at least 74 miles per hour (can be greater than 200 miles per hour
What temperature of water do cyclones need to form?
temperature 80 oF or higher, high moisture content
June - November
74-95 mph storm surge 4-5 ft
96-110 mph 6-8 feet
111-130 mph surge generally 9-12 ft flooded inland 8 miles Dangerous winds
131-155 mph 13-18 ft Destruction of mobile homes
155 mph or more Surge greater 18 ft
Most destructive hurricanes?
1737, Bengal (today's Bangladesh) 300,000 people killed •1900 in USA - Galveston in Texas - 6,000 people killed
50% chance of being hit in the next 36 hours
Most lethal part of a hurricane?
the storm surge- caused by low atmospheric pressure
What is a diurnal tide?
one high and one low tide each day
what is a Semi-diurnal tide?
high water/low water cycle sequence twice a day
What is a Semidiurnal mixed tide?
high water/low water cycle twice a day with different high waters and different low waters
What is a rising tide called?
What is a falling tide called?
Explain a spring tide
When the moon and the sun are on the same side causing greater gravitational pull which in turn make larger tides
explain a neap tide
Low amplitude tides about a week after the spring tide when the moon and the sun are on the opposite sides of the Earth.
What is a tidal range?
difference between elevation of low tide and elevation of high tide
How big is a Microtidal Coasts?
< less than 2 meters
How big is Mesotidal coast?
How big is a Macro tidal coast?
> more than 4 meters
How do waves form?
The size of waves depends upon?
velocity of the wind duration of the wind
the distance (fetch) that the wind blows across the surface of the water
Measuring the wave trough and wave crest gives you?
Measuring the distance between successive peaks give you?
The time in seconds for a successive waves to pass a reference points gives you?
How are Swells formed?
waves generated by storms far at sea
What is a highly erosive wave?
What are spilling breakers?
waves that facilitate deposition of sand on to a coast line
what is the flat backshore areas on beaches formed by deposition of sediment as waves rush up?
Explain the beach face
the sloping portion of the beach below the berm
What is the swash zone?
the part of the beach face exposed by the uprush and backwash of waves
What is a breaker zone?
Breaker zone - area where the incoming waves become unstable, peak, and break
What is a surf zone?
Surf zone - a zone where turbulent waves move toward the shore after the incoming waves break
How has the sea level changed in the past 20k years?
Was 400 feet lower then present East coast was 100 miles east of NYC
If glaciers melted completely what would happen?
Sea level would rise 150 feet, 15%of US land would dissipear
What is the rate of increase of that the coastline is encroaching?
4 inches per 100 years
line where the coastline is expected to erode to in 10 years
an imminent hazard where no new habitable structures should be allowed.
Water consist of?
Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
How are Hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms joined>
By Covalent bonds
what angle is of the covalent bond?
Water molecules forms what type of bond
Daily consumption of water per month
Average river has have many dissolved material?
Great Salt lake
What are the top 3 ions in drinking water?
Bicarbonate Calcium Silica
What the proper amount of fluride in water?
1-4 ppm Teeth are made of calcium phosphate 50% america drink high flroride
The water table is located?
the top of the zone of saturation
an Aquifer is
A rock that holds and transmits enough water to be useful as a source of water
What is Darcy's law?
fundamental concept of groundwater flow in natural conditions.
The formula for Darcy's law
Groundwater discharge (Q) depends on: hydraulic conductivity of sediments or rocks (K), hydraulic gradient (I), and the are of the aquifer perpendicular to the flowing water (A).
gaining streams, very often perennial are known as?
loosing streams, often intermittent are known as?
The Sunset aquifer: the top is 200 - 400 feet below the land surface, unconsolidated basin-fill sediments ranging from 50 to 200 feet thick •The Delta aquifer: the top of Delta Aquifer is 500 to 700 feet below the land surface, the aquifer is composed of deltaic deposits of the Weber River and is about 50 to 150 feet thick average hydraulic conductivity is 0.0001 ft/day
Recycling aluminum saves what percentage of energy?
plastics consist of what % of landfills
Paper consist of what % of landfills
Every ton of recycled paper saves how many trees?
urban areas in the USA produce how much waste everyday?
640 million kg
the oldest and most common way of disposing solid waste
landfills may not be sited in certain areas, including:
floodplains -wetlands -unstable land -earthquake fault zone -permeable rocks in the direct contact with groundwater
monitoring of the landfill continues for
30 years after closure
The natural attenuation landfill
uses soil processes to attenuate (reduce) contaminants in the leachate before they reach groundwater or surface water •
The containment - type landfill
everything is collected and pumped out for storage or treatment can be used for more hazardous waste or when soil conditions are unsuitable
Deep well disposal must have
high porosity, thickness and permeability (typically sandstone or limestone) to ensure safe injection the injection zone must be below the level of fresh-water circulation and confined by impermeable rock such as shale
Radioactive site cosiderations
low rainfall, deep water table, slow moving ground water, very slow erosion,absence of exploitable resources,absence of surface-water bodies,low probability of faulting
Largest sources of of energy is
1. Petroleum 39% 2. Natural Gas 24% 3. Coal 23%
highest quality coal?
What geologic formation can trap oil?
Anticline, Unconformity, fault
Hydraulic conductivity is expressed in what unit?
25% of the topography is underlain by limestone is known as?
What percentage of water is used for agricultural uses?
What percentage of water is used for industry?
What percentage of water is used for residential?
From the greek word for "Well feed" most commonly n relation with algae blooms
What are some methods for treating groundwater and vadose zone water?
Extraction well, Vapor Extraction, Bio-remediation, Permeable bed treatment