math, science and it spread throughout the Mediterranean.
Tiber River Encouraged Settlement
Third longest river in Italy. Rome founded on its banks in 753 BC. Critically important to trade and commerce and became key naval base at Ostia during the Punic Wars of the 3rd century. Became the most important port of Ancient Italy.
Roman city state was influenced by Greek civilization and was ruled by kings and retained title as both supreme military and religious authority. Rome became a republic at the end of the 6th century BC. Power concentrated in hands of patricians, aristocratic, and wealthy land owners. Forum became focus of political life. Lasted 500 years, destabilized through civil wars.
Post Republican period characterized by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean in Europe, Africa, and Asia. First two centuries were known as the Pax Romana and reached greatest expanse from 98-117 AD. Christianity became the prime religion of the empire. Defeated the Phoenicians during the Battle of Carthage during 146 BC when the city was completely destroyed. Grew into a Mediterranean power through Julius Caeser. Roman general, statesman, consul and led to demise of the Roman Republic and rise of Roman Empire. Carried out conquest of Gaul completed in 51 BC. His son known as Augustus was the one who founded the Roman Empire and the first emperor ruled from 27 BC to 14 AD. Held supreme military command and initiated the Pax Romana in which imperial expansion thrived with most of modern day Europe under his control.
Philosophy began in 200 BC and writing occurred by 50 BC. First philosophers were Lucretius, Cicero, and Seneca. most important branch was stoicism, originated in Hellenistic Greece. Roman law was comprised from the Twelve Tables and Corpus Juris Civilis. Legal system applied in most of Europe until the 18th century. Basis of legal practice in western Europe and their colonies. American and English common law influenced. Roman engineering improved roads, built aqueducts, bridges and dams and perfect the arch. Roman architecture adopted aspects of Greek architecture and perfected arches and domes. Roman sculpture was influenced by the art of Greece largely borrowed ideas and themes from them. Perfected their techniques. Later Christianity became main focus of sculpture. Roman art includes painting, sculpture, and mosaic. Literature included Cicero, Virgil and Plutarch, Greek literature was a vast influence. Latin was the official language. Cicero wrote On the Republic and On the Laws. Known orator and philosopher. Roman astronomy was discovered by Ptolemy who wrote Planetary Hypotheses. Medicine was founded by Galen who contributed most to pharmacology. Roman military strategy was intertwined with the Roman state much more closely than any modern European nation. Roman state existed as a means to solely to support and finance the roman military.
Decline of Rome
Several civil wars especially between 193-394 AD. Towards the end of the Empire. Eventually lead to total collapse and disintegration of Western Empire. Eventually led to total collapse and disintegration of Western Empire. Many areas of the Roman empire became their own entities with regional governors taking power for themselves caused infighting.
The Indus River Valley is a major river that helped establish major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization around 3300 BC. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa around 2600 but both were abandoned by 1900 BC. Religion was based on animism and developed their own written language. They developed an agricultural society and everything they produced was traded and developed industry. Bronze and copper work were very popular. Aryans invaded Indus Valley about 1500 BC and correlates to decline of Harrapan Culture and went from semi-nomadic life to settled agriculture and handicrafts. Vedic forms of belief are precursor to modern Hinduism. Secret knowledge is acquired by sitting near the master. Basis for Hinduism. 1500-1000 BC called Vedic Age. The Epic Age was set from 1000 BC to 500 BC. Four societal castes were created, the Brahman, Kshatriyas, Vaishas, and Shudras. Revival in Hinduism as Buddhism began to decline. Buddhism held the four noble truths and the eightfold path. The Golden Age of the Guptas was under the Maurya Empire was founded by Chandragupta about 322 BC. Emperor Asoka converted to Buddhism, and literature, art, architecture, mathematics and medicine were produced at this time.
The Yangtze River supported life along its banks well because of its location, its length, and the southeastern subtropical climate. This is where the first empires started. The Himalayas and the Gobi Desert on the other hand encouraged isolation. Chinese Civilization evolved through the changing dynasties and emphasis on the arts. The Shang Dynasty was the first dynasty and began around 1500 BC and lasted until 1000 BC. The created kaolin pottery, bronze castings, calligraphy, the lunar calendar and created animism and practiced ancestor worship. Zhou, Quin, and Han dynasties all had strong central governments, improved agriculture, opened the silk trade, and during this time The Five Classics were written, and astronomers calculated the exact length of the solar year. Philosophy such as naturalism, Confucianism, Legalism, Daoism, and Buddhism came into being. The Silk Road became a major trading route between the East and Europe at this time. Genghis Khan came to power and China came under Ottoman rule for a time.
The Mekong River Valley encouraged settlement in the area. Hinduism and Buddhism were encouraged and flourished. The growing of rice flourished and allowed the economy to boom.
Buddhism was the largest contribution. The Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Plan allowed Buddhism to penetrate society. Hinduism was also encouraged, but not as much. Reincarnation and vegetarianism were two aspects that a Hindu must follow in order to achieve nirvana. They also believed certain animals were sacred and there was a caste system. The dynasties over here contributed a seasonal calendar built around irrigation systems.
The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties were based in this area of China. They built the Grand Canal, prefect gunpowder, invented printing, and built the first large cities. The Mongols, led by Ghengis Khan conquered China and established the Yuan Dynasty. Increased contact with Europeans, improved the communication system, and established a strong central government. Japanese Feudalsim had a conflicting power base. There was a strong central government, but there were military controlled local areas with warrior/landlord Samurais and a strict code of Bushido. The Shogun was created in the late 1100s. He was the chief officer of the Emperor and was an agent of powerful families who ruled in the emperors name.
Ancient Greece was a democracy. The word is derived from the roots, demos and kratis. Believed that the power was pure and direct, should be a city states and was ruled by police, politics, and policy. Laws were enacted starting in 621 BC with the Code of Laws. In 594 BC, the council abolished enslavement for debtor citizens to vote and court of appeals established. From 560-527 BC, the end of landowner requirement to vote and the divided estate among peasants struggle went on. From 510-506 BC the class division had been abolished and the assembly membership council was broadened to 500 people. 461 BC-429 BC offices were allowed to all citizen, office holders paid. Ancient Rome was a republic with the voters electing leader. Three branches of government with the assembly of centuries, assembly of the tribes, and the senate. Established the separation of powers with checks and balances. The powers of the censor and consul were established. The power of veto, tribune, dictator, and the judges were established and citizenship requirements were established.
Before 1500 people lived in small tribes and villages and were herders and farmers that were ruled by chiefs. The societies were aged related and sex related. There was a strong role of women. Empires before 1500 ran south of Egypt along the Red Sea such as Cush and Axum. There were city states on the East African Coast such as Mogadishu and Malindi. In South Central Africa there was a great gold mining empire. Great Zimbabwe is still standing and is the best example of what a society would look like. There were also the empires in West Africa such as Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and Nok.
In Mexico, the Olmecs and Toltecs were the first civilizations. The Aztecs were the first great civilization and invaded about 1200 AD. They were the first to practice metal working. They also practiced weaving and pottery, but were especially known for their elaborate calendar and math systems. In Peru the Incas reached their height about 1400 and lived in the Andes and along the west coast of South America. In Mexico and Guatemala the Mayans built large pyramid temples and vast cities, there are some descendants still there.
Focused on the study of humanities, which consists of grammar, rhetoric, history, and poetry. It is the revival of interest in Greek and Roman culture. Most scholars retranslated Greek and Roman works from Arabic. early Christian writings were studied. The arts focused on the human form through painting and sculpture. Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael and Giotto were the most famous artists of this time. Petrarch, Machiavelli, and Shakespeare are the most well known authors of this time. It was also a time of great scientific precedence with the invention of the barometer, microscope, thermometer, and the scientific method. Famous scientists included da Vinci, Copernicus, Galileo, Gutenberg, Kepler, Leibniz, van Leeuwenhoek, Hooke, Boyle, and Priestley and Lavoisier. Their contributions include the heliocentric theory, proved earth rotates on axis, invented the printing press, discovered elliptical orbit of planets, created calculus, discovered bacteria, discovered cells, father of Modern chemistry, and discovered oxygen. Philosophers and their works include Descartes who wrote Discourse on Method and Newtn who wrote Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.
Started under Martin Luther who criticized the Catholic Church for corruption and published his 95 Theses in protest he translated the Bible into vernacular German for his followers, Lutherans. John Calvin was a French reformer who worked in Switzerland and founded the Presbyterian church. The counter-reformation started with the Catholic Church reviving and going through a series of reforms. Protestant heretics were pursued and punished. New religious orders such as the Jesuits formed.
Effect of Renaissance
Reformation, and Counter-Reformation,Science and the need to prove previous thoughts and concepts grew. Magical explanations were replaced with rational theories. Catholic doctrine was redefined and Protestantism continued to grow.
Originally there were five separate kingdoms in Spain. Portugal, Castile-Leon, Navvare, and Aragon were all Christian, but Granada was Muslim. With the Marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand, Castile-Leon and Aragon formed one combined kingdom. They captured Granada from the Muslims in 1492. Castile Leon and Aragon united with Navarre and Granada formally around 1500. Jews and Muslims were evicted from the new country unless they were willing to convert to Christianity.
Napoleon I controlled Prussia and the Germans were forced to serve in French army of occupation and abolished the Roman Empire. Created the Confederation of the Rhine which split German northern states off from southern states controlled by Austria. Napoleon I wanted a huge French Empire. William I King of Prussia named Otto von Bismark in control of the Prussian Parliament. Prussia allied with Bavaria and other more southerly German states. Bismark proved war with France by releasing Ems Dispatch. Spain offered Prince Leopold the crown of Spain and France said no to German rulers on either side of France and Napoleon III declared war on July 19, 1870. The Franco-Prussian War was declared a Prussian victory on January 18, 1871. Victory party was held at Versailles and Germany was declared unified. Berlin became the capital, William I installed as Kaiser of United Germany. France was forced to give Alsace-Lorraine to Germany and pay war reparations. Germany created a constitutional monarchy with twenty-five German 'states' that were united in a federal government and the Kaiser ruled with Parliament.
Long term Effects of German Unification
Germany and France developed a deep hatred for each other leading to future conflicts in WWI and WWII. Germany's military became much stronger and became a force to contend with in a very short amount of time.
In 1831 Giuseppe Mazzini founded the Young Italy Movement and worked towards the creation of an Italian republic. In 1852 the Count Camille de Carvour was the chief Minister of Sardinia. He wanted to unite Italy under the leadership of Sardinia. Giuseppe Garibaldi was active in Mazinni's Young Italy movement. Austria only considered Italy a geographic idea and not a country. In 1859 they were pushed into war with Sardinia by Count Cavour. In 1860 Garibaldi invaded Sicily. Unification occurred when Sardinia got Lombardy from a skirmish with Austria. In 1860, Sicily and Papal States, Parma, Moderna, and Lucca were added to Italy. In 1861 the vote for national unity under the leadership of King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia and Italy was unified as a constitutional monarchy.
Cause of Increased Exploration and Discovery
Technological advances were seen in mapmaking and better navigational instruments. Financial support from national governments improved. Most countries wanted to establish colonies for power and prestige, exploit colonies for raw materials and as a market for goods. Mercantilism derived from a desire for gold and for favorable trade status with other nations. Overcrowded conditions in the large European cities and there was a great desire for religious freedom.
Improvements in Sailing
The design of caravels underwent changes over the years, but a typical caravel of the late 15th century may be described as a broad-beamed vessel of 50 or 60 tons burden; some were as large as 160 tons. About 75 feet (23 m) long, the typical caravel had two or three pole masts, lateen-rigged (i.e., with triangular sails). Later versions, the redonda, replaced the main lateen sail which required a large crew by a square sail which also made for more speed when running offshore. Caravels were usually built with a double tower at the stern (the aftercastle, or sterncastle) and a single tower (or none) in the bow (the forecastle). Top speed for a caravel was about 8 knots; the average was 4 knots for 90-100 miles in a day. In the north, the rudder had replaced the side oar for steering. In the Mediterranean, lateen sails working as windfoils allowed sailing upwind. Building techniques improved to allow the construction of larger crafts with multiple masts. The magnetic compass consists of a magnetized pointer (usually marked on the North end) free to align itself with Earth's magnetic field. A compass is any magnetically sensitive device capable of indicating the direction of the magnetic north of a planet's magnetosphere. The face of the compass generally highlights the cardinal points of north, south, east and west. The first known metal astrolabe in Western Europe is the Destombes astrolabe made from brass in tenth-century Catalonia. Metal astrolabes improved on the accuracy of their wooden precursors.
Portuguese Exploration to India
Portuguese explorer Prince Henry, known as the Navigator, was the first European to methodically explore Africa and the oceanic route to the Indies. From his residence in the Algarve region of southern Portugal, he directed successive expeditions to circumnavigate Africa and reach India. In 1420, Henry sent an expedition to secure the uninhabited but strategic island of Madeira. In 1425, he tried to secure the Canary Islands as well, but these were already under firm Castilian control. In 1431, another Portuguese expedition reached and annexed the Azores. It was only on the return voyage that he actually discovered the Cape of Good Hope, in May 1488. Dias returned to Lisbon in December of that year, after an absence of sixteen months.The discovery of the passage around southern Africa was significant because, for the first time, Europeans realized they could trade directly with India and the other parts of Asia, bypassing the overland route through the Middle East, with its expensive middlemen. The official report of the expedition has been lost. the first European to reach India through sea. This discovery was very significant and paved the way for the Portuguese to establish a long lasting colonial empire in Asia. The route meant that the Portuguese wouldn't need to cross the highly disputed Mediterranean nor the dangerous Arabia, and that the whole voyage would be made by sea. After decades of sailors trying to reach India with thousands of lives and dozens of vessels lost in shipwrecks and attacks, Gama landed in Calicut on the 20 May 1498. Reaching the legendary Indian spice routes unopposed helped the Portuguese Empireimprove its economy that, until Gama, was mainly based on trades along the Northern and coastal West Africa. These spices were mostly pepper and cinnamon at first, but soon included other products, all new to Europe which lead to a commercial monopoly for several decades. Gama headed two of the armadas destined for India, the first and the fourth, the biggest armada, only four years after his arrival from the first one. For his contributions he was named in 1524 as the Governor of India, under the title of Viceroy, and given the newly created County of Vidigueira in 1519.
Columbus and the Americas
On the evening of 3 August 1492, Columbus departed from Palos de la Frontera with three ships: a larger carrack, the Santa María ex-Gallega("Galician"), and two smaller caravels, the Pinta ("Painted") and the Santa Clara, nicknamed the Niña (lit. "Girl") after her owner Juan Niño of Moguer. he indigenous people he encountered, the Lucayan, Taíno, or Arawak, were peaceful and friendly. He remarked that their lack of modern weaponry and even metal-forged swords or pikes was a tactical vulnerability, writing, "I could conquer the whole of them with 50 men, and govern them as I pleased. Columbus also explored the northeast coast of Cuba, where he landed on 28 October. On 22 November, Martín Alonso Pinzón took the Pinta on an unauthorized expedition in search of an island called "Babeque" or "Baneque", which the natives had told him was rich in gold. Columbus, for his part, continued to the northern coast of Hispaniola, where he landed on 5 December.There, the Santa María ran aground on Christmas Day 1492 and had to be abandoned. Columbus was received by the native cacique Guacanagari, who gave him permission to leave some of his men behind. Columbus left 39 men, including Luis de Torres, the Converso interpreter, who spoke Hebrew and Arabic, and founded the settlement of La Navidad at the site of present-day Môle-Saint-Nicolas, Haiti. He kept sailing along the northern coast of Hispaniola with a single ship, until he encountered Pinzón and thePinta on 6 January.
Spain and Portugal Divide Up New World
The Treaty of Tordesillas on 7 June 1494, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Crown of Portugal and Crown of Castile (Spain) along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands (off the west coast of Africa). This line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde Islands (already Portuguese) and the islands discovered by Christopher Columbus on his first voyage (claimed for Spain), named in the treaty as Cuba and Hispaniola.The lands to the east would belong to Portugal and the lands to the west to Spain. The Pope drew settlement line of 45 degrees west.
Areas Explored by Balboa and Magellan
Both represented Spain and were trying to find a Western route to Asia from the Americas. Balboa discovered the South Sea (Pacific ocean) and started the conquest of it by going through the Isthmus of Panama. Became the first expedition to sail from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific Ocean (then named "peaceful sea" by Magellan; the passage being made via the Strait of Magellan), and the first to cross the Pacific. His expedition completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth, although Magellan himself did not complete the entire voyage, being killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines.Died on April 27, 1521
Spanish Empire in the New World
Conquered the Aztec empire in Mexico and Central America. The visit coincided with an Aztec prophecy. Arrived in 1520, conquered the Aztecs by 1521. New diseases such as small pox, measles, influenza ravaged the Aztecs. Francisco Coronado visited the Southwestern United States, particularly New Mexico, hoped to conquer the mythical Seven Cities of Gold. Explored the Colorado River Valley. Hernando de Soto was the first European to have crossed the Mississippi River. Ranged throughout the southeastern United States searching for gold, silver and a passage to China. De Soto died in 1542 on the banks of the Mississippi River in Arkansas or Louisiana. Explored Peru
Explorers Searched for Northwest Passage
John Cabot was the first European since the Vikingsto explore the mainland of North America and the first to search for the Northwest Passage. Jacques Cartier was a French explorer who discovered Canada and settled the first town at Quebec and Montreal. Felt that the St. Lawrence River was the passage to China, was the Northwest passage.
The Southwest African coast was primarily focused on Angola. Angola was a primary colony from the 16th century to 1975. Primarily focused along the coast. European traders would export manufactured goods to the coast of Africa where they would be exchanged for slaves. Within thePortuguese Empire, most black African slaves were traded to Portuguese merchants who bought them to sell as cheap labour for use on Brazilian agricultural plantations. This trade would last until the first half of the 19th century. Mozambique had several Portuguese fortresses on the coast. Mozambique became a strategic port for them. Mozambique large port in which the slave trade was involved in with the Arabs. Colonized in 1505, rebelled in 1964. Vasco de Gama reached India by 1498. The Portuguese had a trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean. Large trading ports in India. The English gradually replaced the Portuguese having control over India. Captured Ceylon in 1558, initially had a monopoly on the spice trade. Founded a port at Columbo and extended their control over the costal areas. Lost control by 1656 to the Dutch. Portuguese landed in Brazil around 1500 and slowly expanded southeast and had Rio de Janiero by 1567, conquered British and Dutch strongholds within the Amazon rainforest.
Had most of the west coast of South America, particularly in Peru, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Chile. All had rebelled by the middle of the 19th century. Canary Islands received after war with the Portuguese in 1479. Conquest of the Canary Islands occurred in 1402.Canary Islands still a claim of Spain. Morocco and Rio de Oro have had vast Spanish influence starting in the 16th century, and established colonies in Morocco and had several enclaves. Spain lost authority in 1957. Rio de Oro is one of the two territories that formed the Spanish province of Spanish Sahara after 1969; it was originally taken as a Spanish colonial possession in the late 19th century. Its name seems to come from an east-west river which was supposed to have run through it formerly. The river was thought to have largely dried out - a wadi, as the name indicates - or have disappeared underground.
Congo was a colony from 1908-1960.
Had holdings in Egypt, Sudan, Nigeria, the Gold Coast, Kenya, Uganda, Somalia, South Africa, Rhodesia, India, Burma, Pakistan, Malaysia, New Guinea, Belize, Australia, and New Zealand. By 1922 the British Empire held sway over about 458 million people, one-fifth of the world's population at the time.The empire covered more than 33,700,000 km (13,012,000 sq mi), almost a quarter of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power it was often said that "the sun never sets on the British Empire" because its span across the globe ensured that the sun was always shining on at least one of its numerous territories. The growth of Germany and the United States eroded Britain's economic lead by the end of the 19th century. Subsequent military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied heavily upon its empire. The conflict placed enormous financial and population strain on Britain, and although the empire achieved its largest territorial extent immediately after the war, it was no longer a peerless industrial or military power. The Second World War saw Britain's colonies in South-East Asia occupied by Japan, which damaged British prestige and accelerated the decline of the empire, despite the eventual victory of Britain and its allies. India, Britain's most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence two years after the end of the war.
French Indochina came to be around 1885. France obtained control over northern Vietnam following its victory over China in the Sino-French war (1884-1885). French Indochina was formed in October 1887 from Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina (which together form modern Vietnam) and the Kingdom of Cambodia; Laos was added after theFranco-Siamese War in 1893. The federation lasted until 1954. In the four protectorates, the French formally left the local rulers in power, who were the Emperors of Vietnam,Kings of Cambodia, and Kings of Luang Prabang, but in fact gathered all powers in their hands, the local rulers acting only as figureheads. French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858 and by the mid-1880s they had established a firm grip over the northern region. From 1885 to 1895, Phan Đình Phùng led a rebellion against the colonizing power. Nationalist sentiments intensified in Vietnam, especially during and after World War I, but all the uprisings and tentative efforts failed to obtain any concessions from the French overseers. French West Africa was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Upper Volta (nowBurkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger. The capital of the federation was Dakar. The federation existed from 1895 until 1960. France invaded Madagascar in 1883 in what became known as the first Franco-Hova War. At the end of the war, Madagascar ceded the northern port town of Antsiranana (Diego Suarez) to France and paid 560,000 francs to Lambert's heirs. In 1890, the British accepted the full formal imposition of a French protectorate on the island, but French authority was not acknowledged by the government of Madagascar. To force capitulation, the French bombarded and occupied the harbor of Toamasina on the east coast, and Mahajanga on the west coast, in December 1894 and January 1895 respectively. A French military flying column then marched toward Antananarivo, losing many men to malaria and other diseases. Reinforcements came from Algeria andSub-Saharan Africa. Upon reaching the city in September 1895, the column bombarded the royal palace with heavy artillery, causing heavy casualties and leading Queen Ranavalona III to surrender. France annexed Madagascar in 1896 and declared the island a colony the following year. All focused on trade to generate economic prosperity.
Consisted of Togo, Cameroon, Tanzania, Namibia, Northeast new Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago Islands. Formed in the late 19th century. Although most of Germany's African and Pacific colonies were occupied by the Empire's enemies in the first weeks of World War I, the German colonial empire officially ended with the effective date of theTreaty of Versailles on 10 January 1920 after its defeat in the war. Colonies viewed as being an indicator of nationhood.
Italy and Libya
Established in 1934 in what represents present-day Libya. Italian Libya was formed from the colonies of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania which were taken by Italy from the Ottoman Empire in 1912 after the Italo-Turkish War of 1911 to 1912. started in 1911 and was characterized initially by a major struggle with Muslim native Libyans that lasted until 1931. During this period, the Italian government controlled only the coastal areas of the colony. After the Italian Empire's conquest of Ottoman Libya in the 1911-1912 Italo-Turkish War, much of the early colonial period had Italy waging a war of subjugation against Libya's population. Ottoman Turkey surrendered its control of Libya in the 1912 Treaty of Lausanne, but fierce resistance to the Italians continued from the Senussi political-religious order, a strongly nationalistic group of Sunni Muslims. This group, first under the leadership of Omar Al Mukhtar and centered in the Jebel Akhdar Mountains of Cyrenaica, lead the Libyan resistance movement against Italian settlement in Libya. Italian forces under the Generals Pietro Badoglio and Rodolfo Graziani waged punitive pacification campaigns which turned into brutal and bloody acts of repression. Resistance leaders were executed or escaped into exile. The forced migration of more than 100,000 Cyrenaican people ended in Italian concentration camps. After two decades, Italy predominated. In the 1930s, the policy of Italian Fascism toward Libya began to change, and both Cyrenaica and Tripolitania, along with Fezzan, were merged into Italian Libya in 1934.
Believed in the right to life, liberty, and property. Many of his philosophies helped play into American government. Locke's theory of mind is often cited as the origin of modern conceptions of identity and the self, figuring prominently in the work of later philosophers such as Hume, Rousseau and Kant. Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity ofconsciousness. He postulated that the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa. Contrary to pre-existing Cartesian philosophy, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived fromsense perception.
Voltaire wrote Letters on the English. Famous for his wit and for his advocacy ofcivil liberties, including freedom of religion, freedom of expression, free trade and separation of church and state. He was an outspoken supporter of social reform, despite strict censorship laws with harsh penalties for those who broke them. Favored limited monarchy, free speech and press, and religious toleration. Also helped play into US Constitution. Montesquieu wanted government with three distinct branches, legislative, executive, judicial, checking and balancing each other. Was again a factor in forming the American government. Diderot was intolerant of absolutism and was an ardent supporter of religious tolerance. Rosseau was the author of The Social Contract, which argues that men are born free and equal and should make a contract with their leader, revolution is justified when contract is broken
Revolutions in England
The English Civil War lasted from 1642 to 1651. Charles I was beheaded in punishment for committing treason in ignoring Parliament and calling for the continuation of the war. He was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 and for Cambridge in the Short (1640) and Long (1640-49) Parliaments. He entered the English Civil War on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians. Nicknamed "Old Ironsides", he was quickly promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to become one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army, playing an important role in the defeat of the royalist forces. Cromwell was one of the signatories of King Charles I's death warrant in 1649, and as a member of the Rump Parliament (1649-53) he dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England. He was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland during 1649-50. Cromwell's forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country - bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars. During this period a series of Penal Laws were passed against Roman Catholics (a significant minority in England and Scotland but the vast majority in Ireland), and a substantial amount of their land was confiscated. Cromwell also led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651.The Glorious Revolution was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascending of the English throne as William III of England jointly with his wife Mary II of England. James II removed from the throne of England. His overthrow began the modern English parliamentary democracy. The Revolution was made to preserve our ancient indisputable laws and liberties, and that ancient constitution of government which is our only security for law and liberty.
American Revolution in English Colonies
was a political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become theUnited States of America. They first rejected the authority of the Parliament of Great Britain to govern them from overseas without representation, and then expelled all royal officials. By 1774, each colony had established a Provincial Congress, or an equivalent governmental institution, to govern itself, but still within the empire. The British responded by sending combat troops to re-impose direct rule. Through the Second Continental Congress, the Americans managed the armed conflict against the British known as the American Revolutionary War (also: American War of Independence, 1775-83).
was a period of radical social and political upheaval inFrance that had a lasting impact on French history and more broadly throughout the world. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed within three years. French society underwent an epic transformation, as feudal, aristocratic and religious privileges evaporated under a sustained assault from radical left-wing political groups, masses on the streets, andpeasants in the countryside. Old ideas about tradition and hierarchy-of monarchy, aristocracy, and religious authority-were abruptly overthrown by new Enlightenment principles of equality, citizenship and inalienable rights.Amidst a fiscal crisis, the common people of France were increasingly angered by the incompetency of King Louis XVI and the continued indifference and decadence of the aristocracy. This resentment fueled radical sentiments, and the French Revolution began in 1789 with the convocation of the Estates-General in May. The first year of the Revolution saw members of the Third Estate proclaiming the Tennis Court Oath in June, the assault on the Bastille in July, the passage of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in August, and an epic march on Versailles that forced the royal court back to Paris in October. The next few years were dominated by struggles between various liberal assemblies and a right wing of supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.A republic was proclaimed in September 1792 and King Louis XVI was executed the next year. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution. The French Revolutionary Wars began in 1792 and ultimately featured spectacular French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine - achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular sentiments radicalized the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and theJacobins and virtual dictatorship by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror from 1793 until 1794 during which between 16,000 and 40,000 people were killed. After the fall of the Jacobins and the execution of Robespierre, the Directoryassumed control of the French state in 1795 and held power until 1799, when it was replaced by the Consulate under Napoleon Bonaparte.
Progress and reform, right to speak, write, and gather freely. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas such asfree and fair elections, civil rights, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free trade, and private property
Tradition and establishment. Some conservatives seek to preserve things as they are, emphasizing stability and continuity, while others, called reactionaries, oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were
Government owns the means of production, government/central planning. socialism includes a diverse array of political philosophies, ranging from reformism to revolutionary socialism. Proponents of state socialism advocate the nationalisation of the means of production, distribution and exchange as a strategy for implementing socialism.
Individuals own means of production and decide what and when to buy. There is general agreement that capitalism became dominant in the Western world following the demise of feudalism.
People of a similar culture, language and tradition have their own government, self-rule, self-determination. nationalism as a recent phenomenon that requires the structural conditions of modern society. There are various definitions for what constitutes a nation, however, which leads to several different strands of nationalism. It can be a belief that citizenship in a state should be limited to one ethnic, cultural, religious, or identity group, or that multinationality in a single state should necessarily comprise the right to express and exercise national identity even by minorities
Cooperation between nations, United Nations, Esperanto. Partisans of this movement, such as supporters of the World Federalist Movement, claim that nations should cooperate because their long-term mutual interests are of greater value than their individual short term needs.
was a Venezuelan military and political leader. Bolívar played a key role in Hispanic America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire, and is today considered one of the most influential politicians in the history of the Americas. Following the triumph over the Spanish Monarchy, Bolívar participated in the foundation of the first union of independent nations in Hispanic-America, a republic, which was named Gran Colombia, of which he was president from 1819 to 1830. Bolívar remains regarded in Hispanic-America as a hero, visionary, revolutionary, and liberator. During his lifetime, he led Venezuela, Colombia(including Panama at the time), Ecuador, Peru (together with Don José de San Martín), and Bolivia to independence, and helped lay the foundations for democratic ideology in much of Latin America.
was an English naturalist.[I] He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern ofevolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to theartificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species. By the 1870s the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations and it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. In modified form, Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life.
was a Germanphilosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. His ideas played a significant role in the establishment of the social sciences and the development of the socialist movement. He is also considered one of the greatest economists in history. He published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Capital (1867 -1894). hold that all societies progress through the dialectic of class struggle: a conflict between an ownership class which controls production and a lower class which produces the labour for goods. Heavily critical of the current socio-economic form of society, capitalism, he called it the "dictatorship of thebourgeoisie", believing it to be run by the wealthy classes purely for their own benefit; and he predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, capitalism would inevitably produce internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism. He argued that under socialism society would be governed by the working class in what he called the "dictatorship of the proletariat", the "workers' state" or "workers' democracy" Russian Revolution: the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled theTsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Russian SFSR. The Emperor was forced to abdicate and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in theGregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar was in use in Russia at the time). In the second revolution, during October, the Provisional Government was removed and replaced with a Bolshevik (Communist) government. The February Revolution (March 1917) was a revolution focused around Petrograd (now St. Petersburg). In the chaos, members of the Imperial parliament or Duma assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government. The army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution and Nicholas II, the lastEmperor of Russia, abdicated. The Soviets (workers' councils), which were led by more radical socialist factions, initially permitted the Provisional Government to rule, but insisted on a prerogative to influence the government and control various militias. The February Revolution took place in the context of heavy military setbacks during the First World War (1914-18), which left much of the Russian army in a state of mutiny.
In the north, farmland was 65% of total land in US, railroad tracks were 71% of entire country, 85% of the countries factories were in the north land, and the population was 63% of the total population between the north and south. In the south, only 35% of the land was farmland, very little railroad access with only 29% of the entire countries railroad, and only had 15% of the countries factories, and only had 37% of the country's population lived in the South.
Emergence and Benefits of Free Enterprise
American trade was threatened in the early 1800s. The Embargo and Non-Importation Acts were unpopular, and there were inventions that helped start the industrial revolution.
Geographic Patterns Influenced Economic Development
Northeast US was the hub for industry and agriculture. Southeast was the hub for agriculture and cotton, the Mississippi/Missouri Valley was the hub for trade between the north and south with the steamboats and flatboats. Industry and trade thrived along the Great lakes. The southwest was the hub for ranching and the west was the hub for agriculture.
Sickness of Industries
Mining, railroad, and textile industries were in decline. The coal industry began to decline in 1923 when the general public began to turning to other sources of energy such as oil, natural gas, and hydro-electric power. The railroads began getting competition from automobiles and trucks. The cotton and wool textile industry began suffering due to increased production of silk and rayon.
Agricultural and industrial overproduction
Post WWI agriculture resulted in mass production for Europe. High tariffs in the US curbed European demand, removal of fixed crop prices caused drop in prices, and farmers overproduction ot make more money increased supply and lowered crop prices further. Industrial production was very high in boom time. Demand of luxury items and durable goods was higher, and buying on credit increased consumer spending. By the late 1920s, consumers saturated with durable goods that didn't need to be replaced for years such as automobiles, jewelry, and kitchen appliances.
Wave of Strikes
The rising of cost of living and decreasing wages resulted in general strikes all over the US. Boston police strike resulted in lack of public safety. Steel workers strike resulted in more and stronger AFL unions.
1929 Stock Market Crash
Overbuying of shares forced prices up beyond value, and overreaction of the public about this caused panic and people began selling their stocks. The crash occurred on October 24, 1929 and banks across the nation were drained of money.
Hoover's Economic Policy
Believed that the economy was sound and would recover unaided and that moral leadership would eventually bolster the economy. Also believed that the government should not directly intervene in the economy, government sponsored relief programs would undermine the public's self-reliance. Hoover tried to convince Americans that conditions were improving to bolster confidence when nothing had changed.
Hoover's Attempt to Fix Economy
Hoover's extended an invitation to US business leaders for a series of economic conferences. Business leaders promised to not reduce wages and prices, to be patient through the 'short' rough time that was broken by Sept. 1931. Agricultural marketing Act with the Federal Farm board, sought to stabilize farm prices and discourage the growing of surplus crops with farm cooperatives and federal loans for produce storage costs. Cut into income taxes, instigate consumer spending, failure due to ambitions of Americans without income.
Hoover's Federal Works Programs
Began giving loans to businesses. Reconstruction Finance Corporation began trying to fix the bank failures of 1931, giving loans to banks, industry, and other institutions in financial straits, established a 'federal breadline' for businesses' but eventually failed to restore prosperity. Also tried to enact public works projects such as building dams and highways, but were unsuccessful as well. Spent $500 million more on public works than in 1928.
No Direct Relief
Lower income taxe failed due to so many American families without any source of income. Public works projects failure due to Hoover's rejection of the idea of government borrowing money to pay them. the RFC failure was due to banks keeping funds to strengthen their own finances rather than passing them onto the community. RFC officials were reluctant to loan money Congress had given them. "Bonus Army" March, veterans demanding war bonuses not due until 1945. Hoover called on General MacArthur to disperse the camp of veterans.
FDR's Approach to Relief
Had a pragmatic approach to Relief, Recovery, and Reform- The Hundred Days. Created relief programs to reemploy and put money back into the economy. the Civil Conservation Corps was a law that put 2.5 million men back to work building dams, clearing beaches, building campsites and planting trees. Federal Emergency Relief Administration had $500 million provided by Congress for FERA appointment to go to states as direct aid. The Civil Works Administration, administrator Harry Hopkins of FERA persuaded FDR to allow FERA throughout eh CSW to put 2.5 million people back to work instead of receiving direct aid 'handouts'.
FDR's Approach to Recovery
Steps for trust in US financial institutions. the HOLC of 1933 Home owner loan corp. Loaned $3 billion to help prevent foreclosures. FHA of 1934, Federal Housing Administration guaranteed loans to middle income families, $2-3 billion for construction of new housing. AAA- Agricultural Adjustment Act provided farm subsidies. Payment to farmers for reductions in crops such as tobacco, wheat, corn, and rice. Subsidies from processing tax. Cost passed onto consumers by the food processors and preparation industry. NIRA- National Industry Recovery Act started the NRA- National Recovery Administration which provided that industries would prepare codes of fair competition, establish standard prices and wages, establish standard hours in business, guarantee workers right to organize and negotiate with employers union. PWA- Public Works Administration Gave $6 billion to stimulate the construction industry. Jobs for public works and revived the economy through the sale of building materials.
FDR's Approach to Reform
Bank Holiday, for four days the banks were closed and the government inspected and examined banks stability before reopening which increased consumer confidence to reinvest in American banking. The Federal Securities Act of 1933 appleaded to new investors was a law the required corporations offering new stocks or bonds to register them with the Federal Trade Commission aimed to prevent fraud and misrepresentation. the SEC, Securities and Exchange Commission of 1934 prohibited banks from speculating in stocks using depositors money by separating commercial banking from investment banking. FDIC or the Federal Deposit Insurable Corp. insures deposits up to a limited amount. The Tennessee Valley Authority, or TVA started in the Tennessee Valley area which was plagued by floods and erosion and provided flood and erosion control, improved river navigation, irrigation, hydro-electric power for millions and served as a model for river projects around the US and the world. Examples include the Hoover Dam. The Dust Bowl was solved by tree planting in the Great Plains to prevent future catastrophes by breaking winds, anchoring soil and holding moisture.
Second New Deal
Began in 1934, situations improved but unemployment was still high at 11 million, which was 22% of the work force. In 1935, Roosevelt told America the federal government had to take a greater responsibility for economic well being of the people. The Social Security Act of 1935 included benefits for the retired, unemployment insurance, and health and child welfare programs. Federal grants matched by state grants to aid widows, dependent children, blind, and other handicapped persons. Critics such as Hoover warned this was substituting government control for free enterprise. Emergency Relief Administration Act enacted in which the president established the Workers Progress Administration which was headed by the former CWA leader Harry Hopkins. WPA was the Works Progress Administration aimed to give people work as soon as possible. $11 billion in appropriation 1935-1943. Constructed 800 landing fields, 125,000 public buildings, 651,000 miles of roads, 75,000 bridges and 8,000 parks. Employed over 8.5 million people, including artists and writers. the NYA was the National Youth Administration, which became the junior 'WPA' and created jobs of 1.5 million high school students and over 600,000 college students. REA, Rural Electrification Administration, to bring electricity to rural America.
Growth of Labor Unions
New Deal programs add more protection for workers. Strengthened the AFL by the National labor Relations Act, often called the Wagner Act. Created the National Labor Relations Board, provided governing body for labor relations. United Mine Workers union for workers in mass producing industries and was headed up by John L. Lewis. CIO Committee for Industrialized Organization, formed by Sidney Hillman, David Dubinksy and John L. Lewis in 1935. They organized industrial unions of skilled and unskilled workers, later renamed Congress of Industrial organizations.
opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the Constitution of 1787
was the first American political party, from the early 1790s to 1816, the era of the First Party System, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. The Federalists controlled the federal government until 1801. The party was formed byAlexander Hamilton, who, during George Washington's first term, built a network of supporters, largely urban bankers and businessmen, to support his fiscal policies. These supporters grew into the Federalist Party committed to a fiscally sound and nationalistic government.
Was the political party organized by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1791. It stood in opposition to the Federalist Party and controlled the Presidency and Congress, and most states, from 1800 to 1825, during theFirst Party System. It split after the 1824 presidential election into two parties: the Democratic Party and the short-lived National Republican Party (later succeeded by the Whig Party, many of whose adherents eventually founded the modern Republican Party).
A political party in the United States. During the administration of John Quincy Adams (1825-1829), the president's supporters were referred to as Adams Men or Anti-Jackson. When Andrew Jackson was elected President of the United States in 1828, this group went into opposition. The use of the term "National Republican" dates from 1830.
Is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States along with the Republican Party. Since the 1930s, the party has promoted a social liberal and progressive platform,and its Congressional caucus is composed of progressives, liberals, centrists, and libertarians. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous operation in the United States and is among the oldest political parties in the world
Was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. Considered integral to theSecond Party System and operating from the early 1830s to the mid-1850s,the party was formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. In particular, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism. This name was chosen to echo the American Whigs of 1776, who fought for independence, and because "Whig" was then a widely recognized label of choice for people who identified as opposing tyranny.
Also called the GOP, for "Grand Old Party" is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery activists in 1854, it dominated politics nationally for most of the period from 1860 to 1932. There have been 18 Republican presidents, the most recent being George W. Bush.
Was a short-lived political party in the United States established in 1891 during the Populist movement (United States, 19th Century). It was most important in 1892-96, and then rapidly faded away. Based among poor, white cotton farmers in the South (especially North Carolina, Alabama, and Texas) and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the plains states (especially Kansas and Nebraska), it represented a radical crusading form of agrarianism and hostility to banks, railroads, and elites generally. It sometimes formed coalitions with labor unions, and in 1896 the Democrats endorsed their presidential nominee, William Jennings Bryan.
Disputed Election from 1824
The Candidates were John Quincy Adams from the east, Henry Clay from the West, and Andrew Jackson from the West. Jackson won the popular vote, no one won a majority of the electoral votes, winner had to be determined in the House of Reps. Adams won because of Clay's influence and help.
War Heroes as President
Andrew Jackson was a war hero from the Battle of New Orleans, won election of 1828 as Adam's Only opponent. William Henry Harrison won the presidency in 1840 who was a hero from the Battle of Tippecanoe who represented the common people. Died one month after taking office and was replaced with John Tyler, the first vice president to replace a president in office.
Free Soil Party
Whigs and Democrats divided over the spread of slavery, anti slavery whigs and democrats met in 1848 to form the party. Main goal was to stop the spread of slavery into territories. Candidate was martin van Buren who lost to Whigs Zachary Taylor in election of 1848.
Pre-Civil War and Reconstruction
Main goal of Republican party to keep slavery out of the western territories. Election of 1860 made the South feel powerless, division among Democrats over slavery. Northerners lost interest in Reconstruction. Radical republicans were losing power in Congress, Northerners were weary of efforts to change the South, believed that the South should be left alone.
Election of 1876
Samuel Tilden, governor of New York and Rutherford B. Hayes, governor of Ohio were the candidates. Tilden had more popular votes and was one vote short of the 184 electoral votes, Louisiana, Florida, and South Caroline votes disputed. Later disputed votes went to hayes who had privately agreed to end Reconstruction, hayes won the electionof 1876.
Southern Blacks after 1877
Lost power and rights. Began putting limits on voting with poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses. Segregation led to Jim Crow laws, which separated blacks and whites in schools, churches, and other public facilities. Plessy vs. Ferguson, allowed segregation as long as separate facilities were equal.
Government of Laws
Not Men,Needs that the government serves. The protection of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, people need the government for protection and to maintain law and order. Services that the government provides, organized, efficient, law abiding government. democratic foundations of government are the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution
Documents that Developed the US
Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, United States Constitution
American Entrance into WWI
German unrestricted submarine warfare, Allied propaganda, American economic propaganda, American security, and hostility towards Germany.
Wilson's 14 Points Peace Treaty
Included open covenants openly arrived at, freedom of the seas, removal of international trade barriers, reduction of armaments , impartial adjustment of colonial claims, adjustment of European boundaries in accordance with the principle of nationality. Established a general association of nations, under specific convenants.
Effects of WWI
Treaty of Versailles splits the rewards between the four victors, David Lloyd George (B) Georges Clemenceau (F), Vittorio Orlando (I) and Woodrow Wilson (US). Provisions included Alsace-Lorraine to France, Saar Valley to League of Nations, coal mines to France for 15 years. polic Corridor on Baltic to Poland, cutting West Prussia off from rest of Germany, Danzig became a free city, German colonies ceded to Allies as league of Nations mandates, the disarmament of the German military, German war guilt and forced to pay reparations, League of Nations established, and US isolationism under the League of Nations under Henry Cabot Lodge and the World Court and immigration from Europe picked up steam.
Efforts to combat the Great Depression
Ran his campaign on the platform on getting rid of the Depression and ending it. He mounted the New Deal to put people back to work and to give some aid to the country to spur the economy. He created the first government programs that gave aid to the working class, such as Social Security and Medicare.
Effects of the Depression on the World
The entry of the US into the WWII ended the Depression. Many economists believe that government spending on the war caused or at least accelerated recovery from the Great Depression, though some consider that it did not play a very large role in the recovery. It did help in reducing unemployment. The rearmament policies leading up to World War II helped stimulate the economies of Europe in 1937-39. By 1937, unemployment in Britain had fallen to 1.5 million. The mobilisation of manpower following the outbreak of war in 1939 ended unemployment. The US' entry into the war in 1941 finally eliminated the last effects from the Great Depression and brought the U.S. unemployment rate down below 10%.In the U.S., massive war spending doubled economic growth rates, either masking the effects of the Depression or essentially ending the Depression. Businessmen ignored the mounting national debt and heavy new taxes, redoubling their efforts for greater output to take advantage of generous government contracts.
American Preparedness and Aid to the Allies
Neutrality act of 1939, military preparedness, destroyers for bases deal, lend lease act, and embargo enact on strategic materials to Japan.
German attack on Russia and the Japanese attack the United States at Pearl Harbor.
Victory in Europe
Germans have North Africa, Italy, and most of Europe. Anglo-American invasion of France on June 6, 1944, now called D-Day. Germany Surrendered in May of 1945.
Victory in the Pacific
Intial Japanese offensive, Allied counteroffensive, Atom bomb and the surrender of Japan.
Economic Results of WWII
Cost, recovery, and spread of communism
Social Results of WWII
Human cost, refugees and displaced persons.
Political Results of WWII
Defeat of Germany, Italy, and Japan. Cold War began between the USSR and the US. Soviet Empire of Communist satellite nations, Intensification of nationalism in Asia and Africa. Decline of Great Britain and France as world powers, atomic age, and the UN.
Ku Klux Klan and Red Scare
Feverish scare among Americans of Communist revolutionaries. Bolshevik revolution of 1917, radical communists, reds, "worldwide revolution" Labor turmoil, coal strikes biggest problem, and terrorist acts began taking place. Mayor Hanson of Seattle was anti-communist, Senator Thomas Hartwick of Georgia was an anti-communist. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer particularly tough anti-communist. Postal authorities discovered more than 30 bombs addressed to citizens unknown to the opposed to organized labor and unrestricted immigration. Wall street 1920, JP Morgan offices bombed. Palmers raids against suspected communists, socialists legally elected to the senate denied seats. 550 people deported, 6,000 people arrested. Nicola Sacco and Bartholomeo Vanzetti were suspected anarchists who committed a crime and were convicted of it by execution by people who were largely anti-anarchist, anti-Catholicism, and anti-socialist and communist. Panic after this event led to more support for groups such as the Ku Klux Klan to preserve America for white protestants, anti-black, -jew, -Catholic, and -immigrants. Had the strongest power in the South and Midwest. Fall in power of Ku Klux Klan with scandal of 1925.
Causes of nationalism were western ideals, communist propaganda, effects of the world wars, and the UN. Effects of it were felt in Africa and Asia with colonies rebelling against the mother countireis. In Europe, Italy and Germany were particularly targets of this, which led to the rise of Facism post WWI and destroyed them in WWII.
Emergence of capitalism led to laissez-faire and basic principles of it were private ownership, free enterprise, profit motive, competition, and supply and demand. Philosophy of Interdependence.
Government ownership and include examples of successful European socialistic governments.
definition of communism, and how it played a role in Soviet Union and China.
African Countries Became Free
British, French, Italian, Belgian, German colonialism dominated the continent through the 1920s and 30s. Egypt became free in 1942, Libya in 1955, Tunisia and Morocco in 1956, Ghana in 1957, Sudan in 1958 and Cameroon, Nigeria, Togo, Benin, Belgian Congo, Somalia, and Zaire in 1960. Algeria and Uganda became free in 1962, Kenya in 1963, Angola and Mozambique in 1975, and Zimbabwe in 1980.
Black Rule vs White Rule
Black rules, most of Africa since 1980, White rule, Namibia and South Africa. Apartheid was legal racial segregation in both countries that was under attack from black majorities
Problems in New Nations
Citizens combined from many tribes to make a new nation, many rightful chiefs, people thrown together who don't speak the same language. Tribal conflicts lead to civil wars, economically weak due to exploitation under imperialism, little or no industrial development, system of agriculture based on one or two crops, overgrazing led to desertification, regional or local conflicts were intensified by internvention by the USSR and US.
Due to increased availability of education, more educated Africans in the work force, not enough jobs, and frustrations that would lead to uprisings and civil strife
Famous African Figures
Nnamdi Azikiwe in Nigeria and Leopold Senghor in Senegal in 1930s who were inspired by Ghandi in India. Jomo Kenyatta was led by Maomao, rebel organization against the British and became the first president of independent Kenya. Nelson Mandela was the leader in the fight against apartheid, was in juail for 27 years in S. Africa for political point of vew on black majority rule, leader of the African National Congress.
From Czarist absolutism to communist dictatorship
Development of Fascist dictatorship
Indian Nationalism on the Rise
under the leadership of Mohandas K. Gandhi, was was called Mahatma who preached nonviolent noncooperation or civil disobedience. Indian National Congress vs. British Colonialism, Hindu vs. Muslim conflict.
Kuomintang under Sun yat-sen established. Chiang Kai-Shek took charge of military nationalists and right wing politicians, Mao Zedong took charge of communists, led them to northern province after purge of 1927 to regroup for confrontation with Chiang.
Had the Meiji Restoration, expansion of industry, organization of labor: In Meiji period Japan, nationalist ideology consisted of a blend of native and imported political philosophies, initially developed by the Meiji government to promote national unity and patriotism, first in defense against colonization by European powers, and later in a struggle to attain equality with the Great Powers. It evolved through the Taishō period and Shōwa periods to justify an increasingly totalitarian government and overseas expansionism, and provided a political and ideological foundation for the actions of the Japanese military (Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy forces) in the years leading up to World War II. Despite its distinctive features (Emperor worship and the ethno-religious character of the state), Japanese nationalism served the same function as and drew inspiration from similar ideologies developed under Western Fascism.
Zionism vs. British Mandate in Palestine and Jordan
Is a form of nationalism of Jews and Jewish culture that supports a Jewish nation state in the territory defined as the Land of Israel.Zionism supports Jews upholding their Jewish identity, opposes the assimilation of Jews into other societies and has advocated the return of Jews to Israel as a means for Jews to be a majority in their own nation, and to be liberated from antisemitic discrimination, exclusion, and persecution that had historically occurred in the diaspora. Mandate for Palestine, was a legal commission for the administration of the territory that had formerly constituted the Ottoman Sanjaks of Nablus, Acre, the Southern portion of the Beirut Vilayet, and theMutasarrifate of Jerusalem, prior to the Armistice of Mudros. The draft of the Mandate was formally confirmed by the Council of theLeague of Nations on 24 July 1922, amended via the 16 September 1922 Transjordan memorandum and which came into effect on 29 September 1923 following the ratification of the Treaty of Lausanne. The mandate ended at midnight on 14 May 1948.The document was based on the principles contained in Article 22 of the draft Covenant of the League of Nations and the San Remo Resolution of 25 April 1920 by the principal Allied and associated powers after the First World War. The mandate formalised British rule in the southern part of Ottoman Syria from 1923-1948.
Britain in Iraq and the Arabian Coastal States
By 1932, Ibn Saud controlled almost all of Arabia, except for Yemen, and the smaller coastal states which were then British protectorates (Oman, Kuwait, Bahrein, Aden, etc.). Between Hejaz and Yemen were several tribal regions over which the Ottomans had previously held weak suzerainty, and which both Ibn Saud and the Imam of Yemen now aspired to control. Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932, though the British retained military bases.
Britain essentially in Control of Egypt b/c of Suez Canal
Almost immediately after its opening, the Suez Canal had a significant impact on world trade as goods were moved around the world in record time. In 1875, debt forced Egypt to sell its shares in ownership of the Suez Canal to the United Kingdom. However, an international convention in 1888 made the canal available for all ships from any nation to use. Shortly thereafter, conflicts began to arise over use and control of the Suez Canal. In 1936 for example, the U.K. was given the right to maintain military forces in the Suez Canal Zone and control entry points. In 1954, Egypt and the U.K. signed a seven year contract that resulted in the withdrawal of British forces from the canal area and allowed Egypt to take control of the former British installations. In addition, with the creation of Israel in 1948, the Egyptian government prohibited the use of the canal by ships coming and going from the country
The administration of the region under the French was carried out through a number of different territories including the Syrian Federation (1922-24), the State of Syria (1924-1930) and the Syrian Republic (from 1930) as well as the smaller states of the State of Greater Lebanon, the Alawite State and Jabal ad-Druze (state).The French mandate of Syria lasted until 1943, when two independent countries emerged from the mandate period, Syria and Lebanon, in addition to Hatay which had joined Turkey in 1939. French troops completely left Syria and Lebanon in 1946.
Italians in Libya
Was a unified colony of Italian North Africa(Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what represents present-day Libya. Italian Libya was formed from the colonies of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania which were taken by Italy from the Ottoman Empire in 1912 after the Italo-Turkish War of 1911 to 1912. In the 1930s, the policy of Italian Fascism toward Libya began to change, and both Cyrenaica and Tripolitania, along with Fezzan, were merged into Italian Libya in 1934.
Under leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturka, who was a member of the Young Turks who helped overthrow the Ottoman empire, replaced monarchy with parliamentary democracy, abolished polygamy, gave women right to vote and hold public office and tried to separate Islamic law from civil law.
Under leadership of Reza Shah Phalavi was a nationalist who assumed throne in 1925 through a coup d'etat. massive reform program for health and education, tried to lessen the power of the Muslim clergy, and changed the country name from Persia to iran.
was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP); National Socialist German Workers Party). He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany (as Führer und Reichskanzler) from 1934 to 1945. Hitler was at the centre of Nazi Germany, World War II in Europe, and the Holocaust. His aim was to establish a New Order of absolute Nazi German hegemony in continental Europe. To this end, his foreign and domestic policies had the aim of seizing Lebensraum ("living space") for the Germanic people. He directed the rearmament of Germany and the invasion of Poland by the Wehrmacht in September 1939, resulting in the outbreak of World War II in Europe. Under Hitler's rule, in 1941 German forces and their European allies occupied most of Europe and North Africa. In 1943, Germany had been forced onto the defensive and suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during theBattle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his long-time partner, Eva Braun. On 30 April 1945, less than two days later, the twocommitted suicide to avoid capture by the Red Army, and their corpses were burned.Hitler's supremacist and racially motivated policies resulted in the deaths of an estimated 50 million people during World War II, including 6 million Jews and 5 million "non-Aryans" whose systematic extermination was ordered by him and his close subordinates.
is a South African anti-apartheidactivist and politician who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, the first to be elected in a fully representativedemocratic election. His administration focused on dismantling apartheid's legacy, cutting poverty and inequality. Politically left-wing, he served as president of the African National Congress (ANC) political party from 1990 to 1999.
was a Chinesecommunist revolutionary, political theorist and politician. The founding father of the People's Republic of China from its establishment in 1949, he governed the country as Chairman of the Communist Party of China until his death. In this position he converted China into a single-party socialist state, with industry and business being nationalized under state ownership and socialist reforms implemented in all areas of society. Politically a Marxist-Leninist, his theoretical contribution to the ideology along with his military strategies and brand of policies are collectively known as Maoism. In 1949 Mao proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, a one-party socialist state controlled by the Communist Party. After solidifying the reunification of China through his Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, Mao enacted sweeping land reform, overthrowing the feudal landlords before seizing their large estates and dividing the land intopeople's communes. He proceeded to lead a nationwide political campaign known as the Great Leap Forward from 1958 through to 1961, designed to modernize and industrialize the country, however agrarian problems worsened by his policies led to widespread famine. In 1966, he initiated the Cultural Revolution, a program to weed out counter-revolutionary elements in Chinese society, which continued until his death.
commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi, was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India. Employing non-violent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for non-violence, civil rights and freedom across the world. became famous by fighting for the civil rights of Muslim and Hindu Indians in South Africa, using new techniques of non-violent civil disobedience that he developed. Returning to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants to protest excessive land-taxes. A lifelong opponent of "communalism" (i.e. basing politics on religion) he reached out widely to all religious groups. He became a leader of Muslims protesting the declining status of the Caliphate. Assuming leadership of theIndian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for easing poverty, expanding women's rights, building religious and ethnic amity, ending untouchability, increasing economic self-reliance, and above all for achieving Swaraj—the independence of India from British domination.
was an ethnic Albanian, Indian Roman Catholic nun. In late 2003, she was beatified, the third step toward possible sainthood. Mother Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic religious congregation, which in 2012 consisted of over 4,500 sisters and is active in 133 countries. Members of the order must adhere to the vows of chastity, poverty and obedience, and the fourth vow, to give "Wholehearted and Free service to the poorest of the poor". The Missionaries of Charity at the time of her death had 610 missions in 123 countries including hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis;soup kitchens; children's and family counselling programmes; orphanages; and schools.For over 45 years, she ministered to the poor, sick, orphaned, and dying, while guiding the Missionaries of Charity's expansion, first throughout India and then in other countries. Her beatification by Pope John Paul II following her death gave her the title "Blessed Teresa of Calcutta".
Inventions that Spurred the Industrial Revolution
In 1733 John Kay invented the flying shuttle, water powered loom invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1789. James Watt invented the steam engine in 1775, Spinning jenny invented in 1783 by James Hargreaves, which can spin several threads at once. 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, and in 1798 invented interchangeable parts for guns. In the 1830s, Cyrus McCorkmick invented the reaper.
Factory System Began in Great Britain in 1700s
The Industrial Revolution began in the late 1700s. The change to the factory system from the cottage industry was a major element in the Industrial Revolution. There were other changes as well. Cottage industry workers usually owned their own tools. Under the factory system, the employers owned the tools. And in the factory system, power tools or machines generally replaced hand tools. The factory owner controlled the hours of work. And he determined how fast the work should be done. Cottage industry workers had been more independent. They just had to produce enough to support themselves and their families. The modern factory began in England in the late 1700s. It started in the textile industry. At that time, swift-flowing streams were used to turn waterwheels. The waterwheels powered machines. In 1769, Richard Arkwright invented an improved water-powered spinning machine. It was called a water frame. Arkwright put many machines in one building, close to a river. In doing this, Arkwright began moving the English textile industry out of cottages and into factories (or mills, as they were called). In factories, many workers and machines operated under one roof. Arkwright's achievement earned him the title the father of the factory system. The use of factories spread from the textile industry to other industries. And it spread from England to other countries.
Factors of Production
Britain had and used land, labor, and capital. Available capital, surplus population for a cheaply paid work force, coal and water power, a merchant fleet which brought in raw materials and took out finished products.
Steam power replaced water power
Early mills had run successfully with water power, but by using a steam engine a factory could be located anywhere, not just close to water. Water power varied with the seasons and was not available at times due to freezing, floods and dry spells. A fundamental change in working principles was brought about by James Watt. With the close collaboration of Matthew Boulton, he had succeeded by 1778 in perfecting hissteam engine which incorporated a series of radical improvements, notably, the use of a steam jacket around the cylinder to keep it at the temperature of the steam and, most importantly, a steam condenser chamber separate from the piston chamber. These improvements increased engine efficiency by a factor of about five, saving 75% on coal costs.
New methods of making harder steel
was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron prior to the open hearth furnace. The process is named after its inventor, Henry Bessemer, who took out a patent on the process in 1855. The process was independently discovered in 1851 by William KellyThe process had also been used outside of Europe for hundreds of years, but not on an industrial scale.The key principle is removal of impurities from the iron by oxidation with air being blown through the molten iron. The oxidation also raises the temperature of the iron mass and keeps it molten Improvements in transportation and Communication
Factory System created social change
People could learn jobs in a few days, large numbers of people were needed to work machines, most people worked long hours, for low wages, and in extremely dangerous conditions. Factory workers became lower class while factory owners became upper class. Factory workers lived in crowded tenements in large cities. Factory owners moved out of the city to escape the pollution and tenements
Agrarian Changes Allow Britain's Population to Double in 19th century
In the 19th century the population of Britain increased rapidly. By 1815 it had reached 13 million and London was one of the largest cities in Europe (1 million inhabitants). By 1850 half the population lived in towns, and London had more than 2 million inhabitants. Between 1750 and 1850 the population of Britain increased threefold. There were more people working in factories than as sustenance farmers. In the 19th century Britain changed from being a net exporter of agricultural produce to being a net importer. Industrialisation and urbanisation continued at a great rate. However, the growth of towns was accompanied by the spread of epidemics.
Corporations with large numbers of stockholders became the dominant form, the stock markets handled shareholder trading , business cycle of alternating prosperity and decline.
Adam Smith's Economic Theories
Believed in free enterprise based on supply and demand and competition
John Stuart Mill's Economic Theories
Government should improve working conditions and unions became legal.
Karl Marx's Economic Theories
People should work for good of themselves and each other, not for a wealthy factory owner, wanted workers revolution to lead to classless society.
Discoveries in the Late 19th Century
Alexander Graham Bell's telephone in 1870 and Marconi's wireless telegraph. Thomas Edison invented the light bulb in 1879. Nikolaus Otto perfected the internal combustion engine in 1862. Felix Hoffman invented aspirin in 1892. Anesthesia was developed in 1839 by Alfred Velpeau.
Emergence of Social Sciences
Anthropology began to emerge around the 1870s and picked up steam in the last three centuries of the 19the century. Sociology began to emerge in the very last decade of the 19th century. Psychology emerged as a discipline in the mid to late 1870s. Pavlov and Freud became the first two well known psychologists. Pavlov introduced the conditioned reflex and Freud introduced the ideas of the unconditioned mind and developed psycho-analysis.
Bach, Handel, Hayden, Mozart
Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, Liszt
Fanciful curved spatial forms, ornate, Tiepolo.
Manet, Seurat, Cezanne, Van Gogh, Gauguin
Twentieth Century Modern Art
Very abstract, not limited, by realism. Art Nouveu, Fauves and Expressionsim is Matisse. Cubism is Braque, Picasso and Maondrian. Dada and Surrealism are Duchamp, Dali, Chagall, Sculpture is Calder, Moore, Giacometti
Age of Reason in Literature
Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, William Blake, Daniel Defoe, Moliere
William Wordsworth, John Keats, Edgar Allen Poe
Realism and Victorian Period
Lord Tennyson, Charles Dickens, Lewis Carroll, Honore de Balzac, Mark Twain, Fyodor Dosteovski, Tolstoy, Emile Zola
Joseph Conrad, George Orwell, Aldous Huxley, T.S. Eliot, Arthur C. Clarke
Rene Descartes, Baruch de Spinoza, Gottfried von Leibniz
Sir Francis Bacon, John Locke, David Hume
Immanuel Kant, George Hegel
Bertrand Russell, William James, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Soren Kierkegaard
Majority Population of US
White, Northwestern European ancestry
Black/African American, ancestors were brought over as slaves. Hispanic Americans came from Latin America and from Spain. Asian Americans came from Vietnam, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Cambodian ancestries.
Native American Indians
Arctic-Eskimo, California, Columbia Pleateu, Eastern Woodland includes Cherokee, Iroquois (who provided base for US Constitution and democracy), Seminole. Great basin, Shoshone, Middle American include Aztec and Mayan. The Northwest coast Indians, Plains Indians include the Sioux, Cheyenne, Crow, Comanche, and Arapaho. Southwest Indians include Hopi, Navajo, Apache
Includes Russian, Eastern European, and Arabic ancestry.
Culture in America
Languages in America include English, French influence, German, Spanish, Native American, and many other immigrant languages. Religions in America include early settlers seeking refuge from religious persecution in Europe, such as Protestants, Catholics, Jews, Quakers, Mennonites, Amish. Government in America includes Constitution based on idea of power of the people, limited government, early political parties, major current political parties. Education consists of mandatory primary schools and secondary schools for those who can afford to send their sons without the farms failing (high school). The elite few went on to colleges and universities such as Harvard and Yale.
The Great Awakening
A religious movement in the 1730s and 1740s. Jonathan Edwards was one of the leaders who called on listeners to examine their lives and give up unholy ways. Famous sermon was "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God". George Whitefield was another powerful speaker, this movement brough other changes, forced people to be more tolerant, emphasized a persons own experience in religion.
Became a successful printer who published pamphlets, newspapers and almanacs, wrote Poor Richard's Almanac. Was a scientist and inventor who created the Franklin stove, bifocals and lightening rod. Had ideas about improving city life such as having paved city streets, hiring a police force to protect the town, fire departments to put out fires and help in emergencies, and a public library to improve the literacy of the public.
American Writers and Their Themes
Washington Irving used New York and Dutch influences and wrote Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. James Fennimore Cooper used the American frontier as a setting for an idealized view of how whites and Indians got along and wrote Last of the Mohicans and The Deerslayer. Nathaniel Hawthorne used historical themes and is most well known for the Scarlet Letter. Herman Melvile admired Hawthorne's works and wrote Moby Dick which became one of America's greatest novels. William Wells Brown wrote about slave life, was America's first black novelist and to earn living as a writer and wrote Clotel. John Greenleaf Whitter was a Quaker poet from Massachusetts and was drawn to write about the anti-slavery cause. Walt Whitman was a poet that praised America's land and about people that made America great and wrote Leaves of Grass. Ralph Waldo Emerson emphasized the importance of the individual and believed that everyone was part of God. Wrote the Concord Hymn that was dedicated to the first battle of the American Revolution. Henry David Thoreau wrote Walden and Civil Disobedience and believed that every person must judge what is right and wrong. Margaret Fuller wrote Women in the Ninettenth Century and influence the women's rights movements. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Early composers included Frances Scott Key who wrote the Star Spangled Banner and John Phillips Sousa. Gospel music developed from jazz and blues and was largely dominated by African Americans. Folk music consisted of ballads from the country side and consisted of white. Current popular music includes country and western, rock and roll, in addition to rap and punk.
American Visual Arts
The American style of painting was first developed by Benjamin West who was from Philadelphia and later settled in London and became famous for his historical painting. Charles Wilson Peale and Gilbert Stuart painted well known portraits of George Washington. Hudson River School artists painted landscapes of Hudson River and Catskill Mountains of New York such as Thomas Cole and Asher Durand. George Caleb Bingham was inspired by his native Missouri and presented frontier life along the rivers that feed the Mississippi. Winslow Homer, Grant Wood, Georgia O'Keefe and Mark Rothko are other famous artists. In sculpture, Louise Nevelson, Elizabeth Ney and Christo were the most highly regarded.
Architecture in America
new trends, creativity with new designs and building material such as steel and glass. Frank Lloyd Wright most well known and built the Guggenheim Museum from 1943-59. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe built the Seagram Building from 1956-58.
Styles include ballet, jazz/tap, popular, modern (established by Twyla Tharp), country western and swing.
Film and Movie Industry
Silent films the norm through the end of the 1920s, which Charlie Chaplin is the highest regarded star of. Once sound was developed, Frances Ford Coppola most well known as the most innovative and influential film directors. In Hollywood, Steven Spielberg is the most famous and highly regarded producer and director.
Evolution of American news, cable, video, fiber optics (digital). Broadway plays and musicals.
Migration & Push/Pull
Immigration is the migration into a country, emigration is migration out of a country and a refugee is forced out of one country and into another due to life-threatening circumstances, usually with no possessions. Push factor is pushing someone out of a country and the pull factor is the hope of a better life in another country.
Waves of Immigration in US
1607 and 1620 Pilgrims and Puritans of English origin. From 1650-1815 mostly of English origin and settled on eastern seaboard. From 1820-60 more Irish than English, stayed in large cities as factory workers and worked to build the railroads. from 1850-1910 large groups of German farmers settled up and down the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys all along the Oregon trail and in central Texas. From 1880-1930 a large influx of Italians and Russians most of whom settled in large cities on the east coast. Polish immigrants came to farm in the Connecticut River Valley. From 1882-90 Chinese immigrated into California. From 1975-90 nearly 500,000 came from Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand. From 1968 to present an estimated ten million undocumented immigrants from Mexico and Latin American countries came into the SW United States.
Limitations on Immigration
Immigration Acts of 1921 and 1924 and were based on a percentage of the number of immigrants from each country residing in the US and counted by the 1910 census. Motivation included post WWI isolationism, superiority of theAnglo-Saxon and Teutonic ethnic groups, fear that immigrant labor would lower wage levels, fear of foreign ideologies and the belief that foreigners were not law abiding. McCarran Walter Act of 1952 restricted immigration into the U.S. and governs primarily immigration to and citizenship in the United States. It has been in effect since December 24, 1952. Before this Act, a variety of statutes governed immigration law but were not organized within one body of text. A 1957 amendment to the Act allowed families to be reunited who had been kept apart by the strict quota system of the law. Immigration Act of 1965 granted admission on a first come, first serve basis up to a certain number and immigrants who already had family living in the US were given preferential status. Artists, scientists and political refugees were also given preferential status.
General Population Patterns
North America had nearly zero population growth, high standard of living, and had good jobs and is perceived as land of opportunity. heavily populated on east coast and west coast, less so in central and western plains states. Latin America rapid population increase and has a moderate to low standard of livin but has high emigration to the north, heavily populated on northern border with US and in capital cities. Africa has rapid population increase across continent except in drought areas and has a low standard of living, emigration from South Africa and emigration from drought stricken and war torn areas. Europe has nearly zero population growth in the west and decreasing population in the east. Emigration to North America common and most people from East Europe emigrate to western Europe. Low standard of living in the east versus a moderate to high standard of living in the west. Asia has a low standard of living in south and southeast. Moderate to high standard of living in the east and moderate population increase in south and east. Moderate population increase in south and east and rapid population incrase in the southeast, low population incrase in the north. Emigration to NorthAmerica and western Europe. Australia and Oceania have nearly zero population growth, high standard of living and people immigrate from all over the world.
Caused by increased numbers of young parents, high birthrate, a low death rate, better medical care, absence of plague and lack of war. The effect of it is the strain on economies, not enough jobs and on food, clothing, and housing production. Migration into and out of country either to a better life or away from the problem. Traditional societies, population explosion has come with modern health care and have tried to get to zero population growth birth rate equals the death rate.
Major historical trade routes
Include the Silk Road, Sharan Caravans, Tigres and Euphrates, and Horn of Africa.
Mode of transportation between oceans and continents and are located at Suez and Panama. Linking rivers on continents include the Erie Canal for the eastern US, Southern Europe, and the Grand Canal in China.
Major River Transportation
Missouri/Mississippi in US, the Yangtze in china the Ganges and Brahmaputra in India, Indus in Pakistan, Tigres and Euphrates in Iraq, St. Lawrence Seaway in Canada and USA, Paran, unites several countries in South America, Amazon/Negro in Brazil and Equador, Zaire River in Zaire, and the Nile in Egypt and Sudan. Vehicles of River Transportations include flatboats in early 1800s evolved into steamboats during the 1830s and barges and small freight boats today.
Invented in England, By the 1830s in the US, 3,300 miles laid down. Greatly reduced traveling time, a two month trip would only take a week. Stimulated the iron and steel industries, particularly mining and created many new towns along the new routes. Provided transporation of goods over long distances at a cost cheaper than roads, rivers or canals.
Buses and Trucks,Interstate Highway System in the US aided in transportation increased travel. Originally created for swift movement of the military. Major international examples include the Autbahn in Germany, highway from the Red Sea to Iraq across Jordan, the Trans-Amazonian highway in Brazil, Pan American highway in central and South America.
Political Role of Water Resources
Needed for human habitation, disputes over irrigation extraction, law of upstream/downstream dynamics of flow. Fight for use between environmentalists and residential and industrial developers. Boundary dispute occur between Mexico and the US over the Rio Grande River. Between Iraq and Iran over the intersection of the Tigres and Euphrates. Between Jordan and Israel over the Jordan River. Disputes over fair share usage from underground water as in the Edward's Aquifer and disputes over extraction of glacial water which is non-renewable.
Physical Role of Water Resources
Uses of water includeagricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities. Virtually all of these human uses require fresh water.97% of the water on the Earth is salt water. However, only three percent is fresh water; slightly over two thirds of this is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps. The remaining unfrozen freshwater is found mainly as groundwater, with only a small fraction present above ground or in the airFresh water is a renewable resource, yet the world's supply of clean, fresh water is steadily decreasing. Human settlements could not survive without water as the basis for a growing society.
Technological Modification and Adverse Effects on the Environment,Consequences of chemicals contained in the products that are essential for their effectiveness. Bioactive molecules that are detrimental to the environment have multiple sources. Some include the compounds that have biodegraded into more dangerous molecules, compounds that are directly contained in the product, or enter the environment through leaching from the containers of the cleaning agent. These bioactive molecules are contained in many common household products such as detergents, glass and oven cleaners. Sink holes, ozone holes, contamination of water and general pollution effect the environment.
Air pollution changes our planet'sclimate, but not all types of air pollution have the same effect. There are many different types of air pollution. Some types cause global warming to speed up. Others cause global warming to slow down by creating atemporary cooling effect for a few days or weeks. Read on the learn more about the pollution that causes Earth to warm and the pollution that causes Earth to cool. Some air pollutants cause more global warming. Some air pollutants slow down global warming.
is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry land region becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife. It is caused by a variety of factors, such as climate change and human activities. Desertification is a significant global ecological and environmental problem.
Developed in Europe and N. America in early 20th century and encourage spatial separation and prevented mixing of various land use activites within the same district. This includes single family houses, multi family houses, apartments, light industry, heavy industry, and commercial. Ther are restrictive covenants in property value, size of the lot, front garage or not, sidewalks or not, square footage of home, type of pets allowed and the type of materials used to build home
Sum total of everything created by humans. Material culture includes tangible items created by a culture. Non-material culture includes the beliefs and values of a culture.
Made of information handed down from generation to generation such as folkways, or habits of a culture (how you eat) and mores that are life/death decisions made by a culture (do not kill, rape, commit incest). made up of philosophical choice, organized religion, morals and ideas of right and wrong policed by the conscience. Made up of laws, externally policed about mores. Made up of unique communication such as writing, verbal language, sign language, nonverbal body language, made up of standards on beauty and taste, made up of the value of time.
Are the basic social unit, object of investigation for the sociologist, two or more people who interact with one another. Ways in which individuals are affected by groups to acquire culture by socialization, are subject to control by norms agreed on by past generations, experience stimulation by interaction, gain prestige, and obtain psychological help. There are primary and secondary categories of groups. Position within the group is either an ascribed (fixed) or achieved (individual effort) type. Facts that determine position include age, sex, occupation, marriage, lineage, and achievement.
Passing non material and material culture from one society to another ahd having it adopted in the latter society
Learning to live in a society that you do not grow up in
Teaching younger members of a society what is expected of them in terms of behavior toward the groups.
Are spatial units that function politically, socially, or economically as a distinct entity. Criteria for determining of a cultural region is one or more cultural traits in common, language, religion, history, physical location, ethnic makeup of population.
Middle East Cultural Region
include SW Asia and North Africa. Languages include Arabic, Turkish, Hebrew and Berber. Muslim, Christians, and Jews live together. Trade is primary form of economics while part of the Middle East has oil wealth, while the other part is poverty stricken. Political relationships with the US is balance between concessions to Israel and importing oil from Arab OPEC members. The Christian West has some cultural difficulty dealing with the Muslim Middle East.
Asian Cultural Region
Locations include east, southeast, and south Asia. Chinese and Hindi are spoken by largest population groups and every country has more than one language. Hindu, Muslim and Buddhist influence. The US trades with all of the large powers in Asia although the relationship with China is strained by the aftermath of Tienament Square, they retain most favore nation status. The US relationship with Japan is strained due to an imbalance in trade. Many sports shoes and clothes bought in US were made in Kirea. Southeast Asia is still in turmoil between communist forces and capitalist forces, Northern Asia divided into many small countries is struggling financially, former Soviet Central Asia may realing itself with Turkey.
European Cultural Religion
Northern, Western Eastern, and Southern. Languages vary by country. Largely Christian, second largest Jewish. 12 member European Community, trading on world market as one unit, Easteron Europe emerges from communism and has no market for its goods and there is a serious disagreement on General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Moved away from communism and socialism, many new elections in East Europe between 1989 -1992.
West, Central, East, South, diverse languages in every country. Due to colonialism Lingua Franca is popular. Islam, Animistic, and Christian religions popular. Recovering from colonialism, not very industrial still having to sell raw materials abroad. drought stricken Sahel and Eastern Africa is receiving aid from aborad. Great Rift Valley is sinking and experiencing flooding in below sea level areas. South Africa continues to battle over apartheid and cult of personality leadership in African nations has caused numerous governments to be overturned by coup d'etat.
Northern (Ango and French) Central (Anglo) Southern (Anglo, Hispanic, African) Western (Anglo, Hispanic, African, Asian) Predominantly English, large group of Spanish, French spoken in Canada, every language group on planet represented. Vast majority are Christian, small amount Jewish among other religions. Economic powerhouse, not all that environmentalist, and are republican-democraticly governmened.
Northern, Central, South, speak Spanish, Indian languages and Portuguese, vast are Catholic along with Christian denominations and Judaisim. Political turbulence due to lack of party leadership. United States active under Regan and Bush in undermining self determination in Nicaragua and El Salvador. Amazon Rainforest in peril due to slash and burn crop rotation among poor farmers in Brazil. Rainforest also damages by ranching and mining. Mexican economy on the rise under the leadership of Salinas de Gotari and in favor of NAFTA. Severe poverty in most countries the south American countries are partially developed, have large debts to world bank, and lots of poverty.
Settled Land Use
Rural, urban, Suburban, and exurban areas of the continent. Settlement nearness to water, nearness to food, nearness to transportation all important to a settlement succeeding. Urban centers build wherever, no zoning, built on a grid pattern, streets radiate from our center. Geographic location, population growth, available transporation, industrial factors that determine patterns of urban growth. Urban Spatial Interaction of People, Goods, and Services focus on concentric zone theory, central business district, transition zone, low income residential, middle income residential, commuter residential and high income estates. Sector theory is that the city has special areas zoned for special purposes such as San Antonio and military bases and Austin for government and education. Multiple nueclei theory includes many central business districts due to rapidly growing cities and swallowing up smaller cities, Houston for example. Urban problems include overcrowding, cost of living (food, clothes, housing, transporation, recreation, and waste disposal), availability of jobs, availability of equal education, crime (violence, theft, arson, and murder). Major urban locations in the World in the US include New York, Boston, Washington D.C. Los Angeles, Houston, St. Louis, and New Orleans. Canada's include Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, Latin America include Mexico City, Rio de janeior, Sao Paulo, Buenos Aires. In Europe there is Rome, Paris, London, Berlin. Africa includes Cairo, Cape Town, Dakar, Casablanca. Asia includes Istanbul, Moscow, Tehran, Calcutta, Beijin, and Jakarta.
Population tripled between 1940-80, political reform occurred in most countries. USA contributed billions in aid to South America. Oil boom in the 1970s and bust in 1980s in mexico. Communism, military dictatorships, increasing trade in illegal drugs were just some of the problems, particularly still trade in illegal drugs. Fidel Castro's revolution in Cuba in 1959 brought communism to the western hemisphere.
Regional conflicts in Columbia, Nicaragua and El Salvador caused unrest. Nicaragua in particular the Somozoa family in power from 1936-79. Major earthquake in 1972 and limited economic benefit to people. Evidence of corruption in government, Pedro Chamorro murder was a leftist in 1978, 1979 leftist communist, Marxist power took control of government from Somoza family. Support for Marxist movement from El Salvador, Cuba, and USSR. In 1980 Reagan was elected and the US begins to give aid to the Somozas. In 1987 Daniel Orteca, leader of Communist, Marxist movement signs Contadora peace Plan. In 1990 Free elections held, Violeta Chamorro, wife of murdered leftist wins. In El Salvador, from 1931 to present, studggled with military dictatorship. In 1969 Salvadorans immigrate and eventually lead to border war with Honduras. 1977 civil unrest comes to a head and duels. Only 2 percent of population owning no land. poorest 20% of population owns no land and receive 2% of national income. 1980 Salvadoran government land reform involves too little of the land for too many people. Today over 2 billion dollars in damage due to continuing civil unrest. Contadora Peace Plan of 1987 was a regional peace plan for mexico, Columbia, Venezuela, and Panama for Nicaragua,ease of poltical restrictions and grant of amnesty to some Contras for Nicaragua. Revolutions occurred in Nicaragua, El Salvador, Chile and Peru.
Regional Conflicts in South Africa, Ethiopia, Morocco/Spanish Sahara, and, Egypt, Libya, Chad, and Sudan. Revolutions occurred in Somalia, Djibouti, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Namibia, and Angola.
Middle East and Japan
Palesteinian Dislocation created refugees from Jordan, Lebanon, Egypt, and Syria Creation of Israel sanctioned by the UN in 1948 and wars with the Arab world from 1948-1982. Palestinians, Arab, Gaza/Golan/West Bank, Sinai, Beirut. Civil War in Lebanon has been going on since 1975 and threw out constitution of 1932. Demographic upheaval where Muslims attain majority and Christians decline. Iraq/iran conflict from 1980-88 along the Shatt-Al-Arab Waterway, land acquisition, and oil. Kuwait in 1990 underwent Operation Desert Storm, included loan repayment to Iraq, access to the Persian gulf, and the development of the Iraqi pipeline. Japan was rebuilt, particularly Nagasaki and Hiroshima after the atomic bomb destroyed them on US aid, Developed into technological giant, trade imbalance however with the Western world.
After Germany's defeat in WWII had to rebuild Germany and due to the Blitzkreig, the UK had to be rebuilt as well. Irish/British conflict over Britain's supremacy over them. European Common Market is their stock market. East/West split in Germany. Berlin airlift started to help people to get aid while stuck. Iron Curtain fell from East Berlin on east through the USSR Communism vs. Capitalism was the biggest fight between the USSR territories, communism won. Berlin Wall built to separate Western Europe from Eastern Europe, fell in 1989. Poland- Solidarity. Czechoslovakia-Prague Spring. East West reconciliation 1989, fall of the Wall in 1989 and Germany reunified. Yugoslavia created in 1990 out of land from the former USSR. Bosnia War began in 1995.
Major Forms of Government
Democracy branches within the US democracy, the legislative, executive, and judicial. Major political documents in the US government include the Bill of Rights, Constitution, and Declaration of Independence. Socialism, Communism (Cuba), and Constitutional Monarchy (UK).
Political Systems and Boundaries
Are seen in cities, counties, states, and nationally. All are different. Most states have some authority that the national government doesn't/
Must understand world cultures. Ethnocentricity means that you perceive that your ethnic group is the center of everything or does everything best. Positive attributes include patriotism and communal pride. However, negative attributes include seeing other ethnic groups as inferior, resistance to learning about new cultures, and exploitation of other cultures. Cultural diversity is extremely common throughout the world, particularly in the US, however is a concern of ethnocentrism. General concerns of the US in the world includes scientific and technological issues, humanitarianism issues and military issues.
Democratic Values and Beliefs
These include justice, equality, responsibility, freedom, diversity, and privacy.
Significant Characteristics of Major Culture Groups
Protestant Christian work ethics are seen as being dominant in the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Israel. Time constraints are not particularly valuable. Take naps in latin America, Arab World, Africa. The welfare of the group is more important than the individual in latin America, Arab World, Africa, Asia.
Forms of Government in Various World Areas
US and Japan have limited capitalism, France has socialism, Great Britain also has socialism, but mainly falls under constitutional monarchy. Germany has limited capitalism too. Oil Exporting countries include Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Iran, Libya, Algeria and Venezuela. Most of these include monarchies, dictatorships, socialism, and limited capitalism. Poland and Israel are socialistic countries, South Africa is limited capitalism, China is communist, India is a federal republic, Russia is in flux, Brazil and Argentina are democracies.
Physical barriers which create political boundaries
include mountains, rivers, deserts, forests, large bodies of water. Other political barriers include imperialist nations imposing borders on colonies, drawn to reflect habitat of tribal or ethnic groups, drawn at prominent latitude or longitude lines, drawn at the edge of large private land holdings.
Four Basic economic Concepts
Unlimited wants and desires include individual and collective efforts, limited resources have natural, capital, and human resources, scarcity and choice include what and how much, how and for whom. Opportunity costs include what decisions must be made in order to best spend limited capital.
Economic Systems and Process
Production of goods and services include food clothing housing, medical care, and luxury items. Produced by using land, labor, and capital. For consumers in the public, business and government sector, and a supply equaling demand by price determined by demand and supply, affects distribution to consumer. The economic process includes the input of productive resources such as natural and human (people and their skills and knowledge) and capital goods such as factories and machines. The output is the goods and services provided to the consumer.
Free and Private Enterprise and Competition
Free private enterprise is an economic activity in which markets and prices determine most of the answers to the four economic questions that are what to produce, how to produce how many to produce and for whom to produce. Characteristics include private ownership, freedom of choice, self interest/profit, competition, limited government regulation, and use of a market system.
US and Government in the Economy
The US has a mixed economy that is market and command economy so that there is free and private enterprise but does have a small government role. The role of government in a market economy is to safeguard the market system, support public welfare programs, provide public goods and services, stabilize the economy by giving positive and negative incentives, and protecting the public against harmful activities. Role of government in regulating a market economy is the economy is regulated to maintain a free market where competition is encouraged, the federal reserve system serves the money need of all parts of the country, and the government controls monetary and fiscal polciey. The economic regulation has its costs and benefits as regulation helps maintain a balance in the economy by preventing monopoly and encouraging competition, government regulation increases the efficiency of some projects of both private industry and public agencies, some large and expensive projects need government financing or support to succeed in the short or long run, and government regulation takes away some local control of the projects. The government protects and consumer/produces in a market economy. The consumer has their rights to safety, honesty, and free choice in the goods and services they decide to own and use. Consumers influence the economy by deciding how to spend their money, consumers are free to choose how to spend their income, and the way they spend affects and the quality and quantity of products and services that producers offer. Consumers buy products based on their own economic interests. Consumers are free to acquire, use and dispose of private property and the goods and services they buy. Conditions that led to consumer protection include monopolies, consumer fraud, and product hazards.
Rely on central planning and have planners that are high level engineers and industrial experts and political leader, and these planners decide what will be produced and when. The quota system dictates who shall receive the goods and services produced and when they will be received. Government price setting is used to set the wage rates for every job, set the interest rates, rents, and profits. The government ownership of all industries involved, which is nationalism, and there is limited consumer choice. Examples include the USSR and Eastern Europe who were united in a command economic council called the COMECON. Albania still remains a command economy, and there are some small element of a command economy in many countries today, even in the US.
also called Magna Carta Libertatum or The Great Charter of the Liberties of England, is an Angevin charter originally issued in Latin in the year 1215. It was translated into vernacular French as early as 1219, and reissued later in the 13th century in modified versions. The later versions excluded the most direct challenges to the monarch's authority that had been present in the 1215 charter. The charter first passed into law in 1225; the 1297 version, with the long title (originally in Latin) "The Great Charter of the Liberties of England, and of the Liberties of the Forest," still remains on the statute books of England and Wales.The 1215 charter required King John of England to proclaim certain liberties and accept that his will was not arbitrary—for example by explicitly accepting that no "freeman" (in the sense of non-serf) could be punished except through the law of the land, a right that still exists.
The Feudal System
Found extensively throughout Europe in the Middle Ages. The political system in which kings and powerful nobles granted land of other nobles in return for loyalty, military assistance, services to manors, lords, and serfs. The Church had many responsibilities including the parish priest, bishop, archbishop, and the pope and his curia. The absolute monarchy was a central government that was more powerful than local, the ruler determined policy, mercantilism was what drove the economy, and the colonies were developed to extend their rule and empire, and the divine rights of the kings extended their power so they could be seen as emissaries of God.
The Parliamentary System
The Revolution in England began in the 1640s and 50s during the Tudor dynasty in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In the 1530s Henry VIII made England a Protestant nation, and in 1558, Elizabeth I strengthened Protestantism in England and created Two houses of Parliament, the House of Lords and House of Commons. James I of England reigned from 1603-25 and there was a conflict over taxes. Charles I reigned from 1625-49 and in 1628 and 1629 had a confrontation with Parliament over petition of rights, and as a result, refused to call Parliament from 1629-40. In 1640 called a session for Long Parliament. This ended illegal taxation, abolished the Court of Star Chamber, executed two of the most hated advisers of the King, and reduced the King's authority.
The English Civil War
The Royalists fought the Roundheads, and in 1646, Lord Oliver Cromwell defeated the Royalists (Rump Parliament) and abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords. He proclaimed a commonwealth and dissolved the Parliament. Unfortunately for him, Charles II took power in 1660 and he restored the monarchy and ruled until 1685. James II ruled over the Glorious Revolution and the Habeas Corpus Act of 1679. William and Mary of Orange took power in 1688 and presided over the 1689 Bill of Rights and The Act of Toleration, the 1701 Act of Settlement, and in 1700 fully restored Parliament to its fully power. Philosophers who were popular during this time were Thomas Hobbes with his Leviathan in 1651, John Locke with his Two Treaties on Civil Government in 1690, and Jean Jaqcues Rousseau's social contract theory. The English Constitution established the Constitutional Monarch from 1721-1742. The Whigs had power of the House of Commons, and Sir Robert Walpole was established in the new role of the Prime Minister, and there was a new limited constitutional monarchy. The British Constitution consisted of three document, The Magna Carta, Petition of Rights, and Bill of Rights. The Acts of Parliament stated how they were supposed to operate, and the tradition called for a prime minister and cabinet for the Parliament, and it became the oldest constitutional government in the world.
Theories and Theorists
John Locke stated his famous inalienable rights to be "Life, liberty, and property". The Iroquois Confederation included governors, women elected and removed the chiefs, and there was 500 years of peace prior to their removal. Thomas Jefferson rewrote the inalienable rights to be Life Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. Baron de Montesquieu wrote the Spirit of the Laws in 1748, Voltaire wrote the Letters on England in 1734, Rousseau the Social Contract in 1762. All people were created equally, equal opportunity and equal justice, all powers of government belong to the people, government created to protect individual rights, government requires consent of the governed, and people have the right to alter or abolish and setup a new government. Causes of mercantilism or economic control and taxation by the government led to the development of these theories. Effects of these theories are that people have certain inalienable rights, all powers of government belong to the people.
Imperialism and Nationalism
Vast changes around the world occurred from 1870-1914, particularly in Europe. Italy and Germany both became unified nations, Russia became an autocracy, and Austria and Hungary formed a dual monarchy. Imperialism created bitter rivalries over power. White Man's Burden became prevalent. Missionary motives were to spread Christianity, French established colonies in West Africa, and the British Empire expanded so much that the sun never actually set on the British Empire as it stretched all over the globe. The US pushed for westward expansion towards Alaska and Hawaii, and after the Civil War ended there was rapid industrialization throughout the country and more immigration to the West. The Monroe Doctrine and the 1898 Spanish American War spurred feelings of nationalism. In India the Indian National Congress of 1885 was established as a democratic political party to support Indian independence from Britain. The Mexican Revolution overthrew Profioro Diaz and his government and eventually established the PRI party and the Mexican Constitution of 1917. The Meiji Restoration in Japan occurred when the constitution was accepted in 1889 to impress Western government with Japan for progress and to provide the Japanese people with a voice in government. Sino-Japanese War fought over control over Korea. The Treaty of Shimonoseki recognized Korean independence. Southeast Asia colonies continued with the French in Indochina, the US in the Philippines, and the British in Burma, the US in Guam, Germany in the Mariana and Carolina Islands, the Netherlands in Indonesia, and the French in New Caledonia. The British were also in Jamaica and Bahamas, US in the Panama Canal Zone, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands. The Netherlands were in Curacao, Aruba, and Bonaire, and the French were in Guadalupe in St. Martin and others.
Three Economic Systems
Traditional (traditional customs, labor intensive trades, and subsistence agriculture), Command (central government planning, central public ownership and operation, few if any incentives, and limited consumer goods), and free enterprise/ free market/ or capitalist economy has private property (individual's rights to own, use, and dispose things of value), price system (resources allocated by supply and demand), competition (rivalry among buyers and sellers to purchase goods and services) and incentives (an economic self interest, an effort to achieve the greatest return from resources, and profit motive- the force that drive entrepreneurs to risk capital in business ventures).
US Mixed Economy
Limited government with rules and regulations to settle disputes, competition guaranteed, promotes individual welfare, and has some socialized government programs like Medicare and Medicaid, and health maintenance organizations. The circular flow model has four factors of production produces Gross National Income, land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship.
Types of Economies
Command economies use central planning, use the quota system, government price setting, and have limited goods production. Market economies are supply and demand based, have economic incentives, economic freedom, have a limited government, and have competition. traditional economies include subsistence, surplus, customs and traditions that hold them together.
Economic Theories and Theorists
Include Adam Smith, Karl Marx, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus, John Maynard Keynes, and Milton Friedman. Characteristics of capitalism are private ownership, freedom of choice, self interest, competition, market system, little government influence, survival of the fittest, and moderate to high unemployment. Characteristics of socialism include the principle means of production is owned by the government, resources are allocated by the government plan, low unemployment, high taxes, many free services, and standardization of consumer products. Characteristics of Communism include no private ownership of land, state run industries, five year production plans, no unemployment, and only the basic needs of food, clothing, shelter, and health are met.
These include the now defunct USSR, limited capitalism in the US, Japan, Germany, Saudi Arabia, and Algeria. Socialistic economies include France and Great Britain. Only one, the United Arab Emirates is a monarchy. Iran has a one party democratic economy, while both Iraq and Libya include military dictatorships.
Major economic organizations and trade agreements
European Community (old common market), OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), and the Pacific Rim, which includes Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Malaysia, and Singapore.
Characteristics of less Developed Economies
Low per capita income, rapid population growth, subsistence farming, little technology, substandard education and health care, and large foreign debt payments.
Economic Assistance Agencies
These include private loan investments, the World Bank (IMF) International Monetary Fund, and the IBRD (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development).
Relationship Between Developed & Less Developed Economies
The technology transfer of goods and personnel depends on the type of economy. Goods come from countries that use menial labor, and personnel comes from strong economies and ideas. Foreign aids include loans, grants, cash, military, and cultural. The loans, grants, and military are for those countries that have less developed economies, whereas cash and cultural loans are to those where business is strong.
Characteristics of Native American Cultures
Migration to North America occurred over the land bridge over the Bering Sea around 8000 BC. The land bridge began melting so many people began emigrating to eastern tip of Asia. By 2000 BC, they had migrated as far as Greenland. The Ancient Dorset culture in the eastern Arctic were hunters of seal and caribous. They lived in skin tents that were raised on low stone walls and built snow houses for the winter months. They made weapons from bone and stone and had crude art objects. The Thule culture of the western Arctic were whal hunters and they traveled and hunted by kayaks and uniaks, main mode of travel was the sled dogs. They wore skin clothing from the animals that other tribes traded for whale blubber. In 800 AD they migrated east and absorbed the Dorset people into their culture. The Canadian and US Indians established cultures in the Great Basin by 1 AD and there were hunters, fishers, and gatherers in California and the Northwest by 200-400 AD. The Southwestern Indians were the Hohokams and were located by the Salt and Gila Rivers in Arizona where they migrated to from NW Mexico. They were cultivators and were known for their irrigation and pottery. Their religion was linked to Mexico, and their descendents were the Pima and Papago Indians. the Mogollan Culture was known for their brown pottery, pit houses, and for living in the Four Corners area. The Anasazi Culture were descendants of the Moogollon people and began as basket makers but eventually went to pottery in 400 AD. They built pit houses, stone houses, and lived in cliffs. They farmed, hunted, and gathered, and abandoned the Four Corners area in 1300 AD. Their descendants are the Pueblo people and are split into many tribes and manylanguages. Lived in more definitive villages and multistoried houses. Height of culture was 1000-1300 AD.
Midwest and Eastern Indians
The Eastern Archaic people were hunters, gatherers, and fishers. they had permanent housing in seasonal camps, tools, fishbone hooks and clasps, clothing was from the skins of animals they hunted. Arts were limited, but they crafted out of the land and the animals they had access too. They buried people in mounds, which began around 300 BC. The Adena culture is in the Ohio and Kentucky areas, had no form of agriculture. They focused on art and made pottery, stone pipes, and jewelry, and art objects. They also buried people in mounds. The Hopewell culture lived in Illinois, Ontario, and New York, they specialized in arts and were particularly adept in trade and tribute and eventually spread to the south. The Mississippi culture appeared around 700 AD and had a thousand year "temple-mound" period. They built temples and pyramids for religion. Elite class was supported by hunters, fisherman, farmers, tradesmen, and craftsmen.
In the far north, the Alaska and Northern Canadian Eskimos built igloos for warmth and wore animal skins. The western indains, particularly on the northwest coast lived in the rich forests and built totem poles. The intermountain Indians, those who lived from California to the Rockies were nomadic and where primarily of the Ute and Shoshone tribe. The Southwestern US Indians who lived in Arizona and New Mexico lived in hogans and were primarily Navajo. The great plains Indians lived in teepees and were the Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Osage, and Nez Perce. The Southeast Indians lived from Louisiana to Florida and up to New England. They were descendants of the mound builders and were primarily hunters and farmers. The Eastern Woodlands Indians, who lived around the Great Lakes up to New England were forest hunters and comprised the League of Iroquois. Tribes in this confederation were the Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga, Onedia, and Cayuga.
Characteristics of Middle America Indians
The Mayas lived in the Yucatan Peninsula and spread into Guatemala with their capital city at Tikal. They had pyramid shaped temples with art carved on them and invented irrigation canals to support their large population. The Aztecs lived in Central Mexico and their capital was at Tenochtitlan, which is now Mexico City. They were great artists. They were conquered and nearly wiped out by Hernando Cortez. The Incas lived in Peru and Equador and their capital was at Cuzco in the Andes Mountains in Peru. They were conquered by Pizarro.
Early Colonization of North America
Scandinavian influences came from Eric the Red, a Viking who explored Greenland, and his son Leif Ericson explored the NE coast of Canada and left in 1013 for unknown reasons. The Spanish explored most of North America by Balboa and Magellan who represented Spain and were looking for a western route to Asia. Magellan renamed Balboa's South Sea the Pacific Ocean. Magellan's crew sailed on around the world after he was murdered in 1520. Spain won an empire in the New World. Hernando Cortes subdued the Aztecs with horses and guns and brought small pox, measles, and influenza with him, wiping out most of the Aztecs. Francisco Coronado looked for the Seven Cities of Gold, particularly in the SW US. Hernando De Soto discovered the mouth of the Mississippi River and explored southwestern USA. The French explorer Samuel de Champlain explored Nova Scotia and Quebec and LaSalle explored the Mississippi River and named Louisiana after the king of France. Cadillac built Fr. Detroit. The English had a colony at Roanoke North Carolina but disappeared in 1585. Jamestown was established by John smith in 1607. The Plymouth, Massachusets colony was established in 1620 with the Mayflower Compact by William Bradford, who were the first pilgrims and were separatists. The Dutch established New Netherlands, which is now New York by peter Minuit and established Fort Orange and Albany.
Development of Colonies
New England colonies were established and called Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire. The middle colonies were also known as the breadbasket colonies because of their fertile land. these colonies are Pennsylvania, New York, Delaware, New Jersey. The Southern colonies are Maryland, Virginia, South and North Carolina, and Georgia.
There was a social class in the colonies, which started with the gentry, the esquire and madame landowners, who often turned to politics and established the first colleges in America. The Middling sort were the farmers and shopkeepers that kept the economy going. The meaner sort was another form of indentured servitude, and was reserved for those who wished to not be punished judicially, where they served a certain amount of time to absolve them from their crimes. Indentured servants were those who were meant to do the menial labor on the land of the gentry and were not expected to have a long life expectancy.
Legislatures and assemblies resembled English parliament. Voting requirements were that the voter must be a white male landowner who was a member of the Church of England. Foundations of the representative government came from the Mayflower Compact, the Iroquois Confederacy, the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, and the Virigina House of Burgess.
Relations Between the Colonies and Europe
England passed the Navigation Acts. Mercantilism was a big deal and helped with trade. The Triangular trade was established with rum, guns, gunpowder, and cloth from New England, slaves were sent to New England from Africa, and molasses and sugar from the West Indies went to both to make rum.
Political and Economic Relations
There are three types of colonies, proprietary, charter, and royal. Mercantilist economic systems only work with raw materials, if there is a market for finished products and investments made in military. The government of each colony consists of an owner appoints people in a proprietary colony, self-governing in a charter colony, and an appointed governor where he appoints a council in a royal colony. Key individuals in economics and politics include Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin, John Adams, and the Committees of Correspondence and the Sons of Liberty. The Mayflower Compact, Massachusetts Constitution, the Tax Act, the Albany Plan, the New England Confederation, the Tax Congress, the First Continental Congress, the Declaration of Independence, and the Second Continental Congress all played roles in the shaping of the US government.
Effects of the French Revolution on the US
The US supported French fight for liberty which cause a conflict with the British, and Jay makes a treaty with them called the Neutrality Proclamation in that the US would not support either side in the European war. Forbade Americans from taking warlike action against France or Britain. John Adams' stand toward the French because some Americans did want war with France because of what happened with the XYZ Affair, problems with France over Jay's Treaty with Britain, and the US Constitution was finally ratified in all thirteen states. Adams became very unpopular within his own Federalist Party because some believed war would benefit the country while some believed war would weaken support for Jefferson and the Republicans. The party eventually split between John Adams and Alexander Hamilton. The Alien and Sedition Acts allowed the President to expel any alien thought to be dangerous to the country and so that citizen could be fined and jailed if they criticized public officials.
Dangers at Sea Faced by American Sailors
American trade was threatened in the early 1800s, conflict with the Barbary States, impressments of American sailors by the British at sea, treated as slaves and not recognized as a country or citizens of the American. British warship seized American sailors because they needed sailors and was retaliation toward Americans for helping the French. There was an embargo and the Non-Intercourse Acts were very unpopular and many American sailors lost their jobs and American farmers couldn't ship goods abroad, and citizens were unable to get imports such as sugar, salt, tea, and molasses. War Fever ensued with people who really wanted to fight Britain, and Henry Clay led a group of War Hawks who pushed for war. Felt that Britain was insulting the US by seizing American sailors.
Westward Expansion & Indians
Indians attacked the white settlers who were settling on their land. Tecumseh won the respect of the Indians and convinced them to preserve their traditional ways. Settlers invaded the Northwest Territory and clashed with the Indians and the battle of Fallen Timbers ensued over who controlled the Northwest Territory, which was a decisive victory for the US and was led by general Anthony Wayne.
Causes and Relations of the War of 1812
Major battles in the war of 1812 included first war at sea for the US and a battle for control of Lake Erie. Oliver Hazard Perry led the forces and said the famous phrase "We have met the enemy and they are ours." Battle of the Thames- William H. Harrison, battle of Horseshoe Bend-Andrew Jackson, the burning of Washington D.C.- James Madison, and battle of New Orleans- Andrew Jackson. The peace treaty that was written called the Treaty of Ghent ended the war in 1814 and the country returned to prewar conditions.
Foreign Relations with American Neighbors
Canada achieved self-rule and held dominion over the entire country with a government similar to Britain. The Nations of Latin America began winning independence once they were inspired by the American and French revolutions. Simon Bolivar led the revolution in Venezuela, Jose de San Martin led Argentina, and Miguel Hidalgo and Jose Morelos led Mexico for their independence from Spain. The Adams-Onis Treaty gained the US the Florida territory. the Monroe Doctrine was established and America agreed that the USA would not interfere in foreign affairs with European nations or colonies. European nations would not interfere with newly independent nations of Latin America.
Political and Economic Causes of American Revolution
Indirect taxation was taxes on commerce about L 2,000,000 per year, incidental revenue on trade regulation, and the navigation acts. Direct taxation from the crown included the Sugar Act of 1764, Currency Act of 1764, Stamp Act of 1765, Quartering Act of 1765, the Townshend Act of 1767, and the Tea Act of 1773. Mercantilism was taxed on everything that was bought and the revenue was supposed to go to the crown. French and Indian war began in 1754 and started over the class of the fur traders encroaching on land speculators land to trap animals for their fur. The result of the war was the reduction of France's power in the west. Pontiac's Rebellion was an Indian uprising after the French and Indian War that stemmed from unhappiness over British post war policies, which were remedied in the end.
Post 1750 Conflicts in the Colonies
Boston Massacre, Boston Tea Party, Intolerable Acts, Declaration of independence, and the Revolutionary War.
was an English-American political activist, author, political theorist and revolutionary. As the author of two highly influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution, he inspired the American Patriots in 1776 to declare independence from Britain. His ideas reflected Enlightenment era rhetoric of transnational human rights.He has been called "a corsetmaker by trade, a journalist by profession, and a propagandist by inclination."
was a lawyer in colonial Massachusetts, a member of the Massachusetts provincial assembly, and an early advocate of the Patriot views against British policy that led to the American Revolution. His catchphrase "Taxation without representation is tyranny" became the basic Patriot position.
was an attorney, planter and politician who became known as an orator during the movement for independence in Virginia in the 1770s. A Founding Father, he served as the first and sixth post-colonial Governor of Virginia, from 1776 to 1779 and from 1784 to 1786. Henry led the opposition to the Stamp Act of 1765 and is remembered for his "Give me Liberty, or give me Death!" speech. Along with Samuel Adams and Thomas Paine, he is regarded as one of the most influential champions of Republicanism and an invested promoter of the American Revolution and its fight for independence.After the Revolution, Henry was a leader of the anti-federalists in Virginia. He opposed the United States Constitution, fearing that it endangered the rights of the States as well as the freedoms of individuals; he helped gain adoption of the Bill of Rights. By 1798 however, he supported President John Adams and the Federalists;
was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the third President of the United States (1801-1809). At the beginning of theAmerican Revolution, he served in the Continental Congress, representing Virginia and then served as a wartime Governor of Virginia (1779-1781). Just after the war ended, from mid-1784 Jefferson served as a diplomat, stationed in Paris. In May 1785, he became the United States Minister to France. Jefferson was the first United States Secretary of State (1790-1793) serving under President George Washington. With his close friend James Madison he organized the Democratic-Republican Party, and subsequently resigned from Washington's cabinet. Elected Vice President in 1796, when he came in second to John Adams of the Federalists, Jefferson opposed Adams and with Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which attempted to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts. Elected president in what Jefferson called the Revolution of 1800, he oversaw the purchase of the vast Louisiana Territory from France (1803), and sent the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806) to explore the new west. His second term was beset with troubles at home, such as the failed treason trial of his former Vice President Aaron Burr. With escalating trouble with Britain who was challenging American neutrality and threatening shipping at sea, he tried economic warfare with his embargo laws which only damaged American trade. In 1807, President Jefferson signed into law a bill that banned the importation of slaves into the United States.
was a merchant, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution. He served as president of the Second Continental Congress and was the first and third Governor of theCommonwealth of Massachusetts. He is remembered for his large and stylish signature on the United States Declaration of Independence, so much so that the term "John Hancock" became, in the United States, a synonym for signature.
was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. As a politician in colonial Massachusetts, Adams was a leader of the movement that became the American Revolution, and was one of the architects of the principles of American republicanism that shaped the political culture of the United States. He was a second cousin to President John Adams. After Parliament passed the Coercive Acts in 1774, Adams attended the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, which was convened to coordinate a colonial response. He helped guide Congress towards issuing the Declaration of Independence in 1776, and helped draft the Articles of Confederation and the Massachusetts Constitution. Adams returned to Massachusetts after the American Revolution, where he served in the state senate and was eventually elected governor.
was the second President of the United States (1797-1801), having earlier served as the first Vice President of the United States. An American Founding Father, he was a statesman, diplomat, and a leader of American independence from Great Britain. Well educated, he was an Enlightenmentpolitical theorist who promoted republicanism and wrote prolifically about his often seminal ideas, both in published works and in letters to his wife and key adviser Abigail as well as to other Founding Fathers. Adams signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts, and built up the army and navy especially in the face of an undeclared naval war (called the "Quasi-War") withFrance, 1798-1800. The major accomplishment of his presidency was his peaceful resolution of the conflict in the face of Hamilton's opposition.
Was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, musician, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. He invented the lightning rod,bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and the glass 'armonica'. He facilitated many civic organizations, including a fire department and a university.Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity; as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies, then as the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation.
was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, serving as the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He also presided over the convention that drafted the Constitution, which replaced the Articles of Confederation. The Constitution established the position of President of the republic, which Washington was the first to hold. in 1787 Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention that drafted the United States Constitution. Elected unanimously as the first President of the United States in 1789, he attempted to bring rival factions together to unify the nation. He supported Alexander Hamilton's programs to pay off all state and national debt, to implement an effective tax system and to create a national bank (despite opposition from Thomas Jefferson). Washington proclaimed the United States neutral in the wars raging in Europe after 1793. He avoided war with Great Britain and guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795, despite intense opposition from the Jeffersonians.
King George III
was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire until his promotion to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, and places farther afield in Africa, the Americas and Asia. Early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of its American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence.
was an English colonial administrator, best known for his role in effecting significant changes in the structure of the England's North American colonies in the later years of the 17th century. His reports to the Lords of Trade (predecessors to the 18th century Board of Trade) convinced King Charles II to revoke the charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1684, and he was a leading figure in the unpopular Dominion of New England. Randolph served as secretary of the dominion. While in that position, he argued for tighter crown control over proprietary and charter colonies whose administrations lacked such oversight, and he was often given the difficult task of enforcing England's Navigation Acts in whichever colony he was posted to, often against significant local popular and political resistance. His actions were a significant contribution to the development of Great Britain's colonial administrative infrastructure, but he remained unpopular in the dominion. During the 1689 Boston revolt, which deposed Andros and overthrew the dominion, he was jailed.
Was a general in the American Revolutionary War and a leader of the Garde nationale during the French Revolution. In the American Revolution, Lafayette served as a major-general in the Continental Army under George Washington. Wounded during the Battle of Brandywine, he still managed to organize a successful retreat. He served with distinction in the Battle of Rhode Island. In the middle of the war, he returned to France to negotiate an increase inFrench support. On his return, he blocked troops led by Cornwallis at Yorktown while the armies of Washington and those sent by King Louis XVI under the command of General de Rochambeau, Admiral de Grasse, and Admiral de Latouche Tréville prepared for battle against the British.
Declaration of Independence
The preamble includes that all men are created equal, that there are certain inalienable rights (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness), that the government derives power from the governed, and the right of the people to alter or abolish the government. Prominent figures in the writing include Thomas Jefferson who was the primary author. There was also Ben Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, John Hancock (whose signature is the most prominent) and Richard Henry Lee. Philosophers whose ideas played into the conception and ideas of the DoI include Thomas Jefferson, John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau, and Montesquieu. The Second Continental Congress convened in 1775 and managed the colonial war effort, and moved incrementally towards independence, adopting the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. By raising armies, directing strategy, appointing diplomats, and making formal treaties, the Congress acted as the de facto national government of what became the United States. The Revolutionary War occurred from 1775-81 and was the war for independence from Britain, which the US won in 1781. The Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776.
Articles of Confederation
Was the first US constitution. Was approved by Congress in 1777 and ratified in 1781 by all thirteen states of the new nation. It established the roles and duties of Congress. The roles and duties included to make war and peace, to send and receive ambassadors, to make treaties, and to borrow money from the federal government. The weak structure was as 'firm as a league of friendship'. Each state had one vote, they could not lay and collect taxes and couldn't regulated trade and commerce. There was no executive in Congress, there was no national court system, and all states had to approve amendments, and there was a weak military.
Basic Principles of the Constitution
Included in this was popular sovereignty, limited government, separation of powers, checks and balances, judicial review, and federalism. When it came to ratifying it, only nine out of thirteen states approved it. The Federalist leaders for it were Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison, John Marshall, and John Adams. The anti-Federalist leaders against it were Thomas Jefferson, Richard Henry Lee, John Hancock, and Samuel Adams. the Federalist Papers were public by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison that promoted the ratification of the Constitution. The Virginia Statute was written by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson about religious freedom. Delaware was the first to ratify in 1787 and New Hampshire was the last to ratify in 1788. The Bill of Rights added as a compromise in 1791 and was ratified that same year on December 15th. The first ten amendments were civil liberties. It guaranteed freedom of expression and belief, freedom and security of the person, and fair and equal treatment before the law.
A group of people joined together on the basis of certain common principles, who seek to control government in order to bring about the adoption of certain public policies and programs. The United States emphases is election oriented. The functions of the party is to develop broad policy for itself, offer leadership choice, form a link between government and the electorate, provide vehicle of expression, provide vehicle of compromise, nominating candidates for office, informer-stimulator, approve candidates, and act as a 'watch-dog' for people within the party. The political process was based on a two-party system, historically began in 1787. The Federalist Party was led by Hamilton and the anti-Federalist led by Jefferson. The Federalists were rich and well born, supported the constitution, and favored a dominant executive, strong national government. The anti-Federalists favored the common man, limited government, strong congress, and strict construction of provisions of the constitution.
Parties Development through Elections & Issues
John Adams was chosen the president and was decided by three votes in the electoral college. Thomas Jefferson defeated Adams in 1800 and ended Federalists power. Jeffersonian Republicans/Jacksonian Democrats controlled presidency from 180-41, 1845-59, 853-61, 1885-89, 1893-97, 1913-21, 1932-53. Whigs controlled from 1841-45 and 1849-53. Modern Republicans controlled from 1861-85, 1889-93, 1897-1913, 1921-33, 1953-61, 1969-77, 1981-93. National Republican Whig issues were over public lands, the second bank of the US, high tariffs, and slavery. Andrew Jackson who was in office from 1829-37 and his issues were farmers, debtors, frontier pioneers, slaveholders, South and West, universal white male suffrage, increase in elective office, and the spoils system. The Whig leaders included Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. Coalition leaders consisted of bankers, merchants, industrialists, Southern planters, and they all favored high tariffs. William Henry Harrison elected in 1840, and was first president to die in office and was a Whig candidate. Zachary Taylor was elected in 1848 as a Whig candidate. Took a moderate stance on slavery and angered many Southerners. In 1850 the major parties split over question of slavery. Democrats split North and South, the Republican party was extremely successful in the 1860 election and Abraham Lincoln was elected to the presidency. From 1860-1932 the Republican party became known as the Grand Old Party (GOP) from third party to major party status. The party had business and financial interests and farmers, laborers, and newly freed African Americans boosted the party to popularity.
Treaty of Paris
Ratified in 1784, Britain got Canada from France after the Revolutionary War, and all the lands east of the Mississippi went to Britain and Florida was ceded to Spain.
United States gained the Louisiana Purchase
Pickney Treaty with Spain in 1800, Spain signed secret treaty with Napoleon to return lands west of the Mississippi. Jefferson feared that Napoleon would expand his empire into North America. Livingston and Monroe went to France to buy New Orleans for $10 million, but ended up with the Louisiana Purchase for $15 million in 1803. Lewis and Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase. They started up the Missouri River at St. Louis, spent first winter in North Dakota. They met Sacajawea who became their guide through the lands. They traveled up the Missouri River past the Yellowstone River, crossed the Rockies and the Continental Divide, traveled down the Columbia River and by November 7, 1805 reached the Pacific Ocean.
Oregon became part of the US in 1818. There were conflicting claims by Russia, Britain, Spain, and the US to the land. U.S. claim was based on John Jacob Astor's settlement in 1811. British claimed Sir Francis Drake was there in 1577. In 1818, US and Britain agreed on joint occupation, Spain and Russia left. Compromise with Britain with Oregon divided at 49 degrees north latitude, Britain got lands north and US got lands south of this line. the Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain for Spanish Florida.
Movement to Oregon
First settlers in the Oregon Country were Marcus and Narcissa Whitman, missionaries who were the first to reach there. Narcissa was the first white woman to cross the Rocky Mountains. Diseases killed the Cayuse Indians which caused retaliation on the Whitmans. Oregon Fever swept the US. In 1843 wagon trains left for Oregon. People marveled at stories of wheat growing taller then man. By the 1840s, Americans outnumbered British who jointly occupied the area. In 1846 Oregon was divided at latitude line 49N with British getting northern part, and USA getting lands South of the line.
Acquisition of Texas
First Americans to settle in Texas were Moses Austin and his son Stephen F. Austin. Moses received a land grant in Texas in 1820, but he died and Stephen carried on taking settlers into Texas in 1821. Texans won their independence in 1836. They became inundated with Protestant settlers who felt no loyalty to Mexico and they began having problems with them. In 1830, Mexico forbade Americans from moving to Texas. Texans resented Mexican law. There were several battles, the most famous being Battle of Gonzalez, Battle of Alamo, Goliad Massacre immediately following the Texan defeat at the Battle of Coleto Creek, and the final battle at San Jacinto at which Texas won. Declared independence on March 2, 1836. However Mexico refused to recognize Texas independence and Texas was nearly bankrupt. Hoped to solve that by becoming part of the US, and they became a US state in 1845.
Acquisition of the Mexican Cession Area
Mexico was angry that the US annexed Texas and Mexico started war with them because Mexico still didn't recognize their independence. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war and Mexico had to give up its land in Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, California, and a large portion of area north of Utah in the wake of the American victory. Juan de Onate built the first white settlement at Santa Fe. William Becknell established the Santa Fe trail. Father Juipero Serra was a missionary who built the first mission at San Diego. Spanish forced the Indians to work for the missions in California. Thousands died from overwork and disease and there was a sharp decline in Native American population. Manifest Destiny was declared, that it was clearly obvious that America was meant to expand to the Pacific.
Mexico was angry at the annexation of Texas and feared that the Americans in California and New Mexico might rebel as the Texans had done. In April of 1846 president Polk sent General Zachary Taylor to Texas. Americans and Mexicans clashed with casualties on both sides. Polk claimed that Mexico had shed American blood on American soil.
Mormons settled in Utah under Joseph Smith, but was later murdered. Brigham Young was chosen as the new leader of the Mormons and he moved them to Utah for a safer home. California had a wide mix of people that were spurred by the 1849 Gold Rush. Native Americans were driven off their lands, as were Mexicans, but the Mexicans continued to stay. Chinese Americans were used as laborers and settled there. African Americans went to California seeking gold, but faced discrimination.
Era of Good Feelings
James Monroe became president in 1820 and was end of the Federalist party. Daniel Webster spoke for the North, John C. Calhoun represented the South, and Henry Clay for the West. Congress helped American industry after the War of 1812. Established the second Bank of the US and the Tariff of 1816 protected the American trade.
Strain on Economy
High tariffs caused a crisis in 1832. Conflict between Northerners and Southerners over the Tariff of Abominations, which made Southerners pay higher taxes and prices on goods they didn't produce. The Nullification Act passed and the tariffs went away. Native Americans were forced off their land because it was ideal for growing cotton. Land hungry settlers wanted the land for themselves. Indian Removal Act of 1830 by President Andrew Jackson gave the government the authority to move Indians from their own land to land east of the Mississippi. This led to the Trail of Tears, the removal of the Indians, of many who died from terrible treatment, disease, lack of food, and clothing. Life became much more democratic in the 1820s in the spirit of equality and more people became left out such as women, blacks, and Native Americans.
Crusade Against Slavery
The anti-slavery movement grew because of what the Declaration of Independence said "all men are created equal" and all are equal in the eyes of God. Anti-Slavery groups helped slaves and Liberia was created to send free slaves back to Africa. The American Colonization Society was formed in 1816 to help the slaves and started the movement for Liberia. Americans reacted to the anti-slavery crusade by creating abolition societies created and Frederick Douglass who became an abolitionist after becoming a freed slave. William Lloyd Garrison was a prominent abolitionist who advocated immediate emancipation and was a proponent for the women's suffrage movement.
Differences Over Slavery
The spread of slavery became an issue. Congress compromised on the slavery issue by permitting it south of 36 degrees 30 minutes north latitude line, was called the Missouri Compromise. Missouri admitted as a slave state and Maine admitted as a free state. The Free Soil party was formed where anti-Slavery Whigs and Democrats came together to stop the spread of slavery into the territories. The Great Compromise came about when California asked to join the Union as a free state in 1850 and the balance between free and slave states was threatened. The Compromise of 1850 that was passed by Congress to settle slavery issues in the territories and withdrawal. Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 forced northerners to help catch runaway slaves. Rising tension in Kansas and Nebraska and slavery became an issue of 1854. The Kansas-Nebraska Act divided Nebraska Territory in tow, Kansas and Nebraska. Territories would decide slavery question with popular sovereignty. Kansas was a testing ground for popular sovereignty with border ruffians and tensions in Kansas led to many skirmishes and people killed.
Dred Scott Decision
Supreme court said slaves were property. Congress could not outlaw slavery, in a territory only a state legislature could. Northerners outraged and angered. It held that the federal government had no power to regulate slavery in the territories, and that people of African descent (both slave and free) were not protected by the Constitution and were not U.S. citizens.
Rise of the Republican Party
Main goal of the party was to keep slavery out of the western territories. Lincoln became a national figure, Lincoln-Douglas debates propelled him to a great oratorical status. Raid on harpers Ferry drove the North and South apart, Northerners admired Brown's dignity shown during trial. Southerners outraged at Northerners responses and Brown's attempt to lead a slave revolt.
Breakup of the Union
The election of 1860 made the South feel powerless and they believed that Lincoln was an abolitionist and that if Lincoln won they would secede from the union. Seven Southern states seceded from the Union. Southerners were outnumbered in Congress and the south would be outvoted anyway. The immediate cause of the civial War was that the confederacy seized federal property and they refused to allow only food to be shipped to Ft. Sumter and it war began on April 12, 1861.
Soldiers were mainly under 21 years old. The northern troops were known as Yankees and wore blue, whereas the South were the Rebels and wore gray. Raising money for the war came from income tax and bonds in the north and tax-in-kind and paper money in the south. Women contributed to the war effort and took over jobs in industry, teaching, and farming, worked as nurses. Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross. Sally Louise Tompkins opened the first hospital in Richmond, Virginia.
Turning Points of the War
North had suffered defeat in early days of the war. Battle of Chancellorsville was a Confederate Victory and Stonewall Jackson was accidentally shot and died of blood poisoning. The Battle of Gettysburg was a union victory and Lincoln gave the Gettysburg Address four months later. Union tried to break the south's will to fight. US Grant sent General Philip Sheridan into rich farmland of the Shenandoah Valley to destroy everything. Grant sent General William T. Sherman on a march from Atlanta to the Atlantic destroying everything. Robert E. Lee surrendered in 1865. He was trapped near Appomattox Courthouse with a deteriorated army. he knew that they would be slaughtered if ordered to fight. Lee surrendered April 9, 1865 to General U.S. grant
Became president in 1865 following the Civil War. Was originally a Democrat from Tennessee and remained loyal to the Union. On the Republican ticket with Lincoln to win Democratic support. Became president upon Lincoln's assassination from April 14, 1865. Johnson then presided over the initial and contentious Reconstruction era of the United States following the American Civil War. Johnson's reconstruction policies failed to promote the rights of the Freedmen (newly freed slaves), and he came under vigorous political attack fromRepublicans, ending in his impeachment by the U.S. House of Representatives; he was acquitted by the U.S. Senate by one vote.
President and Congress Clash
Radical Republicans angry about black codes and election of Confederate officers. President Johnson vetoed Civil Rights Act giving citizenship to all blacks (overridden by veto). Clashed over 14th. amendment, gave citizenship to all persons born in the USA. vetoed the Freedman's Bureau which helped blacks get reestablished. Andrew Johnson up for impeachment because Johnson had vetoed the Reconstruction Acts which Congress passed. it was feared that he would not enforce the laws. House of Representatives voted to impeach him. Impeachment of Johnson failed by one vote in the Senate.
The Union Was Restored
Condition of the South after the war, two-thirds of the railroad track destroyed ninety percent of all bridges were down. Farms and plantations in shambles, thousands of soldiers were disabled and major cities such as Atlanta had been leveled. Control of the South during reconstruction was under scalawags were southern whites who supported Reconstruction and the Republican party. Carpetbaggers referred to the Northerners who moved to the South during reconstruction. Blacks became elected as congressmen, mayors, and state legislators. Reconstruction governments built public schools for black and white children. Gave women the right to own property, improved care of mentally and physically handicapped, built railroads, telegraph lines, bridges and roads. Conservatives regained control of the South. and many felt threatened by freedmen who competed for land and power. Ku Klux Klan organized.
New Era in National Politics
Explained why Northerners lost interest in Reconstruction, corruption in Grant's government, Pardoned Confederate officials, Nearly all white Southerners could vote again. Black Friday, September 24, 1869 was caused by two speculators' efforts, Jay Gould and James Fisk, to corner the gold market on the New York Gold Exchange. It was one of several scandals that rocked the presidency of Ulysses S. Grant, the largest corruption scandal in the country. Election of 1876 the Democrats nominated Sam Tilden and Republicans nominated Rutherford B. Hayes. Tilden had the popular vote majority but was one short of the electoral votes needed to be president. Republicans said blacks not allowed to vote which would have given Hayes three more states. Second set of electoral vote for Hayes, Special commission appointed most were Republicans, Hayes agreed privately to end Reconstruction. Southern blacks lost power and rights after 1877. Jim Crow laws were established that mandated segregation in all public facilities in the South and enacted poll taxes so many couldn't vote. Plessy vs. Ferguson upheld the Jim Crow laws.
The domination by a powerful nation over the political, economic, and cultural affairs another nation or region.
Reasons for American Imperialism
Need for raw materials, new markets, places for growing populations to settle, desire to spread Christianity, and the White Man's Burden which was a poem that spoke of imperialism that justified the policy as a noble enterprise.
19th Century and American Imperialism
Mexican War fought between US and Mexico with results that US gained territory in Southwest US that later became US states. Spanish American War between Spain and US fought in Cuba and Philippines. American Victory gave the US control over Puerto Rico, Guam, Hawaii, and Philiippines.
Early Twentieth Century and American Imperialism
In 1904, Roosevelt corollary added to Monroe Doctrine, USA assumed police powers over Latin America. From 1904-14 Construction of Panama Canal with 99 year lease. In the 1920s, Economic, political and social change.
Anlyze the causes
effect, and events of WWI,The Triple Alliance was the Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, who all encompassed the Central Powers during war. The Triple Entente is France, Russia, Great Britain and them, Italy and US became Allies during war.
Causes of WWI
Nationalism with French desire for Alsace-Lorraine, Serbian desire for Austro-Hungarian land, inhabited by Yugoslavs. The Youslaviks, Czechs, and Slovaks and Poles desired independence. Imperialism because France versus Germany over Morocco, Russia versus Austria, Hungary in Balkans, England versus Germany over markets in Africa and Middle East. Militarism began because of European military build-up, Germany history of Prussian militarism, Encouragement of arms manufactures in Germany and France, German naval build up threat to Britain.
Reason for American Entrance into WWI
German unrestricted submarine warfare, allied propaganda, hostility toward Germany, American economic interests, and American security. Major theaters of warfare were the Eastern Front, crushing defeat of Russians by Germans, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that marked the exit of the Russians from WWI. The Southern Front consisted of Serbia only. the Western Front was France and Belgium and Battle of the Marne was there and trench warfare became the norm. Verdun was fought between the Germans and French and was one of the longest and most devastating battles of WWI. Battle of the was one of the largest battles of the war; by the time fighting paused in late autumn 1916, the forces involved had suffered more than 1 million casualties, Chateau-Thierry was one of the first battles of WWI as part of the second battle of the Marne. Belleau Wood occurred during the German 1918 Spring Offensive in World War I, near the Marne River in France. St. Mihiel and Argonne Forest were two battles that caught the Germans in middle of a retreat. Major personalities in this theater of fighting were Marshal Foch and General John J. Pershing. Foch was a French war hero and military theorist, and Pershing led the American forces in the European theater. Naval warfare was vastly improved and led to many sea battles during WWI.
Wilson's 14 Points Peace Treaty
Open covenants openly arrived at for the end of the war. Freedom of the seas, removal of the trade barriers, reduction of armaments, impartial adjustment of colonial claims, adjustment of European boundaries in accordance with the principle of nationality, establishment of a general association of nations under specific covenants. There should be no secret alliances between countries . Freedom of the seas in peace and war. The reduction of trade barriers among nations. The general reduction and eventual elimination of armaments. The adjustment of colonial claims in the interest of the inhabitants as well as of the colonial powers. The evacuation of Russian territory and a welcome for its government to the society of nations. The restoration of Belgian territories in Germany. The evacuation of all French territory, including Alsace-Lorraine. The readjustment of Italian boundaries along clearly recognizable lines of nationality. Independence for various national groups in Austria-Hungary. The restoration of the Balkan nations and free access to the sea for Serbia. Protection for minorities in Turkey and the free passage of the ships of all nations through the Dardanelles. Independence for Poland, including access to the sea. A league of nations to protect "mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small nations alike.
Effects of WWI
Treaty of Versailles was split between the Big Four, David Lloyd George was the British, Georges Clemenceau was the French, Vittorio Orlando the Italian, and Woodrow Wilson the American. The Provisions of it was that Alsace-Lorraine went to France, Saar Valley coal mines went to France for 15 years. Polish Corridor on the Baltic to Poland to cut West Prussia off from the rest of Germany. Danzig became a free city, German colonies were ceded to Allies as League of nations mandates, the German disarmament of all of their military forces, German war guilt and reparations that they were paying for decades. League of Nations formed to try to maintain world peace. US Isolationism began with the formation of the League of Nations and they put stricter quotas on immigration and limited the number of people allowed in.
Causes of WWII
Desire of the Axis Powers, Germany, Italy and Japan for more territory. Totalitarianism was the total government control, territorial control. Italian Facsism started under Mussolini unlimited power of government and state, there was no freedom of speech, press, etc. In germany, Hilter's dictatorship wanted more territory and control, Japan branched out and was in need of more natural resources and wanted help from Germany. Militarism was the military and industrial leaders in control of government. Japan wanted control of Shangtung province of China. In Germany, Hitler's regime had a powerful army motorized, called lightning war. The Air force was called the Luftwaffe and ordered the Blitzkrieg of Britain. In Italy Mussolini used armored forces and got his ideas from the Spanish conquest. Nationalism became the standard for Germany, Italy, and Japan. All wanted territory. In Germany Hitler annexed Austria, wanted the Sudentenland (Czech area) back with lots of Germans living there. Disobeyed treaty of Versailles when he invaded Poland, despised Communists and Jews and role of government was to get rid of them. The Anti-Comitern united Germany and Japan against communism. In Italy, Mussolini attacked Ethiopia and disobeyed the Treaty of Versailles as well. Desired port city of Flume on Adriatic Sea. Japan defeated the Chinese costal borders and took control of them. Signed the Anti-Comitern Pact with Germany. Became the Axis Powers with Rome and berlin. Russia desired Finland. Imperialism in Germany started in rule of Austria, Hitler's desire for the world power, and desire to restore the Third Reich. Italy wanted to restore the Roman Empire, Japan desired rule over Manchurian China, and Russia desired Slavic countries, warm water port, and fertile farm lands. Failure of Allied appeasement with little done to stop German aggression. Munich agreement permitted German annexation of the Sudetenland. Failure of collective security, League of Nations could not supply collective security, not enough power. American neutrality legislation, Roosevelt's declared US neutrality when WWII broke out, neutrality ended with French demise and aid to Britain. Limited naval ship building and Brand-Kellogg Treaty in which states resolved to not use war to resolve disputes or conflicts.
Initial German successes
Invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Denmark and Norway fell in 1940 in Operation Weserbrung on April 9. France fell after a month long battle for German supremacy in France.
Battle of Britain
Winston Churchill said "We will never surrender". The lend lease Program helped Britain prepare with weapons and supplies from the US. Bombing all over the country by the Luftwaffe, known as the Blitzkreig. The British air force pushed back Germans. Germany turned back and set their sights on the East, Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria. Occurred over the summer and fall of 1940, ended in October with a decisive British victory.
American Preparedness and Aid to the Allies
Neutrality Act of 1939 was what the Americans vowed to help the Allies win the war. Military preparedness instituted the 1940 military draft for men 17 and older, increase in military expenditures, American industry converted to war production. US outproduced all the Axis powers combined in war production by 1943. Destroyers for Bases Deal, in 1940, loan of 50 American destroyers for the long-term use of British bases from Newfoundland to Caribbean. The Lend-Lease Act of 1941 authorized the president to lend military equipment and aid to Britain and other allied powers. Embargo on strategic material to Japan by stopping all steel and oil exports to Japan.
Victory in the Pacific
Initial Japanese offensive to destroy Pearl Harbor and to conquer the Guam, Wake Islands, East Indies Islands, and the many thousands of islands in the Pacific. The US navy and army had scant resources initially to block them, and the Japanese took many of the islands, but were developed too late because the Japanese weakened the US naval power after attacking all their resources at Pearl Harbor, sending them up in flames. The battle for the Philippines and Bataan gave the Japanese the advantage they needed and they had a vast empire quite quickly. The Allied Counter Offensive in every theater of operation, but gained an advantage in the Solomon Islands at Guadalcanal, where they won a decisive victory against the Japanese. They also took New Guinea, Bougainville, and New Britain and weakened the Japanese hold on the Pacific. They eventually were growing drained of resources, and used the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which devastated the entire country and forced the Japanese surrender.
Post WWII China and Japan
Mao Zedong's forces drove Natinalists into exile on island of Taiwant, the Cultural Revolution, purge of Mao's enemies and they murdered and raped thousands of innocent people. Tensions increased in 1950s between China and USSR and Korea. Taiwan made spectacular industrial advancements, Mainland China stayed with agrarian communism. In 1976, Mao died and eventually Deng Xio-ping came to power, Deng created a part communist=part capitalist system for China. Japan was occupied by US military under General Douglas MacArthur. Troops are still there today. Became constitutional democracy, industry specialized in high quality, manufactured goods for export to USA and Europe. Japan became economic giant in 1980s in technology and business.
War in Southeast Asia
Independence movement in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. In 1946 war broke out between French imperialist and forced led by Ho Chi Minh. In 1954, the French were defeated and Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam and became independent. Vietnam divided into North and South at 17th parallel. Conflict between North and South drew in the USA. The Domino Theory was that if they lost one country to communism and lose them all. From 1966-73 Americans fought and died in Vietnam. In 1973, the US was defeated and Vietnam was defeated under communist rule. Laos and Cambodia continue to struggle politically.
The purpose of the UN was formed as alliance of countries fighting against Germany and for world wide security. The organization was founded in 1942, during WWII, four great powers on the allied side, Britain, China, Soviet Untion, and US agree to establish a new international body. April 25, 1945 conference in San Francisco, CA. United Nations Organizations formally set-up, June 26, 1945, 51 countries joined. October 24, 1945 new body came into operation. Improvements over the League of Nations, the league lacked US support, UN had US support in beginning , UN had strong support from allied powers "Great 4". UN had 51 countries join by 1945.
Susan B. Anthony
was a prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage into the United States. She was co-founder of the first Women's Temperance Movement with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as President.She also co-founded the women's rights journal, The Revolution. She traveled the United States and Europe, and averaged 75 to 100 speeches per year.She was one of the important advocates in leading the way for women's rights to be acknowledged and instituted in the American government.
was an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author and editor. he became a professor of history, sociology and economics at Atlanta University. Du Bois was one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909. Du Bois rose to national prominence as the leader of the Niagara Movement, a group of African-American activists who wanted equal rights for blacks. Du Bois and his supporters opposed the Atlanta Compromise, an agreement crafted by Booker T. Washington which provided that Southern blacks would work and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic educational and economic opportunities. Instead, Du Bois insisted on full civil rights and increased political representation, which he believed would be brought about by the African-American intellectual elite. He referred to this group as the talented tenth and believed that African Americans needed the chances for advanced education to develop its leadership.Racism was the main target of Du Bois's polemics, and he strongly protested against lynching, Jim Crow laws, and discriminationin education and employment.
was an American Republican (and later aProgressive) politician. He served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, was the Governor of Wisconsin, and was also a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin (1906 to 1925). La Follette has been called "arguably the most important and recognized leader of the opposition to the growing dominance of corporations over the Government"and is one of the key figures pointed to in Wisconsin's long history of politicalliberalism. He is best remembered as a proponent of progressivism and a vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, World War I, and theLeague of Nations.
was an American union leader, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States.Through his presidential candidacies, as well as his work with labor movements, Debs eventually became one of the best-known socialists living in the United States. n the early part of his political career, Debs was a member of the Democratic Party. He was elected as a Democrat to the Indiana General Assembly in 1884. After workers at the Pullman Palace Car Company organized a wildcat strike over pay cuts in the summer of 1894, Debs signed many into the ARU. He called a boycott of the ARU against handling trains with Pullman cars, in what became the nationwide Pullman Strike, affecting most lines west of Detroit, and more than 250,000 workers in 27 states. To keep the mail running, President Grover Cleveland used the United States Army to break the strike. As a leader of the ARU, Debs was convicted of federal charges for defying a court injunction against the strike and served six months in prison.
was an American politician and the 45th governor ofAlabama, having served two nonconsecutive terms and two consecutive terms: 1963-1967, 1971-1979 and 1983-1987. After four runs for U.S. president (three as a Democrat and one on the American Independent Party ticket), he earned the title "the most influential loser" in 20th-century U.S. politics, according to biographers Dan T. Carter and Stephan Lesher. He is remembered for his Southern populist and segregationist attitudes during the desegregation period,
H. Ross Perot
became heavily involved in the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue. He believed that hundreds of American servicemen were left behind in Southeast Asia at the end of the U.S. involvement in the war,and that government officials were covering up POW/MIA investigations in order to avoid revealing a drug smuggling operation used to finance a secret war in Laos.Perot engaged in unauthorized back-channel discussions with Vietnamese officials in the late 1980s, which led to fractured relations between Perot and the Reagan and George H.W. Bush administrations.In 1990, Perot reached agreement with Vietnam's Foreign Ministry to become its business agent in the event that diplomatic relations were normalized. Perot also launched private investigations of, and attacks upon, U.S. Department of Defense official Richard Armitage. Perot did not support President George H. W. Bush and vigorously opposed the United States involvement in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War. He unsuccessfully urged Senators to vote against the war resolution, and began to consider his own presidential run. Ran for the Presidency in 1992 and failed to garner much support.
was a pioneer settlement worker, founder of Hull House in Chicago, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in woman suffrage and world peace. Beside presidents such as Theodore Rooseveltand Woodrow Wilson, she was the most prominent reformer of the Progressive Era and helped turn the nation to issues of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, public health, and world peace. She said that if women were to be responsible for cleaning up their communities and making them better places to live, they needed the vote to be effective in doing so. Addams became a role model for middle-class women who volunteered to uplift their communities. She is increasingly recognized as a member of the American pragmatist school of philosophy In 1931 she became the first American woman to be awarded theNobel Peace Prize.
was the 32nd President of the United States (1933-1945) and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic depression and total war. A dominant leader of the Democratic Party and the only American president elected to more than two terms, he built a New Deal Coalition that realigned American politics after 1932, as his domestic policies defined American liberalism for the middle third of the 20th century. e worked closely with Winston Churchill andJoseph Stalin in leading the Allies against Germany and Japan in World War II, and restoring prosperity to the nation's economy. Roosevelt dominated the American political scene not only during the twelve years of his presidency, but also for decades afterward. He orchestrated the realignment of voters that created the Fifth Party System. FDR's New Deal Coalition united labor unions, big city machines, white ethnics, African Americans and rural white Southerners. He also influenced the later creation of the United Nations and Bretton Woods.
People moved to cities, people no longer tied to the land, Rurual family size is large, large/extended family is not the advantage in the city that it was on the farm. Working conditions were bad with long hours, unsafe conditions, child labor, low wages, no job security, pollution, and crowding. Child Labor Laws helped get children out of work and into schools. Unionization led to the developments of crafts union, AFL-American Federation of Labor, IWW- International Workers of the World were created to curb the problems and issues of the work conditions. The Haymarket Riot refers to the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886 at haymarket Square in Chicago. it began as a peaceful rally in support of workers striking for an eight-hour day. An unknown threw a dynamite bomb at police as they acted as they acted to disperse the public meeting. The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of seven police officers and at last four civilians and the wounding of scores of others. The Ludlow Massacre was an attack by the Colorado National Guard and Fuel and Iron Company camp guards of 1200 striking coal miners and their families. The United Mine Workers of America against coal mining companies in Colorado. A shift in political power from an agrarian base to an industrial base began around this time.
Government & National Economy
There was more government involvement in the national economy. New US trading partners were found in Japan and Germany, and the European Community or EC, began as the Common Market. The formation of OPEC is a group of twelve oil producing countries. Formation of ARAMCO with the US and Arab Oil Company and it has the largest amount of crude oil reserves. The oil boom was during the years of 1945-85, but it has gone bust since then due to too much speculation over the price of it. High tech/computer chips brought the rise of technology in computers, phones, video games, etc. and the rise of research consortiums. A collaborative effort by a group of institutions or corporations to investigate or research something of mutual interest. Rise of light industries, high tech associated with it. Human rights began a strong movement with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which finally gave African Americans full rights as American citizens and integration began. Minimum wage and labor laws were enacted and all states had to comply or face heavy fines. Rising expectations for the government to do something about these problems eventually gave way to the legislation under LBJ to be passed. Right to education was paid for by the government in forms of loans and grants. Legal and illegal immigration and refugee problems began arising from Mexican immigrants to the US, Palestinians expelled from Israel and fled to the US and other Arab nations during times of revolution in the 1980s. Latin Americans and Asians escaped revolutions and rebellions to the US. urbanization after WWII brought population booms, industry booms, and economic booms. Air travel became more common and was perfected. World wide television, satellite hookup began the technological innovation and the spread of information faster.
Prohibition was an effort to totally eliminate the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. the first legistation about this was in Maine of 1952. In 1874, the Women's Christian Temperance Union supported an effort to bring Protestant churches into the movement. The Anti-Saloon league was created in 1893 and there were many states and local laws opposing alcoholic beverages. In 1917, the 18th amendment prohibited the manufacture, transportation and sale of beverages containing more than .5% of alcohol. The Volstead Act of 1919 enforced prohibition with federal agents. Speakeasies and gangs began popping up with a weakening of respect for all laws. Al Capone became the greatest criminal of all time and leader of the most notorious gangs in Chicago. Bootleg whiskey became a booming business. In the FDR election of 1932, in the 21st amendment, it ended the era of Prohibition and repealed the 18th Amendment laws and crackdown on bootleg whiskey became an issue.
Religious Fundamentalism and the Scopes Trial
Tennessee Law forbade teaching of any theory which denies the story of the Divine creation of man as taught in the Bible and evolution. The Scopes trial of 1925 was over a Tennessee teacher by the name of John Scopes who was charged with teaching evolution. William Jennings Bryan was his attorney and was a champion of fundamentalism. Clarence Darrow was the defense attorney and saw the law as an attack on science, and a cross examination of Bryan showed inconsistency of Bryan's views. Scopes was found guilty and his attorney died one week later. The trail went to the Tennessee Supreme Court, the conviction of Scopes was overturned on technicality, court upheld statute against teaching evolution. Fundamentalist movement and Christian values were the most important. No information that would negate Bible was in public schools.
Automobiles & American Life
Henry Ford debuted the Model T in 1908. He also created the assembly line, and was considered the most important contribution to manufacturing industry and he revolutionized manufacturing in this way. Ford continually lowered his prices and raised wages in his factories. This allowed more Americans to buy cars and allowed for more travel out of the cities away from home. More travel led to the cars being nicknamed Tin Lizzie and there was more freedom for the youth of America. The cars was the primary cause of doubling road building in the 1920s. Demand for petroleum products to run the cars increased, and the Texas oil boom led to increased production at Spindletop, which produced the most oil and petroleum in the country at the time. There was a rise in the trucking industry and helped increase production and transport of goods.
Women in Work Place
Women began to work out of the home during WWI, which lead to increasing number of fields for women. Ratification of the 19th amendment in 1920, women's right to vote started League of Women Voters and gave women more political voice. Labor saving home appliances such as refrigerators and washing machines. Flappers became common the norm for women, bobbed hair, short skirts, rouged knees, lipstick and were more outspoken.
African American Culture
The Harlem Renaissance was proof that jazz spread from New Orleans to Chicago to Harlem, and was a protest of prejudice of the era. The Cotton Club gave a place for Duke Ellington and Chic Webb to perform. Langston Hughes was a popular poet of Harlem. Black American African Heritage was authored by Hughes. W.E.B. DuBois wrote a history of the blacks and was a strong leader for their unit. Marcus Garvey was editor of the paper, Negro World, was a black nationalist and returned to Africa.
Motion Pictures & Sound
There was more leisure time and Hollywood became movie capital of the world. the movie star age began with such stars as Clara Bow, John Barrymore, Fred Astaire, Ginger Rogers, Tallulah Bankhead, etc.
Brown vs. Board of Education in Topeka Kansas in 1954. Supreme Court ruling which threw out separate but equal, opened door for elimination of segregation of public schools. Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955 started with Rosa Parks who took a front seat in the bus and refused to give it up to a white man. She was arrested and four days later, MLK JR urged the black community within the city to boycott the bus system. The boycott ended within a year with the beginning of desegregation. Marked the start of MLK Jrs. passive resistance of his peaceful movement, which culminated with the Civil Rights Acts of the 1960s. Martin Luther King was the leader of the peaceful Civil Rights Movement and gave the famous speech "I Have a Dream" in 1963. He led the Montgomery bus boycott and won the Nobel Peace Prize Laureate in 1964. He was assassinated by a sniper at a black sanitation worker strike in April of 1968. Black Muslim group was a more militant movement and was led by Elijah Muhammad born in 1934, original last name was Poole, wanted separation of society from whites. Malcolm X first followed Elijah but broke off from the separatist ideas of Mohammed in favor of creating a society in which there could exist honest white/black brotherhood. In 1965 a dispute between the Black Muslims and Malcolm X resulted in Malcolm X's murder in February. Black Panthers founded by Bobby Seale in 1966 in California, both inspired by Malcolm X. Used the 10 point system in their organization. 10 point system, power to determine destiny of black community, full employment of all blacks, end to robbery of blacks by whites, decent housing for blacks, education relevant to black needs, exemption of blacks from military service, end to police brutality, release of all black political prisoners, trial of blacks by blacks and black juries, UN supervised plebiscite, land bread, housing, education, clothing, justice, peace. Ran a publication of successful newspaper. Wide admiration from young blacks in North and West Coast ghettos.
1920 Women earned the right to vote. Full political rights, yet many women argue that they are still victims of sexual discrimination. Betty Friedan published the Feminine Mystique in 1963 and they argued that soon after WWII ended, women were forced out of the job market and back to the home. Business world was still dominated by men. Women's jobs were limited to a few professions such as nursing, teaching, and secretaries. At the same jobs, women's salaries were less than men's. Founded NOW-National Organization of Women, pressed for legislation for more freedom and equality for women. Equal Pay and Civil Rights Acts of 1963 and 64, banned job and pay discrimination on basis of sex as well as race. Gloria Steinem push for Equal Rights Amendment. Passed by congress in 1972, yet due to strong opposition based on traditional values, it was never ratified, women continue to campaign for greater equality.
Hispanics & Native Americans and US Govt.
Few schools taught in a language they could understand, lack of good education put them at disadvantage, 1950s programs for migrant workers, braceros, temporary work permit, all halted in 1965. Cesar Chavez began a movement to unionize California grape pickers in 1962. Jose Angel Gutierrez formed the La Raza union in Texas. Sought political power through action, said that Hispanics had been complacent for too long. Called for bilingual education, and worked to improve public service for Hispanics and worked to end job discrimination. By the 1960s, Native Americans had adopted protests embittered because of government's long history of contradictory and changing policies. National Congress of American Indians formed in 1940 and petitioned congress for greater recognition of Indian rights. In the 1950s the government shifted policies again, recommending federal programs be turned over to the state. Continued inconsistences brought more sharp protests from the Congress concerning American Indians and other groups. 1960s government encouraged Indians to return to tribal systems but shift came too late, 75% of all Indians had become urbanized, but tribal ties had weakened along with their customs. In 1968 AIM- American Indian Movement. Dennis Banks and Clyde Bellecourt. Wounded Knee controversy, FBI intervention, 1973 Indians forced to leave. Struggle for these problems continues yet new, altitude of pride in heritage members.
A residential area, either existing as part of a city (as in Australia and New Zealand), or as a separate residential community withincommuting distance of a city (as in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom). Some suburbs have a degree of administrative autonomy, and most have lower population density than inner city neighborhoods. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. Any particular suburban area is referred to as a suburb, while suburban areas on the whole are referred to as the suburbs or suburbia, with the demonym for a suburb-dweller being suburbanite. Colloquial usage sometimes shortens the term to burb.
Counter Culture Characteristics
Youth revolt began in the 1950s with the Beatniks and then the Hippies and then the New Left. The New Left was determined against the American way of life. They were more rational and calculated than their contemporaries and shared the black man's new anger. They were a progressive labor party and were Maoist in views. May 2nd movement was an anti-war movement that supported the Viet Cong. National Coordinating Committee was formed to end the war in Vietnam. national Conference for New Politics, Peace and Freedom Party. They were more organized and organization minded than predecessors. They were against racism and capitalistic exploitation. They were against imperialist war, the power structure and the military industrial complex. The goals were to gain participatory Democracy, creative labor, socialist distribution of goods and services, humans self development of the individual. Mario Savio made free speech demands at Berkeley for university reform. Tom Hayden was in charge of Community Organizing, and created JOIN Jobs or Income Now in Chicago to support the movement along with NCUP, or the Newark community Union Project.
Truman's Fair Deal
Every segment of our population and every individual has the right to expect from his government a fair deal. The Fair Deal was an extension of the New Deal. Established the National Housing Act of 1949 which gave housing and financial aid to low income families. There was an amendment to Fair Labor Standards Act of 1949 and raised the minimum wage from forty cents an hour to seventy-five cents an hour. The Social Security Act of 1950, increased number of people covered under the old age insurance. Integration of armed services. The Truman Doctrine resisted Soviet expansion. the Marshal Plan provided aid to Europe after WWII to help them rebuild and prevent the spread of Communism. The Point Four Program was a technical assistance program for developing countries. NATO was formed to provide a form of defense with many countries contributing of the defense. These were just many of Truman's successes. His failures include the repeal of the Taft-Hartley Act, which Congress refused to repeal along with the Labor Relations Act. Congress refused to pass civil rights legilstion and rejected acts for federal aid to education and a health insurance program.
Eisenhower's Modern Republicanism
Believed that there was too much bureaucracy and cut down on domestic agencies and programs. He cut down the department of Health, Education, and Welfare to the cabinet level in 1953. He believed that government should help people in need, but not allow dependence on the government. He handed over some federal programs to the states. He extended social security coverage and increased federal minimum wage requirements. He supported the St. Lawrence Seaway in cooperation with Canada to open seaway from Great Lakes to the Atlantic ports. He supported the Federal Aid Highways Act to extend highways throughout the country. The government subsidies for farmers to rotate crops with soil enriching crops. There were union problems with automation and Teamsters. Foreign policy dictated the Eisenhower Doctrine, or the containment of communism in the Middle East, and is largely considered the prelude to the Cold War. Ended the Korean War, 7 months of peace talks were successfully held and kept communist powers out of S. Korea. The Cold war continued with the strong source of Soviet and US distrust very high. The Middle East and the Suez Canal caused issues and the US offered to help Egyptian leader, Nasser with the Nile Dam. the USSR offered aid to Nasser, but Eisenhower and the Secretary of State Dulles withdraw due to the Soviet offer of involvement. Nasser was enraged and he cut off use of the Suez Canal. France and Britain retaliate and ask for US support but US refuses. Israel launches an attack on EGYPT and the UN steps in at the request of the US. The Hungarian uprising was because of Nikita Kruscheve, Berlin threat of blocking off the city. A US U-2 flight shot down over Soviet territory and the summit over Hungary was cancelled by Kruschev.
Kennedy's New Frontier
Offers a pledge to help conquer the uncharted areas of science and space, unsolved problems of peace and war, unconquered pockets of ignorance and prejudice, unanswered question of poverty and surplus. His domestic policy included establishing the Peace Corps which provides jobs to help impoverished nations. the Alliance for Progress, good neighbor policy with Latin America, hopes to raise standards of living there. The Department of Urban Affairs and was shot down by Congress along with many other social programs. The Housing Act of 1961 included urban renewal and public housing. Established a space program, NASA, American goal, to be the first on the moon before 1970, John Glenn first man in space in 1962. The 1962 Executive order prohibited racial discrimination in housing provided by the federal government. commission of Equal Employment Opportunities pushed for non-discriminatory hiring practices in the private sector. Interstate Commerce Commissions ban of discrimination on all public interstate transportation. Placed a large number of black leaders in important position, such as Marshal Thurgood, the first African American on the Supreme Court Justice. The ratification of 23rd and 24th amendments Washington in DC residents, mainly black, gain right to vote and repeal. His foreign policy included the disastrous Bay of Pigs attack on Cuba, the 1961 meeting with Nikita Kruschev building of arms. The berlin wall was built and he sent additional US troops to West Berlin. The quarantine of Cuba in 1962 where USSR equipping Cuba with arms and nuclear warheads, however Kruscheve ordered the removal. The Nuclear rest-ban treaty in 1963 between USSR and US hotline created between the two powers for constant communication. Tensions with Vietnam began, and the US sent troops to S. Vietnam to ward off communist takeover. The Domino Theory upheld, threat of communist takeover in other countries is successful in Asia. JFK assassinated November 22, 1963 by Lee Harvey Oswald. Jack ruby shot Oswald as he was escorted to jail by police. FBI investigation enseued, but the files were eventually closed. There are many discrepancies and conspiracy theories.
Johnson's Great Society
LBJ's goal to set the foundations of a Great Society. His domestic goals were those that he thought all Americans sought. These included education for their children, improving life for their families, protection of liberty, pursuit of peace, and justice for all, which included the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that included rights for African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and women. The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 was targeted toward the war on poverty, with job training for the poor and loans to encourage rurual farm cooperatives and urban businesses, aid to migrant workers, and a domestic Peace Corps. He was elected to his own term in 1964 and approved the Housing Act, provided federal funds for constructing low-middle income housing. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Robert Weaver was appointed and was the first black to serve in a Presidential Cabinet. LBJ expanded Social Security benefits, aid to higher education, efforts to curb water pollution, National Foundation for the Arts and Humanities created. MLK was assassinated and riots in over 170 cities occurred. Created the medicare Act, which was created guarantee a minimum level of health care for Americans. Voting Rights Act of 1965 was headed by Rev. James J. reed and authorized federal agents to register voters where state officials still discriminated on basis of race. Registration of a million new black voters by 1968 election was its goal. The Immigration Act of 1964 was a package that LBJ had Congr*ess pass that were Kennedy's major bills. His foreign policy included the Dominican Republic where Juan Bosh was a democratic leader ousted by the military, who then attempted to overthrow and LBJ sent troops to stabilize the Dominican Military to remain in power. The US backed Israel to counteract the Soviet's backing of Egypt. There was a six day war between Egypt and Israel over the Suez Canal. Jerusalem was sieged by Israel along with Golan Heights and west bank of Jordan River. the Gulf of Tonkin happened during the Vietnam War, initially supported by Congress and people. US destroyers were deployed under Maddox and Turner Joy. The Rolling Thunder campaign was to have 536,000US troops to Vietnam by 1968. Student protests grew quite rambunctious and on March 31, 1968 LBJ suspended US bombing in Vietnam and announced he would not run for reelection.
Domestic policy included a freeze on wages, inflation was out of control. Last time that US had a balanced budget. Vice President Spiro Agnew's acceptance of bribes when he was governor is revealed and he resigns October 10, 1973. Gerald Ford was appointed as Vice President. Watergate apartment complex was the location of the Democratic National Committee Headquarters and there was a burglary in 1972 by White House employees during the re-election campaign. Nixon resigned under threat of impeachment and was first to do so. Was pardoned by Ford, and therefore released him from trial. He didn't have the best diplomacy with China, which was referred to as Ping Pong diplomacy. Opened US trade with a long closed China, brought US soldiers out of Vietnam, Fall of Saigon occurred under him and he had to deal with POW/MIA problems with getting prisoners and bodies back to the US.
Was not in office for very long, second VP under Nixon. He was a member of the House of Representatives from 1949-73 and was the Republican minority leader at time of ascension to the Vice Presidency. Was the first VP and President not elected into either office, as he assumed both. He pardoned Nixon from his role in Watergate.
Was a southern peanut farmer, very populist according to himself. Domestic policy included a Congressional stalemate, most major bills met strong opposition in Congress, and if they were passed, Congress imposed major altercations on the bills. Weakened economy began based on an oil shortage, Iranian hostage crisis, high interest rates on loans, and high unemployment. His foreign policy focused on human rights. The Panama Canal Treaty release the canal of any US ownership and was highly criticized in 1978. Opposed to apartheid, talks with Rhodesia and Zimbabwe, majority rule was established. Camp david Accords led to Carter settling disputes between Egypt and Israel and Egypt canceled treaty of friendship with USSR. Better relations between US and USSR until Afghanistan was invaded. Economic and political restrictions were imposed on USSR by Carter because of Afghanistan invasion, and USSR boycotted the Olympics in 1980. Iranian hostage crisis was undoing of his presidency. Carter allowed the exiled Shah of Iran to enter the US, Iran storms US embassy and takes 50 US hostages and there was a foiled rescue attempt.
Believed in domestic policy that less government is better and in old values from WWII and the Great Depression and in Trickle Down economics. There were many homeless people and the largest deficit to date with a 4 trillion dollar deficit. Foreign policy included fixing of the Iranian hostage crisis and he was seen as an effective leader. Had a standoff with Russian President Breshnev and started the Iraq and Iran war.
Domestic policy included family values, and if the government stops paying for cultural programs the private sector will step in and pay for it, but it didn't happen. Failing economy and budget deficit over 4 trillion, trade imbalance with Japan and failing domestic auto market. The foreign policy included Palestinian and Israeli Peace talks and the beginning of the Persian Gulf war- Desert Storm-
Domestic policy focused on the economy and the crises occurring with health care and education. He balanced the deficit within four years. He appointed his wife, Hillary to head the health care bill, but it failed in Congress. He also focused on stabilizing the education in America and made it more accessible to the middle class, as he saw it as being important to success. Foreign policy included a war in the former Yugoslavia, war action in Somalia over the genocide and civil war going on there. There were also problems with Iraq within their regime and there was a fight between the UN and Iraq over democratic movements being supported by the US.
Cuban Military Conflicts
Cubans fled Communist Castro rule to settle in the US in the early 1960s. In 1961 Kennedy supported a band of Cuban exiles in making an armed landing, later known as the Bay of Pigs. Cuban forces crushed the attack and took most of the exiles prisoner. In 1962 the Soviet missile building based formed in Cuba and led to thirteen days of crisis within the US and the potential for a weapon of mass destruction being launched at the US. Kennedy ordered a Naval blockaded and demanded the removal of the missiles and Kruschev agrees to dismantle the bases.
At the end of WWII, Russian forces occupied N. Korea and US troops occupied S. Korea and caused the countries to split into two new countries of communist north Korea and non-communist south Korea in 1949. War breaks out when North Korea invades South Korea in 1950 to unite the country. UN calls members to help S. Korea, 17 nations send troops with majority coming from US succeed in pushing back N. Korean forces. China backs N. Korea and together they succeed in ushing back s. Korean forces. UN forces counter attack and battle line is established in 1951. Russia's push for truce talks last 2 years, peace restored in 1953.
Proclaimed independence in 1945 and French resumed control in 1946. Communist attack on Hanoi in December 1946. Communist government rule begins in China, creates more support for communist forces in Vietnam, French withdraw and country is partitioned. Civil War continues and US troops support S. Vietnam until 1973. In 1975 Communists overrun the country. In the US mixed feeling about US involvement at home, causes split in support of troops. Troops arrived back in US are misplaced and confused, poor treatment, war trauma, and peace movement at homes began in the mid 1960s.
Egypt & Suez Canal
Suez Canal in Egypt constructed by private French company in 1869, Egypt held shares in company, but sold shares to Britain in 1875. British soldiers guarded the canal zone until they withdrew in 1956. Egyptian President, Gamal Abdul Nasser, nationalized canal due to lack of financial support of canal from Britain. Britain and France try to restore international control in vain. In 1956 Israel attacked Egypt over canal and border incidents Britain and France threaten to intervene, Israel agrees and Egypt refused. Britain and France launched air and sea attacks on Egypt. US pressured Britain and France to stop the attacks. US helped the UN to restore international control of the canal zone.
Was a six day war in the 1960s that occurred with border incidents between Israel, Syria, and Jordan. Israel captured Jordan's West Bank, Jerusalem, Gaza Strip and Egyptian owned Sinai Peninsula. In the 1970s in October, there was a war on the Jewish holiday Yom Kippur. Egyptians and Syrians attacked Israel during Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. War strengthened Arab positions, and Israel withdrew from the last bank of the Suez Canal and the Canal is reopened.
Marshall Plan Countries, involved in a cooperative economic endeavor with US. The Iron Curtain Block involved countries promoting communistic ideals with the Soviet Union. The Benelux countries signed a treaty of self defense in 1948. US, England, France, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg joined the treaty to strengthen W. Germany. Communist Soviet leaders protested by walking out of the Allied Control Council. Regulations on border control on entering the Russian zone were set and the blockade began in 1948. German Democratic Republic in east Germany was created by the Soviet Union in 1949.
The continual flight of east Germans to West Germans continued from 1945-61. Continued exodus of the Germans was an embarrassment to the USSR. In 1961, the east German government began construction of the "wall of Shame" to keep the population of E Germany from diminishing. The fall of East Germany came in 1989, Germany was unified and the wall was torn down.
US Population and Stats
Population is around 251 million. One percent of the population is native American, seventy-eight percent are anglo, twelve percent are African American, seven percent are Hispanic, and two percent are Asia. Twenty-five percent of the population lives in rural settings. Seventy-five percent of the population are urban or suburban, and twenty percent of the population moves every year. Population density is high and extremely dense in the northeast, moderate density in the southeast, and low or sparse in the west.
Location of Settlements
Central plains states, western basin and mountain areas, Appalachian highlands, Southeast coastal plains, and Southwestern arid and desert states tend to have the largest number of rural settlements in the US. East coast, particularly from D.C. to NYC, west coast of California, Great lakes area, and the Gulf Coast rim are the primary locations of urban settlements. Urban cities supplies rural with manufacture goods and services. The rural settings supply the urban areas with food stuffs. The structure from urban to rural are the Central business district, urban neighborhoods, suburbs, exurbs, and rural.
Causes of Migration
The primary causes of migration include religious persecution, land changed to government ownership, trying to build a better life economically, escaping early US law, wide opn ranch land, establishment of Catholic missions and the desire for ethic separateness. The effects of this are large cities in coastal areas, German influence in Central Texas, and the Hispanic influence in South and West Texas. Major historical routes include the Oregon Trail from Missouri to Oregon, the Old Spanish trail from California to New Mexico, Santa Fe Trail from New Mexico to Missouri, Pony Express, California to Missouri, National Road from Maryland to Illinois, Pike from Minnesota to Louisiana via Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.
Modes of Transportation
Canals were much less expensive than by road for transportation, Erie Canal was the first canal in the Eastern US and is 363 miles long. Canal networks throughout the eastern seaboard of US by early 1800s. Benjamin Franklin said that canals were quiet and manageable. Major water transportation arteries were the Missouri, Ohio, Mississippi, and Columbia Rivers and the Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior Great Lakes. The primary mode of transportation on the water were flatboats in the early 1800s, steamboats from 1830-60, and Barges and small freight ships today. Railroads were invented in England. The first railroad was in the US in 1828 Baltimore and Ohio. The original roads were in Texas, FM and RR stood for farm to market and RR for ranch road. Turnpikes are used to pay for the roads and there were 2400 miles of toll roads linking together most important eastern cities by 1832. Interstate Highway System in the US first interstate was the national road from Maryland to Illinois. Funded by the US government from 1803-50 and was more than 600 miles long. IH in Texas include the I35 north/south connector, I45, I10 east/west connector, I20 east/west connector and I30. Texas highways have a large state budget and are well kept in relation to most of the nation.
Through humans using all modes of transportation communication became much easier. Through technology such as wire (telephone), radio waves, computers, satellites, and television everything became much easier and for communication. Through the media newspapers and magazines spread the news much faster.
Rivers were major transportation routes for early settlement. Cities built along waterways include Dallas, Houston, Galveston, Brownsville, El Paso, Austin, New Braunfels, San Marcos, Llano, Victoria, Beaumont, San Angelo, and San Antonio. These were modified by either channelization, by dredging, dams, artificial barriers and sea walls. The Great Lakes are surrounded by Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Natural resources include navigable lakes and forestry. technological modification with locks between the lakes and construction of large cities around them. Adverse effects on them include pollution.
States in this region include North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansa, Minnesota, Iowa, and Missouri, and Oklahoma. Natural resources include fertile roil for agriculture and adequate sources of water. Technological modifications include rolling prairie tilled for agriculture and an extensive road system. Adverse effects of humanity on the environment was that the prairie habitat ruined and near extinction of buffalo and other wildlife.
States in the region include Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New York. Technological modifications include working around dense agriculture and population. Adverse effects of humanity on the environment are large amounts of garbage and stream pollution.
States in the region include New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia and Virginia. Technological modifications include dense population centers. Adverse effects of humanity on the environment are pollution in air ans water, acid rain, unsanitary garbage dumping.
States include Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Luoisana, Arkansas. Technological modifications include large scale of agriculture, large cities in places, commercial river traffic. Adverse effects of humanity on the environment, river pollution from commercial traffic, industrial dumping and agricultural wash-in and land pollution from over use of pesticides and fertilizer.
States in the region include Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and Texas. Natural resources include crude oil and minerals. Technological modifications include large cities in Texas, petroleum extraction, and mineral extraction. Adverse effects of humanity on the environment include pollution from oil refining, pollution from chemical industries, water and soil pollution from industries.
States in the region include California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Hawaii and the natural resources include timer and tropical plants. Technological modification in large cities on the coast and dense agriculture. Adverse effects of humanity on the environment including tourism has spoiled some of Alaska and Hawaii and air and land pollution from big cities.
Rocky Mountain States
States in the region in Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Montana, and Idaho. Natural resources include timber and minerals. Technological modifications include hydroelectric dams and large cities. Adverse effects of humanity on the environment on ski resorts, logging, mining, and air pollution.
Citizenship in the US
Allegiance is a legally binding agreement by a person to uphold and obey as a citizen the laws of the national, state, and local government. A pledge of allegiance is a bond with other citizens and a commitment to protect and respect their rights. Privileges and protections are the guarantees of rights and freedoms specified in or not restricted by the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the US and the laws of the national, state, and local governments. Privileges include a responsibility to participate in citizen roles to vote to participate actively.
Citizen by birth in the US or birth in another country with at least parent who is a US citizen and has lived in the US for some time. Citizen by naturalization is a foreign born person who can become a citizen through naturalization if the person has lived in the US for five year or three year if married to a US citizen, rejects loyalty to the former country, declares support for the Constitution and laws of the US. Is investigated by the immigration and Naturalization Service and is recommended by them. is approved by a judge who also administers an oath of allegiance and signs a certificate of citizenship.
Rights of citizenship
Include the legal basis of rights and the laws that protect rights such as the US Constitution and Bill of Rights, other constitutional amendments as well as federal, state, and local laws and ordinance. Courts defend rights and judicial review provides the Supreme Court and Court of Appeals the power to declare nul void laws that are Unconstitutional. A dual court system means that courts exist at the federal and the state level to protect rights. Leaders protect their rights to exercising the right to vote, ratification of constitutional amendments or propositions. Initiative to propose changes by gathering signatures on a petition to propose legislation by the legislature or by public approval through a referendum election. Expressing opinions through nonbonding referendums. Leaders protect rights of citizens that they are represented by their leaders in a republican form of government. Popular elections of those who make the decisions of government for the people. Read and review news reports, listen to campaign speeches and political debates, distinguish fact from opinion, analyze issues and candidates and make judgments and stay informed and involved. Responsibilities of leaders include serving on juries such as grand juries where they charge individuals with crimes, petit juries that try cases such as civil and criminal court (money/damage, or charged with a crime and select juries) Serving in the armed services means all men between the ages of 18 and 22 must register with the Selective Service Administration which processes draftees when a draft is called. Function of the armed forces is to protect against foreign invasion, ensure domestic peace, civilians control the military, the President, a civilian is the commander in chief, the Secretary of Defense is a civilian. congress control the military's budget.
Political and Economic Causes of the American Revolution
Pontiac fought with the British and sided with the French in the French-Indian War, British raised price of goods sold to Indians, and signed the Proclamation of 1763. Britain tried to raise money to repay its debts by taxing sugar (Sugar Act), tax on printed documents (Stamp Act), tax on glass, paper, lead, and silk (Townshend Acts), and on tea to cut out American merchants (Tea Act). The reaction of colonist to the Townshend Acts was that colonists agreed not to import British goods and formed the Sons of Liberty, which was led my Patrick Henry and supported the Boston Tea Party. Britain's response to the Tea Part was the Intolerable Acts, which consisted of a soldier in every colonists home, banned town meetings and closed the port of Boston. The Quebec Act set procedures of governance of Quebec. The Committee of Correspondence was a shadow government organized by the patriots of the colonies and superseded the local governments and royal officials. Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense and argued for break away from England. Main ideas of the Declaration of Independence are basic rights on which the nation is founded, the wrongs committed by Britain, declares colonies to the US. Major battles of the American Revolution were Concord/Lexington- shot heard round the world, Bunker Hill, Long Island, Saratoga (turning point for Americans and French provide aid to Americans. war at sea, John Paul Jones was the leader and is called the father of the navy. Yorktown is where General Cornwallis surrendered on October 17, 1781, and the Treaty of Paris was signed on April 19, 1983 and ended the revolution.
US Government Problems w/ Articles of Confederation
States had final authority over anything Congress did, 9 of 13 states had to approve a law. Congress could not regulate the trade, Congress had to ask each state for money, there was no way to settle disputes among states. Northwest Territory governance was difficult, Shays Rebellion started over a post-war economic depression, and there was no national executive.
Structure and Function of the Three Branches
Constitution divides powers between the federal government and the states. Federalism is the sharing of power between the national government and states (division of powers), federal (national) government has power to act for the nation as a whole, states have power over important local matters. Powers of federal government include making coin money, regulate trade between states and with other countries, declare war, create and maintain armed forces, make copyright and patent laws, establish postal offices and foreign policy, create federal courts and admit new states. Powers of the states include creating corporation laws, regulated trade within the state, establish and maintain schools, establish local governments, and make laws about marriage and divorce. They conduct elections and provide for public safety. Shared powers (concurrent), provide for public welfare, administer criminal justice, charter banks, raise taxes, and borrow money. Congress is the legislative branch with the purpose to make laws. House of Representatives qualifications are two year terms, 25 years of age, citizen of US for 7 years, resident of area representing. Senate qualifications are six year terms, must be 30 years of age, citizen of US for 9 years, resident of state representing. President of the executive branch, purpose to carry out the laws, qualifications must be a natural born citizen of the US, 35 years of age, resident within the US for at least 14 years. Vice-Presidents qualifications same as President. Term of office is 4 years, limited to 2 terms. Judicial branch, the purpose is to interpret laws.
Checks and Balances
Restraint, each branch has the power to limit, or check, the action of the other branches. Separation of powers, the Constitution clearly defines the separation of powers of the branches of government so that no one branch can become too powerful. Agencies, departments, and bureaus include departments of state, defense, treasury, education, agency of Environmental protection, and bureaus of NASA and National Security Council. They administer the policies and programs of the federal government, and to advise and report to the President and Congress on proposed policies and programs.
Those important to the development of the US include the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, US Constitution, and The Bill of Rights.
Have the rights of citizens spelled out and limit the power of the central government.
Divided power between federal government and states. Federal government coins money, regulates trade and declares war. State governments regulate trade within their borders, decide who can vote in state election, have power over schools and local governments, have power not explicitly given to federal government. They share powers such as the power to build roads, administer criminal justice, provide for public welfare, charter banks, raise taxes, and borrow money. Worked out the large state plan and small state plans of Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan for equal representation and the Great Compromise fixed the problem and combined the Virginia and New Jersey Plans. The Three-fifths Compromise settled the question of counting slaves for representation. National capital was established in Washington D.C. between Maryland and Virginia. Leaders here included Ben Franklin, who was the oldest person at the Convention. George Washington was the president of the convention, Alexander Hamilton was the federalist, James Madison, secretary of convention, Edmund Randolph wrote the Virginia Plan, William Patterson, wrote the New Jersey Plan. Roger Sherman from Connecticut wrote the Great Compromise. Concept of the separation of powers, three branches of government each with its own powers. Executive carries out the laws, is commander in chief, recommend and initiate legislation, sets foreign policy and acts as chief diplomat, leads the political party that elected him to office, appoints heads of federal departments and has the power to veto legislation. The Legislative sets taxes to pay for programs and services of government, borrows money to help pay for government services and programs, regulates trade to protect and encourage American business interests, prints and coins money, establishes national postal service, creates federal courts to try cases and determine the constitutionality of actions, has the power to impeach, elects President if no candidate receives a majority in the election, proposes Constitutional amendments, approves major Presidential appointments. The Judicial uses judicial review to determine the constitutionality of an act of government, reviews decisions made by other courts, tries cases involving the violation of federal law. The system of checks and balances, executive checks on the legislative branch and on the judicial branch, the legislative branch checks on the executive and the judicial, and the judicial checks on the executive and legislative.
Wanted strong central government and was led by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison. They wrote the Federalist papers and believe that the wealthy and well educated should lead the nation. Emphasis is on manufacturing shipping and trade, and favored loose interpretation of the Constitution. They were also pro-British, favored the national bank and favored protective tariffs.
Were led by Jefferson who believed in laissez fare (expansion of US), wanted strong state governments, President too strong, were pro-French, people should have the power through the Bill of Rights. Opposed the national bank, opposed protected tariffs and had a strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Was decided in the Supreme Court case Marbury vs. Madison using Article III of the Constitution. Defined the separation of the judicial and executive branches.
Women's Right's Movement
Started in the 1800s and under the Constitution, women could not vote or hold office. Leaders of the movements included the Grimke sisters, Sojourner Truth, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony. They formed the Seneca Falls Convention on July 19, 1848 and declared the Declaration of Sentiments was the document was the "grand movement for attaining the civil, social, political, and religious rights of women and was written by Stanton and was based on the Declaration of Independence. It demanded equality for women at work, school and before the law. The Hull House was founded by Jane Addams and taught women and children home economics, crafts, and job skills.
Income for States and Federal Government
All of the income came from taxes, sales, income, and property, inheritance, estate, and businesses. Amusement and licenses were another form of income from motor, hunting, fishing, and marriage licenses.
Customs Traditions and Cultural Activities in the US
These include Cinco de Mayo and El Dia de los Muertos for Mexican Americans, Juneteenth for African Americans, Chinese Lunar New Year for Chinese Americans, and Trung Thu is a Vietnames rice harvest/children's festival.
Social Interaction Among Groups
Interaction has not been particularly pleasant for most of history, the Civil Rights movement was the African Americans vs. White Establishment with Brown v. Board of Education, Alabama bus boycott, I Have a Dream Speech, Black Muslims and Black Panthers were radical Black groups. Hiring quotas were enforced for equal status with Whites. Women's rights were for women in the workplace mainly and women of all races and ethnic backgrounds fighting for equal treatment, work and pay. Native Americans vs. Government fought for retrieval of land, income from reservation land, right to self determination on reservations and off
Consists of nine justices with one chief justice. Have about 4,500-5,000 cases appealed each year. The rule of fairness is used with all cases, as is the writ of certiorari (precedence that review lower courts cases). By certificate means requesting an answer from the Supreme Court by a lower court. They hear oral arguments and are given briefs on these arguments. The Solicitor General was the chief lawyer and would hold conferences to come up with a dicsion. Opion written by court is a majority for a vote that has most support, concurrence for a tie, and dissent for majority rejecting. Landmark cases include Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch vs Maryland, Dred Scott vs Sanford, Plessy vs. Ferguson, Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education, Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia, Miranda vs. Arizona, Roe vs. Wade, Regents of the University of California vs. Bakke.
Women's Rights Movement involved the fact that women had few rights, there were almost no colleges for women, most professional careers closed to women and married women could not own property. Oberlin College became the first school to admit women and NY became the first state to allow married women to own real estate. Nationwide suffrage for women would not come until 1920. Few American children went to school before the 1820s and NY ordered every town to set up an elementary school. Horace Mann led fight for education in Massachusetts. by 1850s most Northern states had free, tax supported elementary schools. Schooling stopped after the 8th grade, separate schools established for black children. Thomas Gallaudet set up a school for the deaf in Hartford. Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe directed the first school for the blind. Temperance movement was began with the Demon rum was linked to crime and other social ills, 1850s Maine banned the sale of alcohol with other states following.
Labor Reforms of this Period
Workers day in the 1840s started at 4:30 AM and people of all ages worked 12 hour days. Poor working conditions were rampant and consisted of few windows, little heat or cooling, inadequate lighting, unsafe machines, no insurance, and company stores where employees were always in debt. Establishment of trade unions called for shorter work days, better wages, safer working conditions, and a work day hour cut. In 1842, Massachusetts court declared workers had right to strike.
US Government & Regulation of the Economy
Economy is regulated to maintain a free market where competition is encouraged and the Federal Reserve System serves the money needs of all parts of the country. Government controls monetary and fiscal policies. Economic regulation has its costs and benefits. Regulation helps maintain a balance in the economy by preventing monopoly and encouraging competition. Government regulation increases the efficiency of some projects of both private industry and public agencies. Some large and expensive projects need government financing or support to succeed in the short or long run. Government regulation takes away some local control of the projects.
Government Protection of Consumers & Producers
Consumer has rights to safety, honesty, and free choice in the goods and services they decide to own and use. Consumers influence the economy by deciding how to spend their money. Consumers are free to choose how to spend their income. The way they spend their money affects that quality and quantitiy of products and services that producers offer. Consumers buy products based on their own economic interests and consumers are free to acquire, use, and dispose of private property and the goods and services they buy. Conditions that led to consumer protection are monopolies, consumer fraud and product hazards. Various agencies provide consumer protection with the Consumer Product Safety Commission, Federal Communications Commission, Securities and Exchange Commission, national Transportation Safety Board, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Federal Aviation Administration and Economic Regulatory Administration. Producers have rights and protection under the laws and courts. Tariffs protect US companies from foreign competition, copyright and patent laws protect original products from being copied. Producers have the right to trade in a free market, regulation of monopolies protects other businesses, labor and labor unions protect employees, and producers have the right to employ workers and own and dispose of property.
Government Encourages Free Market
The government works to support the benefits to both consumers and producers, so that they will want to do business in a free market. Government spends money in the free market system with purchases of goods and services of military equipment, highways, and on schools school equipment and teachers salaries and police protection. Grants money for research and development for health and medical research, space exploration, develops transportation and communication systems with communication satellites, postal service, canals, roads, railroads, and airports. Loans and tax incentives from the Small Business Administration, Farm Credit Administration, Federal Home Loan Bank Board, and Minority Business Development Agency. Private ownership is where the government protects the rights of citizens and businesses to own and use private property as they legally choose. Constitution protects citizens rights to own property, and judicial decisions support citizens rights to own property.
Citizens Influence Government's Economic Decisions
Citizens petition the government for assistance, change, or relief, citizens gather information so that they can defend the position they support with facts. Citizens write letters and make phone calls to public officials to supply them with facts for causes. Citizen attend meetings whose public officials speak. Citizens support and vote for candidates who agree with their economic views. Citizens work with government officials to make and change economic programs. Citizens study cause and effect relationships on the issue and plan a position that will help to bring about the changes they want, citizens join an interest group that agrees with their economic point of view, citizens speak out at public meetings and express their point of view. Citizens help distribute information generated by the government officials who agree with their economic view.
The theory is that the world contains a fixed amount of wealth, to increase its share a country had to take some wealth from another country. Imperial interest grew in mercantilism because raw materials could be gained from its colonies. Colonies were a good market for manufactured goods. Favorable balance of trade was strengthened one country by having more goods sold to foreign countries than it bought from foreign countries. A country could reduce the amount of imports in its country by imposing tariffs to discourage its people from buying foreign products. It increases the value of its exports by doing the manufacturing at home and then selling the finished goods.
Growth of Texas Economy
By 1970, 80% of Texans lived in urban areas. Houston is the largest city and is very diverse in terms of immigrant population from other states and countries. Three percent make a living in agriculture, growth of suburbs. Sunny south attracts new industries after oil crisis and heating oil bills for the north. In 1985, the oil economy in Texas fell along with demand and prices and they couldn't compete with OPEC. The automobile aided urban growth and great highways and roads allowed interstate and intrastate commerce. Air travel is popular with several regional and international airports for easy access to Texas and the world. High Tech computer industry moved to Texas from California and Japan and the textile market expanded in southwest Dallas. There are several national professional sport teams, hundreds of state recreation areas and tourist attraction such as the Alamo, Sea World, and Six Flags are good forms of recreation. Educational opportunities abound with nationally and internationally ranked colleges and universities and there was great enrollment in Texas schools.
Texas Economy in High Plains
Have geographic factors such as flat land, mesas, plateaus, treeless, windy, extremes of hot and cold with moderate rainfall. Primary economic activities include giant cattle ranches, dry land farming, irrigated farming, crude oil production, water well production. Secondary economic activities include meat processing, packing and shipping. Shipping produce to markets, pipeline, well supply oil refining. Tertiary economics are special techniques for recovering oil in low pressure zones and special techniques ofr recovering water in low water table situations.
Texas Economy in North Central Plains
Geographic factors include rolling prairie, black fertile soil, broad leaf trees, and moderate rainfall. Economic activity in the primary category falls into wheat and cotton farming and secondary economic activity includes textile manufacturing, banking and insurance.
Texas Economy in Gulf Coast Plain
Geographic factors include flat landscapes, seashore dunes, and the Gulf of Mexico. Primary economic activities include mineral extraction, rice farming and fishing. Secondary economic activities include import and exports through port cities, oil refining, chemical industry and NASA.
Texas Economy in the Trans Pecos
Geographic factors include arid mountains, desert basins and plateaus, minerals and sparse grasslands. The primary economic activity is ranching of cattle, sheep, and goats and farming melons and fruits. Secondary economic activity includes meat packing and shipping, wine making and food shipping.
Texas Economy in the South Plains
Geographic factors include arid brush country and the fertile Rio Grande Valley. The primary economic activity is ranching and truck farming. The secondary economic activity includes citrus picking, packing and shipping, military, and tourism.
Texas Economy in the Post Oak/Piney Woods
Geographic factors include the flat to rolling plains, abundant rainfall, pine and broad leaf forest, and sandy soil. The primary economic activity includes timber farming, plant nurseries, fruit growing, and poultry raising. Secondary economic activity includes wood and paper production, plant shipping statewide, fruit packing and shipping, poultry processing and shipping, and education.
US Economy by Region
In the Northeast the primary economic sources are poultry and dairy farming and the secondary include manufacturing. In the Southeast the primary economic sources are rice farming, fishing, and mining and the secondary includes textile manufacturing and food processing. In the Northwest the primary economic sources are forestry, fishing, and mining and the secondary include milled wood and paper products. In the Southwest the primary economic sources are oil, cattle and cotton and secondary are textile manufacturing, oil refining, and beef processing. Tertiary economics include old oil field recovery.
US Exports by Global Trade
Exports were historically machines, grain, automobiles, military, hardware, and oil. Contemporary exports, computer systems, grain and airplanes. Relationship with Mexico is very uneasy due to the border and illegal aliens coming over. Pollution of the Rio Grande River is an issue. Maquiladoras (manufacturing operations) are growing rapidly, free trade agreement, exchange of tourists and shoppers going both ways. Foreign aid is given by the US to other countries in the forms of loans, grants, military, and cultural exchanges. Technology transfer from the US to other countries include goods and personell.
United States Trades with Many Countries
With Japan we receive cars and electronics, Germany we receive cars and small consumer items. In the Pacific rim countries such as S. Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Malaysia, we receive clothing, sports shoes and small electronics. With Venezuela and Arab OPEC countries we receive crude petroleum for gas production. From Canada we receive timber and paper products and from Mexico we receive assembled goods made from US parts.
How the US Interacts with the World
The US interacts with the World through a number of organizations. These include the UN, NATO, GATT, NAFTA, OPEC, EU, and the World Bank.
Acid rain is sulphur and nitrogen oxides from industrial pollution chemically combines with precipitation which is already an extremely weak solution of carbonic acid and become dangerously acidic. Eastern US and Canada are now between 4 and 4.5 pH, a very a acidity. Lakes are becoming devoid of life. 75% of the fir trees and 40% of the spruce trees were dead or damaged by 1983 in Eastern Canada. In Vermont, 50% of the trees have died. Air currents cause acid rain to cross international boundaries and cause political incidents. Desertification is caused by human activity by careless farming practices, overgrazing, or cutting trees for firewood/lumber. World-wide total area is larger than Brazil is considered to be a human-made desert. The Greenhouse Effect is caused by industrial burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) and the release of nitrous oxide, methane, and CFC. Effects of it have been that the carbon dioxide has nearly doubled in the atmosphere in this century. Income short-wave radiation from the sun penetrates carbon dioxide but carbon dioxide blocks escape of heat. Possible 2 to 4 degree warming trend in high latitudes. Potential release of huge quantities of water currently locked in glaciers and ice caps. Sea level could rise as much as 6 ft by 2100 AD and would cause devastation to low lying coastal areas and would influence rainfall, ocean currents and the wind system. Ozone damage naturally absorbs large amounts of ultraviolet radiation. Cholorfluorcarbons break up ozone molecules. 3 million square mile hole in ozone discovered in 1985 over Antarctica. Sharp world wide increase in skin cancer. Water pollution comes from wastewater, pesticides, mine tailings, liquid chemical wastes, acid rain, thermal pollution, wastes from animal and plant matter. Sewage such as human wastes, garbage, wastewater contribute to it and agricultural reasons such as animal wastes, fertilizers and pesticeds contribute to it. Spread and causes disease and spreads virus and bacteria and causes damage to life due to ingestion of chemicals and metals. Ruins recreational use of water, kills waterfowl, shellfish and other wildlife, and there is loss of oxygen in water due to overpopulation of algae and bacteria when sewage dumped in water. Control of this can be done by treating the sewage, pretreatment of industrial waste and drinking water standards.
Water Conservation and Purification
This can be done by using buried pipes and growing drought resistant crops for irrigation. Industry recycling and wastewater and storm runoff routed into recharge basins rather than rivers or coastal waters. Homes could do water rationing and install water saving devices in homes. Water can be purified through a series of screens that removes large objects and then sent through a grinding mechanism to reduce objects to a manageable size and use a series of sizing chambers that remove heavy grit and suspended solids. Secondary treatments can also be used such as designed to reduce the dissolved or finely suspended organic matter by some form of accelerated biological action, trickling filter, significant purification, alternate technique is the activated sludge process and formation of sludge and its removal.
Air pollutants are airborne gases and aerosols that occur in concentrations that threaten the well being of living organisms or disrupt the orderly functioning of the environment by primary air pollutants when they are emitted into the air and then there are the secondary pollutants formed by chemical reactions such as acid mists and smog. Sources can be natural such as fires, pollen, wind erosion, volcanic decay, and volcanic eruptions. They can also be made by humans such as motor vehicles, pulp and paper mills, iron and steel mill, oil refineries, smelters, chemical plants, fuel combustion, refuse burning, crop dusting, and cultivation. Types of air pollution can be carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, compounds of sulfur, suspended particles, indoor pollutants and noise pollution. Effects of it are on the human respiratory system such as sneezing, coughing, displaces oxygen in the blood, stress on the heart, lung disease, damage to the nervous system, and impairs heart and kidney function. Fluoride and lead effect dairy cattle and zoo animals, especially cats who clean themselves, plant sensitivity, fish, and radiation. Effects on air pollution include strong winds and unstable air increase in rate of dilution and temperature inversion which is an extremely stable air condition that enhances air pollution problems. Regions with high potential for air pollution tend to have topographic relief, hills and mountains. Effects on weather and climate include urban air pollutants affecting precipitation, cloudiness, fog development, alter the local radiation balance and intensify the greenhouse effect.
Balance of Trade
Relationship between goods exported or sold to other countries and goods imported or bought from other countries.
Effect of Tariffs
Protects prices on American goods, raises prices on foreign goods, protects incompetence and inefficient corpus-inferiority, provides revenue, protects infant industries.
Mutual benefits to countries involved, expanded markets increase employment, reduce barriers to quality products, creastes economic interdependence for world stability and the balance of trade, exports equals imports.
Comparative advantage and disadvantages of trade is the ability of a party to produce a particular good or service at a lower marginal and opportunity cost over another and the country should specialize in exporting and producing products it has a relative, or comparative, advantage in when compared to other nations, and it should import those products. Absolute advantage is where a country should specialize in exporting and producing products it has a relative, or comparative, advantage in when compared to other nations, and it should import those products, where labor is the only input. Absolute disadvantage is when a country making all goods will be specializing in the production of goods that use an inferior technology to that used in the country with an absolute advantage. New products available is a good sign that international trade is working with the present market. International trade promotes and improves economic well being of all parties and promotes self sufficiency. It also reduces hatred, prejudices and conflict, as economics know no boundaries. International currency fluctuations depends on international conditions and situations, IMF and international bankers influence debtor countries and has a widespread effect and impact on global society. Floating exchange rates abolished the gold standard because values changed constantly and gives you the true value of the exchange rate. Fixed exchange rates on the other hand is used in a few countries that practice command economics and have an artificial value and will eventually collapse. Effects of international financial conditions on the US economy include the balance of payment, the value of the dollar for imports and export, long term contracts for business, travel conditions, how much foreign investors are willing to invest in the US and come to the US, and how American investors are willing to invest or travel to other countries. The US is the most dependent country in the world.
Types of economics in US
Command economics includes the aspects of central planning, use of a quota system, government price setting, and limited goods production. Market economics includes supply and demand based markets, economic incentives, economic freedoms, limited government, and competition. Aspects of traditional economics include subsistence, surplus that is sold in village markets and customs and traditions.
Developed and Developing Economics
Developed economies include the US, Japan, France, Great Britain, Germany, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Iran, Iraq, Libya, and Algeria. Major economic organizations include the European Community, OPEC, GATT, NAFTA, and the Pacific Rim. Developing Economies include those countries that have a low per capita income, rapid populations growth, subsistence farming, little technology, substandard education and healthcare, and have extremely large foreign debt payments. Economic assistance agencies that help these countries include private loan investments, the World Bank, and the IBRD. Relationship between developed and less developed countries included the transfer of goods and personnel and foreign aid such as loans, grants, cash, military, and cultural.
Geopolitical Events in Arab/Israeli Conflict
Started back during the time of the ancient Israelites and Palestinians and flared when Palestine was under the Ottoman Empire. The Zionist movement in Palestine in 1900 picked up steam, and was popular among several Jews in Europe during the time prior to the Holocaust. Also, the Jews at this time pushed for return to their homeland at Palestine. As a result, the survivors demands were heard and the creation of Israel in Palestine in 1948 was for their home. Religious significance of the land is important to Jews, Christians, and Muslims because it is sacred to all of their religions. The wars began in 1948 with the creation of Israel and continued in 1952 and 1967. The 1967 war is where the Arabs lost Jerusalem, West Bank, Gaza, and Golan Heights. In 1973 Arabs lose Sinai which was later returned during the Camp David Accords. In 1982 the Israelis bombed Beirut and Lebanon for 40 days. The Camp David Accords were peace initiatives led by President Jimmy Carter in 1978 and the Arab/Israeli peace negotiations have been going on since 1992.
Geopolitical Events in the Lebanese Civil War
Began in 1975 in an argument over the 1932 Constitution which gave power to ethnic groups based on their demographic profile in the country in 1932 and by 1975 it was non representative. In 1932 the Christians were the majority and held the presidency but in 1975 the Muslims were the majority but couldn't get the presidency away from the Christians. Lebanon was once part of Syria and they wanted it back. The Civil War was three way between the Christians, Muslims, and the Druze (government).
Emergence & Benefits of Free Enterprise
Growth and change took place due to trade, and as travel improved, so did trade. Triangular trade helped the economy and cities grew such as Philadelphia, Charleston, Baltimore, and New York city. American trade was threatened in the early 1800s with War with Tripoli as the American ships attacked, the imprisonment of American sailors by British, and the Embargo Act and Non-Intercourse Acts. The Industrial Revolution in America took off when Samuel Slater brought plans to America to build a factory in 1790 and the Lowell Mills came to life with young women coming to work. Conditions in these factories were better than most European factories, but as the factory system changed conditions grew worse. Eli Whitney developed the cotton gin with interchangeable parts and propelled the revolution more. Routes settlers took to move West isuch as the Great Wagon Road and the Cumberland Gap. Roads were improved for ease of travel with the Lancaster Turnpike, Corduroy roads, bridges, and national roads. Steamboats were useful in trade and travel and the steam engine turned paddle wheels against the current. Robert Fulton developed his steamboat, the Clermont. Flat bottomed steamboats used on shallow rivers. Canals such as the Erie Canal connected Lake Erie to the Wabash, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers.
The automobile was the development of an industry where Detroit became an auto center, Ford continued to be very successful and General Motors and Chrysler were created. Less successful companies included Studebaker, Packard, Hudson, and Maxwell. Many Americans began to aspire to own a car since having a care was a sign of wealth and success. Railways continued their success in auto and trucking industries cased rail rates to rise, diesel engines replaced steam and electric interurban trains were introduced for commuters. Aircraft was the new medium of travel and was popularized after Charles Lindberg made the first transatlantic flight in 1927. Jet aircraft worked by rocket propulsion. Rader was the combined research efforts of the US and Great Britain in the 1940s. Ocean vessels became popular during the world wars. Germans developed submarines or U-boats and developed sonar, battleships, armored cruisers, and lightweight destroyers became equipped with torpedoes to combat enemy submarines. Panama Canal was established using the Hay-Pouncefonte Treaty during Theodor Roosevelt's regime and the US paid $10 million in annual rent. Series of locks was easier than level construction. Panamanians regards US control as imperialism. The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty liberalized it and in 1979 the Panama Canal Treaty was signed by the US to give it up.
Atom smasher was developed in 1930 and the neutron-small hydrogen bomb was discovered in 1932. The Manhattan Project took place form 1942-45 when the US federal government spent over $2 billion to design and build three atomic bombs, and as a direct result, Hiroshima and Nagasaki were bombed. Nuclear arms race and the efforts to halt it began with NATO taking arms control in 1968, SALT began talks between the US and USSR in 1969, the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty in 1972, and the SALT II extended an interim agreement after ABMT from 1972-79. START began in 1982 and the INF eliminated more nuclear arms between the USSR and US in 1987 and the CFE Treaty in 1990 ended the race. Nuclear power plants were built nationwide but they had high cost overruns, there were radiation accidents, and they were a huge source of power for growing cities. Nuclear medicine involves radiation to treat cancer.
Satellites & Space Exploration
USSR launched Sputnik on October 4, 1957 and the US launched Explorer I on January 31, 1958. Types of satellites include communication, weather, and spy. The importance of satellites in that they give us meteorological facts, give us the nature of space, communicate between space and earth and created jobs. NASA was created for space exploration. Astronauts and Cosmonauts in space include Alan Shepard, John Glenn, and Neil Armstrong and they went up in space shuttles and also lived in the space station. Results of the research in space include electronic devices, medical discoveries and safety devices.
This field includes pharmacology such as the development of penicillin, antibiotics, and vaccines. Public health began in 1922 when insulin was discovered by Banting and Best. In 1928, Griffith discovered bacterial transformation in pneumonia, and in 1945 Alexander Fleming won the Nobel Prize for medicine in discovering penicillin. Mental health began when Freud's psychoanalysis influenced American mental health movements. mental health clinics began opening such as Chestnut Lodge Hospital, Stockbridge Institute formed, and the Menninger Clinic for the mentally ill, and school began opening counseling centers for students in the 1920s. Research began over proteins thought to be carriers of genetic information, the Iron lung was developed for polio patients in 1928, electron microscope developed in the 1930s. Barbara McClintock discovered jumping genes in 1931, Phenobarbital was developed for the treatment of seizures, and advances in anesthesia for safer surgery were developed. Sanitation was vastly improved after WWII with the outcome of the Holocaust. Nutrition was a focus after WWI with health programs being developed in schools and the development of five basic food groups helped people learn how to eat properly. FDA recommended a certain number of nutrients to be eaten per day. Artificial organs and joints were developed such as artificial heart, larynx, hearing aids, synthetic arteries, artificial skin, synthetic, plastic, and metal joint replacements, prosthetics, and kidney dialysis. Organ transplant research took place at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. Cyclosporine was invented to make acceptance of donor organs possible and then the Japanese developed FK-506 which was better than the former. Genetic engineering and research began with artificial insemination, cloning, in vitro fertilization, species hybridization, animal husbandry, and horticulture. Research altered codes to eliminate disease, produce new material, human genes inserted into bacteria produces insulin, and more research into genetic codes to eliminate diabetes and other diseases. Machines include x-ray technology, cat scans, ionizing radiation, and MRIs.
Plastics developed such as cellophane as an alternative to food wrapped in paper in the 1920s and plastics were developed from petroleum by products. Synthetics include chemically produced fibers in the 1920s, celanese, nylon, polyvinyl chloride, and polyester and artificial rubber.
In 1957 Gordon Gould created laser devices, an intense light of a narrow range of wavelengths. Potential for good and evil, medical and warfare technology, US and USSR both experimented with military applications. Bar coding and merchandise used lasers, welding and metallurgy were made more powerful. CDs and stereo equipment were developed using laser technology, such as video discs and visual effects in movie industry and for communications, such as electronic messages by laser through fiber-optic cables which was far superior to copper.
Solutions to Pollution
Industry solutions were to reduce the industrial activities during periods of high pollution, wide dispersion using taller smokestacks, reduction of emission, and the invention of new industrial processes and recycling. The Marine Pollution Treaty prohibited ocean dumping, as the Water Pollution Act of 1972 prohibited water dumping (rivers, lakes, etc) and the Clean Air Acts of 1987 and 91 limited the amount of emissions into the air. Public action groups include environmental, recycling, reuse of materials, and consumer voting actions such as ballot boxes, boycotts, purchasing.
Alternate Energy Sources
Solar energy is more abundant than all the others since it is less exhaustible, pollution free, and sun floods the Earth daily with 100,000 times more energy than the electric power capacity of the entire world. Active solar energy systems include those that capture, store, and distribute the sun's energy. Collector storage mechanism and distribution advice and stores energy for use when sunlight is not available. Passive solar energy systems are less expensive to construct and have a back up heat source. Photo voltaic cells are solar cells that convert solar power to electricity. More money for research is needed because the program has been cut for past twelve years
Nuclear fission was discovered by Henry Becquerel in 1896 and the discovery of radium reaction with photographic plates and that rays interact with other compounds and cause the atomic nuclei to split and causes fission. The chain reaction is uranium because once a split is started, a chain reaction occurs creating more unstable reactions that create more. Fissioning one pound of uranium quickly yields an explosive force with is the equivalent to 10,000 tons of TNT or released slowly, enough power to produce 12 million kilowatt hours, the reactor is the heart of the nuclear power plant and the fear of explosion or uncontrolled heat buildup causes a meltdown. Cooling great amounts of hot water produced by reactors, causes thermal pollution and can kill lakes and streams Reactive waste is uranium that has a half life far longer than our life time. Fusion is clean, nuclear power, and is created by fusing atoms and it is an efficient method of containment that has not been found and there has not been enough funding over the years.
The practice of tapping underground reservoirs in volcanically active areas. Steam is piped through the ground to turbines that turn electric generators. The largest geothermal plants in America are in N. California which uses steam from geysers, and supplies electricity to San Francisco. Is a clean source of energy is and very inexpensive. However, energy is not uniformly located throughout the US and minerals in steam are very hard on machinery.
Alcohol-blend with gasoline
Substitute for diesel fuel and kerosene. It is used as a heating fuel, is less expensive and is cropped erived. Less pollutant and is more efficient. By products of this are used for livestock feed and carbonation of beverages.
Methane & Hydropower
Bio gas decomposition of anaerobic bacteria and is the decomposition of waste and is a human animal plant Digester is the artificial production and sludge from digester can be used as fertilizer. Water power using the physical force of water to generate power in the form of dams which is a good efficient power source many waterways for potential use. It is bad because there is opposition by environment groups due to destruction of natural habitats and wilderness areas when land is flooded to make artificial reservoirs.
Tidal Power and Wind Power
Power from the huge forces behind the consistent tides, small basins are constructed so that when tide goes back down, water is released through turbines that produce energy. Negative aspect is cost of building dams and levees to construct basins. Windmills have been used for many years. Wind towers are more efficient than mills, equipped with propeller or eggbeater blades. Limited to windy areas, DC batteries must be used as storage mechanisms, construction of high towers can be costly.
In the 1950s, the development of magnetic core memory transistor circuit memory was the first step to computers. In the 1960s, faster computers with more capacity and power were developed with the help of Livermore Radiation Laboratories, IBM, and Rand Corp. In the 1970s, the broader range of applications and is less costly. Mini computers and personal computers were developed. In the 1980s, semi conductor chips were developed by Intel Corp. and Motorola and Microprocessors and CD-ROMs became normal. In the 1990s, computers were becoming indispensible in the work place for networking, electronic publishing, artificial intelligence, computer aided design, computer aided engineering, security systems, and in automobiles and appliances.
Firsthand information from people involved in an event. Examples include paintings, diaries, letters, contracts, treaties, laws. steps to follow for the use include asking the questions of who, what, where, when, why to identify the source and recognized the author's point of view and decide whether or not the source is reliable.
Are based on primary sources and are derivative of them but interpret them better.
Are based on secondary sources, textbooks are the best examples.
How to Locate Information
Distinguish fact from opinion. Fact is something that actually happened and opinion is a judgment that reflects a person's beliefs or feelings. Compare two points of view by studying the content of each source and evaluating the usefulness of these sources. Use a timeline to identify the time periods covered in the timeline and decide how the timeline is divided. An example of the government references source is the United States Government Manual, published by the National Archive and Record Administration.
Examples of Sources
Primary sources are painting, diaries, letters, contracts, treaties, laws and congressional quarterlies. Collecting oral histories are a good way to gather information. In order to find what looking for you must identify the source, make questions ahead of time, set a time for the interview(s) and videotape or audiotape the conversation if possible. Steps to follow for using primary sources include asking who, what, when, where, and why, recognize the author's point of view, and decide whether or not the source is reliable. You must distinguish fact from opinion with primary sources. Secondary sources are newspapers, magazines, journals, books, almanacs, and statistical abstracts. Timelines are very important secondary sources and can show how the event happened.
Printing office index and catalog in addition to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Commerce and Treasury Departments.
Formal Definition of Social Studies by National Council for the Social Studies
Is the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civil competence. Within the school program, it provides coordinated, systematic study drawing upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, religion, and sociology, as well as appropriate content from the humanities, mathematics and natural sciences. the primary purpose of social studies is to help young people develop the ability to make informal and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an independent world.
Students Should be Able to
Develop a core of basic knowledge, learn how to analyze opinions on an issue, and become motivated to participate as informed citizens.
NCSS Standard of 1997
Social studies promotes knowledge of and involvement in civic affairs and because civic issues such as health care, crime, and foreign policy are multidisciplinary in nature, understanding these issues and developing resolutions through them require multidisciplinary education. These characteristics are the defining aspects of social studies.
NCSS Standards Ten Themes
Culture-characteristics, Belief systems, ways culture changes to accommodate different beliefs and ideas. Time Continuity and Change- people seek to understand their roots and to place themselves in time. People, Places, and Environments- spatial views and geographic perspectives. Individual Development and Identity- personal identity is shaped by individuals groups and institutions. Individuals, Groups and Institutions- families, schools, churches, all play integral role in people's lives. Power, Authority, and Governance- Historical development of authority, governance to develop civic competence. Production, Distribution and Consumption. People have wants that often exceed available resources. Science, Technology, and Society- Modern life would be impossible as it is without science and technology. Global Connections- requires understanding importance and diversity among world society. Civil Ideals and Practices- Understanding of civic ideals and practices is crucial for participation in a society.
Critical Thinking Skills
Solving problems, making judgments, making decisions, creating ideas, analyzing, synthesizing
Bloom's Taxonomy Cognitive Domain Objectives
Knowledge is to remember and recall. Comprehension is to grasp the meaning of the material, can say the idea in different words, extrapolates implications of consequences of an idea, and can predict continuation of trends. Application is to apply abstract knowledge for use in real life and use learned material in new situations. Analysis can break down complex ideas, see relationships of component parts, and show cause and effect. Synthesis is to take known material and put it together in new ways and compose new material Evaluation is to make a judgment.
Synthesizing and Organizing Information,Read a line graph by identify the type f information shown on the line graph by title, date, and source. and study the labels on the horizontal and vertical axis on the graph. Read a bar graph by identifying the subject of the bar graph by looking at the title, horizontal, and vertical axis. Identify the facts on the bar graph by intervals between the numbers and dates are always equal and that the numbers on the vertical axis always start with zero. Read a circle or pie graph by indentifying facts on a circle or pie graph. Each part or wedge can be compared to every other part. The graph shows the relationship between each of the parts and the whole.
Economic Data and Graphics
Tables are analyzed be interpolating and extrapolating the information. Charts such as pie charts show the percentage and interlocking charts show the degrees of the relationship. Graphs such as line show the simple progression of one factor such as the supply/demand curve. The bar graph shows comparison of same/like factors usually over a period of time.
They are sued for country, city, and state directional roads, topographic for physical features and elevation, remote sensing for large areas seen from pace, great circle route airline, great circle route airline, and star/galaxy astronomy. Projections created by cartographers for equal area projection is to ensure the size of land masses is correct and not distorted. Cylindrical/conformal projection is to ensure the true shape, but the size is distorted. This can be seen in the Mercator that is distorted in the north but used for navigation. The Great Circle Route is used for navigation on the Mercator. The transverse Mercator is used by the US geological survey and other worldwide mapping organizations. Examples include the Peters Projection where the south is distorted. Azimuthal projections are circular and show the true direction, but are only good for small areas and are in the flat-plane projection. Compromise are neither true shape, not true size, but is the best relative projection for lay use today. Good example is the Robinson projection developed by the National Geographic Society in 1990. Interrupted maps are where water looks larger than reality. Conic maps are based on a cone place over the globe. the best example is the Lambert model used in textbooks.
Are the only true representation of the earth's surface, though they are inconvenient to carry around. Remember TODALSIG for map elements. Title, Organization (NSWE, directional arrow) Date, Author, Legend (railway line, urban area dots, star for capitol) Scale (small and large scale), Index of names, and Grid (latitude and longitude, alpha/numeric) Longitude is the measure distance east and west from Prime Meridian and special longitude lines are the Prime Meridian which is 0 and the International Date line which is 180. Latitude measures the distance north and south from the equator. Special latitude lines include the equator, Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, Arctic Circle, and Antarctic Circle. Remote map sensing technology can be used in the air such as by airplane and balloon. Satellites are also used by LANDSAT and NASA
You can take care of conflict by using the uses of speech such as persuasion, compromise, debate, and negotiation.
Identifying Research Skills
Steps to do research include selecting and limiting a subject, prepare a working bibliography, prepare a possible outline, take notes, write a final outline, write a first draft, revise the draft and write an introduction and conclusion, use footnotes, write a finished paper, and prepare a final bibliography.
Steps to do solve a conundrum include identifying the problem, identify what is necessary to study the problem, what are some solutions, what facts are necessary before making a decision, and make a decision.
To research correctly, one must define the problem, gather facts, analyze information, list possible solutions, list all consequences for each solution, decide the best solution, and evaluate the process.
In order to document correctly, you must select and limit a subject, prepare a working bibliography, prepare a possible outline, take notes, write a first draft, revise the draft, write and introduction and conclusion to finished draft, use footnotes, write a finished paper, and prepare a final bibliography.
History Instruction and Assessment
TEKS (Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills) is comprised of performance standards, vertical alignment, prerequisite knowledge and skills, and age-appropriate activities and instruction. Technology is necessary in the forms of software and internet. Research skills and problem solving are essential to any grade level in the classroom that the kids must learn. History discipline is the study of human endeavors of the past. History across areas includes reading comprehension, communication skills, information organizing, problem solving, research skills, graphic skills, and location in time and space. Interdisciplinary instructional approaches include English and History with the historical background of novels and geographic location of setting. History and government intertwine with the development of government, and the TAKS 8-12 information booklet is from the TEA student development division.
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