Ocean 1445 exam 3
Terms in this set (51)
What is meant by the term polar?
Positively charged on one side and negative on the other
How are positive and negative charges distributed on a water molecule? Describe hydrogen bonding
Attraction of positive and negative ends
What properties of water are a direct result of the polar nature of this molecule?
High surface tension, dissolving power, density of ice, high heat compacity, high freezing and boiling points
Water has (high/low) heat compacity. Explain what this means
High. It can absorb and release a large amount of heat with out change in temperature
Describe how the density of liquid H2O changes as it cools
Liquid becomes more dense as it cools
Under what condition is H2O most dense?
4ºc is most dense
Define the terms "latent hear of fusion, & latent heat of vaporization"
Heat energy removed or added to/from water
Water has the ability to absorb and release large amounts of heat energy with small change in temperature. How does this affect Earth's overall climate?
It prevents large changes in temperature between day and night / summer and winter
The depth to which light penetrates in the ocean is the _______. Below this is the ________.
What property of water makes it a good solvent? What type of substances dissolve most easily in water?
Salinity is ___________. It is measured in ________. The average salinity of seawater is ______.
Amount of dissolved substances in seawater.
Parts per thousand.
What are two most common ions dissolved in seawater?
Chlorine and Sodium
What are the two sources of the ocean's salts?
Diffusion from atmosphere and marine algae, and other plant like organism
The observation that the proportions of different salts in sea water is the same in different locations is ______________.
Principles of constant proportions
How do the concentrations of CO2 and O2 in the ocean change from the surface to the deep ocean? Why?
They dissolve at the oceans surface
How are these gases used by living things in the ocean?
Ocean creatures need dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide.
How does water temperature affect solubility of gases?
Gases are more soluble in cold water
What is the average pH of the oceans? Is it acidic or basic?
7.8 slightly basic
What would happen if you added an acid to seawater?
The pH would not change
What gases are most abundant in Earth's atmosphere?
Nitrogen and Oxygen
______ and _____ effect the density of air.
Temperature and Salinity
Explain the occurrence of seasons on Earth.
The tilt of the Earth's axis
Explain why the equator is warmer than higher latitudes.
Passes through less atmosphere spreads over smaller surface area.
Describe the Coriolis Effect in the northern and southern hemispheres.
Air is deflected to the right and in the North
and left in the South
Describe the 3 major atmospheric convection cells on Earth. Name the surface winds associated with each of these.
From what direction does the wind blow at 25ºN? 45ºS?
Northeast(25º) and Westerlies(45º)
What is meant by the doldrums? Where does this occur? Why?
No activity is happening. Equator air is moving upward
The ________ is located where the north and south tradewinds converge.
ITCZ (International Convergence Zone)
Explain the occurrence of land breezes and sea breezes.
Day= Sea breezes Night= Land Breezes
Extratropical cyclones from a _______ latitude between _______ and _______ cells. These storms circulate (clockwise/counterclockwise) in the northern hemisphere and track to the ________.
Polar and Ferrel
Tropical cyclones form between ______ and ______ latitude. These storms circulate (clockwise/counterclockwise) in the northern hemisphere and track to the _______.
10º and 25º
Surface currents are driven by ______ while thermohaline currents are driven by ____________.
What is a gyre? What direction do gyres circulate in the southern hemisphere? Northern hemisphere?
Mound of water
North to the right
In the northern hemisphere the trade winds blow from the ______. At the surface, current will be deflected to the (right/left) at an angle of about ______ from the wind. Thus, the direction of surface flow along the equator is _______.
to the west
Ekman transport describes the overall or net movement of water in the surface currents. This averages the flow of water in different directions with depth. The direction of net transport of water by surface currents at a _______ to the wind. Thus the direction of net flow is _______.
What are the characteristics of WESTERN boundary currents?
Warm, fast, deep, narrow, well defined, form eddies
What are the characteristics of EASTERN boundary currents?
Cold, slow, wide, poorly defined boundaries, NO eddies
_________ currents flow east or west and connect the boundary currents.
What is meant by the westward intensification?
Wester Boundary Currents are MORE intense
How do ocean surface currents affect climate?
Water absorbs heat near equator, circulates higher latitudes, climate is more moderate at both high and low latitudes
What is the only major ocean current that flows all the way around the Earth?
Why is upwelling important to life in the ocean?
Brings rich, cold water towards the surface
What causes upwelling to occur at the equator? Along some coastlines?
North and South equatorial currents are deflected by the poles, wind blowing parallel to the shore
Normally, along the equator, (warm/cold) ocean water is concentrated in the western Pacific and (warm/cold) water is concentrated in the eastern Pacific. Explain why.
What changes during an ENSO (El Nino) event?
Water flows backward toward the eastern Pacific
(cold/warm) (salty/fresh) water has the highest density.
Cold & Salty
What are the three main layers in the ocean?
Surface Zone, Pycnocline, Deep Water Zone
Which layer contains the most ocean water?
Deep Water Zone is the largest
Which layer contains the least ocean water?
Surface Zone is the smallest
Where on Earth are the ocean thermoclines most pronounced and stable? Why?
Deeper and more stable in tropical water
Where do deep water masses (AABW and NADW) originate? How do they form?
Forms at the surface near Antarctic Coast