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50 terms

psych final_m2

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where in the brain do most visual signals travel from the optic nerve?
LGN
Chad is reading when he sees an insect land on the corner of his book. He then makes an eye movement to look at the insect. The structure of the visual system that is most likely responsible for making this eye movement is:
Superior Colliculus
As we travel farther from the retina, neurons fire to
more complex stimuli
The results of experiments of selective adaptation to gratings with specific orientations can be related to
the _____ of ____ cells.
Tuning curves; simple cortical cells
When you stare at a grating of wide bars for 55 seconds, then look at a grating with narrow bars, the narrow bars will:
be thinner than they actually are
When a kitten is exposed to an environment of just horizontal lines, the kitten:
would have cortical cells that respond to horizontal lines, but none to vertical lines.
Object discrimination problem: ________. Landmark discrimination problem :________.
Temporal Lobes; Parietal Lobes
The ventral extra striate pathway has also been labeled the ___ pathway.
What pathway
According to Milner and Goodale, the Dorsal stream can also be referred to as the _________ pathway
How pathway
the ________ problem shows that numerous physical stimuli can create exactly the same picture on retina
inverse projection
When humans can easily recognize objects when seen from different viewpoints is called
viewpoint invariance
Gestalts law of similarity can account for grouping of stimuli that are similar in:
orientation, shape, and auditory pitch
The Bev Doolittle print of "The Forest Has Eyes" exemplifies the Gestalt law of:
Meaningfulness
Corey looks at a flock of seagulls flying in one direction, when suddenly five of the seagulls start flying in another direction. He now perceives two groups of birds, because of the Gestalt law of:
common fate
"Gestalt" laws are more accurately described as
Provides a "best guess" estimate of the perception of an object
In bird and Recognition by Components theory, that our recognition of objects is based on features called:
geons
Jada looks at a picture of a horse that was taken from directly above the horse, and has difficulty recognizing the horse. According to Biederman's RBC theory, this difficulty would be explained by:
Accidental viewpoint
One criticism of Biedermans recognition by components theory
Geons don't usually provide enough information to discriminate between different objects that have the same basic components
humans need approximately ____ to perceive the gist of a scene in a photograph
250 miliseconds
When Palmer (1975) showed observers a kitchen scene and then target picture
A loaf of bread, because it matches the context of the scene
humans use the _____________ to determine shape from shading
Light from above heuristic
A cell in area V1 of a monkey is shown to fire when a vertical bar is presented. When bars of random
orientation are added around the vertical bar, the firing rate of the cell ____; when bars of some of the
surrounding bars are changed to a vertical orientation, the firing rate of the cell ____.
decreases;increases
The importance of research on monkeys presented with butterfly to one eye and sunburst pattern to other eye is that it showed:
Changes in perception are linked to cortical neural firing
Harrison ford study showed object recognition is associated with ___ and detection Is associated with ____
A large response from the FFA; a smaller response from the FFA-
T or F: Although decoder has been created for predicting orientations no decor has been created for scene perception since this is much more complex
False
Gibsons ecological approach to perception emerged as a reaction...
to the "artificiality" of laboratory approach to studying vision
As drive across bridge, optic flow is rapid close to car, but there is no flow ____
at the focus of expansion
according to Gibson, the relationship between movement and flow is...
Movement creates flow, which then provides information that can guide further movement
...
you lose your balance more quickly
In the study by Lee et al, infants were put in rooms with movable walls. This study found that:
children will lean back when a forward-swaying flow pattern was created
According to Land and Lee, drivers look __________ when driving on straight road.
straight ahead (but not directly at the focus of expansion)
MST neurons that respond to flow:
can be selective to motion expanding outward or circular motions
One aspect of the visual system that helps us achieve selective attention is
...
taxi drivers study - 3 things activated:
Cortex, PPA, and hippocampus - (hippocampus due to mapping and to store it. Visual cortex activated to think how to drive, and PPA to recognize buildings routes etc)
Mirror neurons:
A. help an individual understand another person's actions and react appropriately
B. help the person imitate observed behaviors
C. have been discovered in the premotor cortex
D. all of the above
d) all of the above
Calvo-Merino et al.'s (2005) research that involved showing dance videos to expert ballet and capioera
dancers supported the conclusion that:
-mirror neurons can be shaped by a person's experience
A device that would allow a paralyzed person to do simple motor tasks such as moving a computer mouse
Neural prosthesis
Vinod is standing on a rooftop in a city. The buildings closer
to him look sharper, and the buildings in the distance look
hazier. This is an example of the depth cue:
a) atmospheric
perspective.
b) occlusion.
c) relative size.
d) all of the above
atmospheric perspective
Epstein (1965) presented observers photographs of a quarter, dime, and half-dollar that were all equal in
physical size. His results showed that:
familiar size is most effective when other information about depth is ABSENT
As Tyler looks down a railroad track, he perceives the sides of the tracks as becoming closer as the
distance increases. This is an example of
perspective convergence
Has been used for many years to create depth in cartoons and video games
- motion parallax (opposite of perspective convergence?) p.233
____ is the difference in the images in the two eyes; ___ is the impression of depth that results from this
information
binocular disparity; stereopsis
____is able to make use of binocular disparity, because it has ___ eyes.
cat;frontal
insect is most likely to use_________ to perceive depth
movement parallax
Micro stimulated disparity-selective neurons in a monkey, it makes behavioral depth response based in the:
Tuning curve of the stimulated neurons
Blake and Hirsche use selective rearing with kittens to show:
Disparity-selective neurons are responsible for stereopsis
The approximate visual field:
2.0
According to days "conflict cues" hypothesis, the perceptio of line lengths depends on_______.
Both the actual length of the line sand the overall length of the figure
the depth cue of ____ is the most important in ponzo (railroad)
Perspective convergence
The size-distance scaling equation explains the Ames Room illusion because
-we perceive the two people in the room to be different sizes because they are perceived to be at
the same distance away and their retinal image size is different