43 terms

AP Environmental Science Chapter 17 (Human Health and Environmental Risks)

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Disease
Any impaired function of the body with a characteristic set of symptoms. (Not by pathogens: Cardiovascular, Digestive, Cancer)
Infectious Diseases
Those diseases caused by infectious agents known as pathogens. (Pneumonia, STD's)
Chronic Diseases
Slowly impair the functioning of a person's body. (Heart disease, Cancer)
Acute Diseases
Rapidly impair the functioning of a person's body. (Ebola)
Pathogen
Infectious agents
An organism that causes disease
Epidemic
When a pathogen causes a rapid increase in disease.
Pandemic
When an epidemic occurs over a large geographic region, such as the entire continent.
Plague
Caused by an infection from a bacteria that is carried by fleas. Fleas -> Rats ->Rodents ->Humans.
Malaria
Caused by infection from any species of protists in the genus Plasmodium. The parasite lives in a mosquito and then matures in a human.
Tuberculosis
Highly contagious disease caused by bacteria that will primarily affect the lungs. Spread when a person coughs and expels the bacteria into the air. Can live in the air for hours until another person breathes it in.
Emergent Infectious Diseases
Infectious diseases that were previously not described or have not been common for at least the prior 20 years.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
In the late 1970's Rare types of pneumonia and cancer began appearing in individuals with weak immune systems.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
In 1983 scientists discovered the weak immune systems were caused by this virus. It was spread by sexual contact and sharing needles.
Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever
Disease caused by the Ebola virus.
Mad Cow Disease
Neurological Disease. Pathogen slowly damages a cow's nervous system.
Prions
Small beneficial proteins in brains of cattle which will occasionally mutate into deadly proteins that act as pathogens and subsequently cause mad cow disease.
Bird Flu
Caused by the H1N1 virus (the one similar to humans) This will affect only birds.
West Nile Virus
Virus that is transmitted to birds by mosquitoes. Some species it is highly lethal to.
Neurotoxins
Chemicals that disrupt the nervous systems of animals. (Insecticides)
Carcinogens
Chemicals that cause cancer.
Mutagens
Carcinogens that cause damage to the genetic material of a cell. (Mutate the cell)
(Asbestos,Radon,Chemicals in Tobacco)
Teratogens
Chemicals that interfere with the normal development of embryos or fetuses.
(Thalidomide,Alcohol)
Allergens
Chemicals that cause allergic reactions. Not Pathogens. High response to the immune system.
(Peanut, Milk, Penicillin)
Endocrine Disrupters
Chemicals that interfere with the normal functioning of hormones in an animal's body.
(Wastewater,Birth control Pills)
Dose-Response Studies
Expose animals or plants to different amounts of a chemical and then observe a variety of possible responses including mortality or changes in behavior or reproduction.
Acute Studies
Experiments of Dose response studies that last for a short period of time.
LD50
Lethal Dose 50. Will kill 50% of the population.
Sublethal Effects
Harmful effects that a chemical might have, including its acting as a teratogen, carcinogen or neurotoxin that could alter the behavior of the individual.
ED50
Effective Dose that causes 50% of the individuals to display the harmful, nonlethal effect.
Chronic Studies
Studies of toxicology that take place over long periods of time.
Epidemiology
Field of science that strives to understand the causes of illness and disease in human and wildlife populations.
Retrospective Studies
Monitor people who have been exposed to a chemical some time in the past.
Prospective Studies
Monitor people who might have become exposed to harmful chemicals in the future.
Synergistic Interactions
2 risks together cause more harm than one would expect based on their individual risks.
Routes of Exposure
The ways in which an individual might come in contact with a chemical.
Solubility
How well a chemical can dissolve in a liquid
Biomagnification
Persistence
How long the chemical remains in the environment
Environmental Hazard
Anything in the environment that can potentially cause harm.
Innocent-Until-Proven-Guilty-Principle
Based on the philosophy that a potential hazard should not be considered a hazard until the scientific data proves that it is.
Stockholm Convention
Made a list of 12 chemicals to be banned, phased out or reduced. (DDT, PCB's)
REACH
Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals.
Precautionary Principle
Based on the philosophy that when a hazard is plausible but not yet certain, we should take actions to reduce or remove it.