APUSH Term Set 2 (1885-2009)
VonRassler's Vocab Set #2
Terms in this set (146)
A southern supporter of northern "Carpet Bag" governments during Reconstruction in the South.
A supporter of the Republican Party during the Gilded Age who supported the Spoils System, Protective Tariffs, and Hard Money; he opposed reform.
The period following the Civil War in which the devastated Southern States were slowly restored economically, politically and socially.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws enforcing segregation or control of Blacks in such a manner as to make them unequal after reconstruction.
"Detective" agency or private police hired by the Federal Gov't to guard the President prior to 1865 and used by business owners to intimidate Unions with strong arm tactics.
Kinghts of Labor
Early American labor union that failed to achieve economic and social acceptance because its members were unskilled, expendable and "un-American". The union was prone to violence, linked to communism, and anarchism.
Waving The Bloody Shirt
An expression used as a vote getting stratagem by the Republicans during the election of 1876 to offset charges of corruption by blaming the Civil War on the Democrats.
19th century term for political corruption during the Gilded Age. Which included bribery scandals, abuses of the spoils system and political cronyism.
During the Gilded Age it was the notorious Tammany Hall political machine led by "Boss" William Marcy Tweed. In two years it defrauded the City of $200,000,000 1868-71.
Bill that attempted to pacify the plains Indians by giving them land to farm. Many Indians sold their land for alcohol.
This act sought to end the abuses of the spoils system and was passed by Grover Cleveland. It mandated civil service exams for employment in the government.
paper money issued during the civil war to help finance the war effort and stabilize the economy
Vertical and Horizontal Integration
Two forms of monopolistic system used by the "captains of industry" in the U.S from the 1870's to 1900 to control production and sale. (Vertical = mine to market) (Horizontal = specialized in one particular aspect of business such as refining of raw materials)
Southern political movement that sought and did return "home rule" to the southern states during reconstruction
Political cartoonist who's work exposed the abuses of the Tweed ring, criticized the South's attempts to impede Reconstruction, and lampooned labor unions. Created the animal symbols of the Democratic and republican parties.
The term used to describe the Gilded Age monopolist for their Social Darwinist practices who referred to themselves as "Captains of Industry."
The Patrons of Husbandry or farmers organized against rail road abuses. Similar group to the Farmers Alliance.
19th century of belief that evolutionary ideas theorized by Charles Darwin could be applied to society.
The USS Maine
American battleship that blew up in Havana, Cuba, and ultimately started the Spanish - American War of 1898 "To hell with Spain! Remember the Maine!"
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Naval historian who influenced American Imperialism and a world wide naval arms race with his support of large capital ships (battleships) and large navies to protect overseas colonial holdings & trade.
Open Door Policy
Sec. of State John Hay's plan in 1899 to give all countries equal trading rights with China and respect Chinese sovereignty. Derived from his "____ _ _- Notes" which closed the door to the European/Japanese "spheres of influence".
The battle of ___ ___ was the last major battle between the Native Americans and the U.S. Army in 1890. U.S army reacted to the ghost dance religion of the Sioux tribe.
A type of economic imperialism in which the Taft administration's use of monetary power to create dependency among Latin Amer. Countries to the U.S.
U.S. promised to intervene in Latin American affairs if its "police powers" needed to be used.
Progressive educator who believed in Child Centered Learning or learning by doing to indoctrinate children to progressivism. Wrote the book Democracy in Education.
Term applies to southern and eastern European immigrants that came to American cities in the 1890's.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Signed into law by President Wilson the __ __ __ was considered to be the "Magna Carta of Labor". It outlawed restraining orders (Injunctions). Its primary purpose was to outlaw price discrimination and interlocking directorates.
Sensational newspaper reporting by William Randolf Hearst and Jay Pulitzer's news journals that helped instigate a war with Spain.
De Lome Letter
Spanish Ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890
Passed to appease pro-silver interests in the Midwest (Farmers), the act created inflation and lowered Gold Reserves thus causing the panic of 1893.
American Federation of Labor
(AFL) was the first successful trade union that succeeded in bringing acceptance to unions because its members were skilled and were willing to avoid strikes through "collective bargaining" .
These were hundreds of unemployed laborers led by a populist businessman on a march to Washington D.C. to demand a work relief program. They were met disperesed they arrived and the leaders were arrested.
Muckracker Upton Sinclair wrote the ____ during the progressive era. It prompted President T. Roosevelt to sign the Meat Inspection Act.
National American Women Suffrage Association
Sherman Anti Trust Act
Passed to curb the abuses of big business in 1890, it was instead used to break up labor unions by claiming unions were a "labor trust".
During the Industrial Rev. Jane Addams founded___ ___ , a settlement house that offered social programs for immigrants.
American political movement that began in the Midwest among agrarian interest who believed the money supply was too restrictive (Hard Money) and demanded monetary reform (coinage of Silver). Their support of socialist ideas laid the groundwork for the "progressive" movement.
Slogan for the reform program of Teddy Roosevelt and the Progressive Party (Bull Moose Party) in the election of 1913.
Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896
Supreme Court Case that upheld Jim Crow segregation laws as legal so as they were "equal".
Economy of Scale
Economic philosophy during the Industrial revolution that understood that volume of production lessens the costs to produce and drives down prices and increases demand.
Progressive author and founder of the NAACP who thought that blacks would be best served by the "talented 10th" and receive government aid to gain equality.
(1883) Frederick Taylor's introduction of the _ _ helped industrial engineers to produce more efficient factories.
Booker T Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
1911 death of 145 people (mostly young immigrant girls) burned to death, crushed to death by leaping out of windows etc. Resulted in stronger building codes.
Wilson-Gorman Tariff 1894
Protective tariff that was passed to ease the Panic of 1893—It had an amendment on it that created a graduated income tax.
Big Stick Policy
Nickname of Teddy Roosevelt's bold foreign policy (gun boat diplomacy) in Latin America
Interstate Commerce Act 1887
This act created a commission (the ICC) to check and regulate RR abuses- rates, rebates, discrimination, and required annual reports and financial statement.
Committee on Public Information
The US propaganda office in WWI
Voluntary rationing of food stuffs during WWI named after Herbert Hoover the head of the Food Administration.
The principle of strong self reliance in Frederick Jackson Turner's Frontier thesis and used as a theme to the Harding election campaign of 1920.
Illegal, yet popular, bars that sold liquor during Prohibition in the 1920's.
Teapot Dome Scandal
The unlawful leasing of public oil fields to private business during the Harding administration.
Germany pledged to stop the use of unrestricted submarine warfare during WWI when the United States protested the sinking of unarmed ships.
1930's senate investigation that linked economic interests in the U.S. to the U.S. entry into WW1.
Founder of UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association) and the Motherland Africa movement in the 1920's. He was jailed for fraud.
The act that was passed to define what "Hard Liquor" was and set up the law enforcement apparatus to police prohibition.
Alienated authors disillusioned with the 1920—conformity and culture including Faulkner, Fitzgerald, Hemingway and Gertrude Stein.
African American art, music and literature that flourished in the 1920's in New York City.
League of Nations
An organization of states proposed by Woodrow Wilson in 1919 that would provide "collective security" against war.
WWI Industrial Workers of the World. A "revolutionary" leftist labor union opposed to the U.S. entry in to WWI and the use of the Selective Services Act (draft).
In 1919 President Woodrow Wilson proposed this plan to the Allied Powers to avoid future wars.
War Industries Board
The WIB was headed by Bernard Baruch. It used the power of the Federal Gov't to fix prices, determining production and develop new industry.
U.S. Soldier sent to fight in France during WWI
2nd New Deal
Legislative program focusing on REFORM begun by FDR in 1935 when the first attempt to end the Depression failed.
Gov. of Louisiana during the great depression he criticized FDR for not going far enough. His "share the wealth" program demanded all incomes exceeding $ 1 million be confiscated.
The most expensive and important U.S. research project during WWII, it developed the A-bomb.
Good Neighbor Policy
Part of the new deal's foreign policy which aimed at strengthening U.S. ties with Latin America.
Cash and Carry Policy
F.D.R's polcy of supplying G.B and easing U.S non interventionist fears of war, While violating the neutrality acts.
Passed by congress during WW2 the ___ __ provided monies for vets to adjust to post war life.
President F.D. Roosevelt's weekly radio addresses to the nation during the Great Depression.
The unofficial U.S. foreign policy adopted after WWI and lasted until U.S. was drawn into WWII.
Wagner Act (NLR Act)
Passed by new Dealers, the _ _ granted labour the right to organize, and use collective bargaining. The National Labor Relations Act established a gov't board to ensure democratic elections in Unions.
First 100 Days
The first executive driven relief and recovery actions taken by FDR during the Depression after his inauguration in 1933.
Fair Labor Standards Act
2nd New Deal reform measure that outlawed child labour, established a minimum wage, and a 40 hour work week.
Relief, Recovery, and Reform. The purpose of FDR's New Deal measures to combat the three D's - Depression, Decline, and Despair.
The economic aid provided to European Nations shortly after WWII to help stop the spread and CONTAIN Communism and rebuild the worn and torn economies of Western Europe
Government spending during depression periods and high taxes during periods of boom.(Tax and Spend)
Tehran, Yalta, and Postdam
The three most important allied conferences of WWII
Truman's domestic program to head off a post war depression and address important social issues facing the nation.
Taft-Hartly Act 1947
Republican sponsored anti-union legislation that prohibited "closed shops" and allowed states to pass "right-to-work" laws.
The doctrine, enunciated by Harry Truman in 1947, that the United States would provide economic aid to countries that said they were threatened by communist expansion.
Late 1940's early 1950's Red scare investigation called the House of Un-American Activities Committee.
The U.S. president that ordered the use of the atomic bomb.
Led by Strom Thurmond southern democrats who opposed Truman's desegregation of the U.S. army and his policy forward race relations.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization- a mutual defense pact formed in 1949 by the U.S and major western European countries.
The U.S. foreign policy adopted by the Truman Administration in which the U.S. would limit communism to those countries where it already existed.
First artificial satellite launched into space by the USSR in 1957. Began the space race between the U.S. and Russia plus a great deal of hysteria and fear of nuclear war
Southern Christian Leadership Conference was the Civil Rights organization founded by M.L. King Jr. in 1956
John Foster Dulles advice and policy during the Eisenhower years to use the threat of nuclear war to prevent war and the spread of Communism. Later called MAD (Mutual Assured Destruction).
Soviet controlled Eastern European Nations during the Cold War 1945-1989
U-2 Spy Plane
U.S. spy plane shot down over the USSR which ended a move toward "rapprochement" at the end of the Eisenhower administration.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(IKE) popular "middle of the road" conservative president and one time supreme allied commander in Europe during WWII.
Controversial case involving 1950s red scare, when he perjured himself before a congressional investigation.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
First two American citizens executed during peacetime for giving atomic bomb secrets to the Soviets. Fueled anti-communist hysteria known as McCarthyism.
First test of the Truman Doctrine and the UN intervention when communist aggression threatened the Far East.
Bay of Pigs
Unsuccessful attempt by Cuban refugees backed by the U.S. (Kennedy) to overthrow Castro in Cuba.
Daniel Elsberg released top secret documents revealing U.S. dealings in Southeast Asia and the Vietnam War that reinvigorated the waning anti-war movement.
The ______ _____ was part of the complexity of the Vietnam war when Gen. Westmoreland's assessment of the war turned out to be wrong. The media believed he was deliberately misleading them.
Military Industrial Complex
A phrase used by Eisenhower to refer to the relationship between the military and business in the U.S.
The Cold War belief that if one nation comes under communist control its neighboring nations would also fall to communism.
Part of the Nixon Doctrine and begun the Johnson Administration. It was the policy of turning the war in Vietnam to the ARVN (Army of the Republic of [South] Vietnam).
The breaking by Nixon staff members into the DNC Head quarters housed in the hotel. It resulted in cover-ups, obstruction and the eventual resignation of Nixon.
The mainstream of middle American society that supported the U.S. domestic policy and foreign policy in the late 1960's and early 1970's and opposed the loud student/anti war types and protestors in general with slogans such as "America Love it or Leave it"
1960's-1970's anti-establishment youth movement that opposed the Vietnam War, believed in the use of mind expanding drugs and extreme liberalism.
4 students killed during SDS led anti-establishment/anti war protests in the 1970s
Committee to Re-Elect the President. They were the overzealous supporters of Richard Nixon's re-election campaign.
Communist guerilla forces that were formed after the French involvement in Vietnam ended and the U.S. involvement in Southeast Asia began.
The belief that if one nation comes under communist control, its neighboring nations will also fall under communist control.
The domestic and foreign policy of President J.F.K.
1968 offensive action by N.V.A and the Nat'l liberation front that was a military failure but a propaganda victory.
Nixon's Sec. Of State who negotiated the end to Vietnam war at the Paris Peace Talks.
This was Lyndon Johnson's program of bringing economic, social and political progress to the U.S. from 1965-1969 - So-called the "war on poverty".
Environmental Protection Agency—Established in the Nixon administration in 1970 to monitor and reduce pollution.
Port Huran Statement 1962
SDS leader Tom Hayden manifesto that rejected what they claimed was a system of power rooted in possession, privilege, racism, or circumstance.
A book written by Rachel Carson that helped launch the Environmentalist movement in the 1960's.
President Kennedy's advisors.
Political power politics practiced by Kennedy and Kruschev in the early 1960's. Berlin Crisis of 1961 (Wall) and the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962). Using the threat of war.
Ho Chi Minh Trail
In the Vietnam War, the _ _ was the supply route used by the communist forces of Vietnam to ferry war supplies through Laos and Cambodia into South Vietnam.
Students for a Democratic Society was a radical anti-war organization during the late 1960's and early 1970's responsible for leading Anti-War protests and campus violence.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The _ _ _ _ gave LBJ the authority to use combat troops in Vietnam.
Chinese communist isolationism penetrated by Richard Nixon in the 1970s.
Ping Pong Diplomacy
Nixon administration's visits to Communist China.
The __ ___ __ involved a secret arms-for-hostages-deal between the US. (Reagan Administration) and Iran to fund money for Contra Rebels (anti-communists) in Central America.
Refugees from Southeast Asia during the 1970's.
Iranian Hostage Crisis
This occurred when an Islamic fundamentalist revolution broke out in the late 1970's in Iran, and the U.S. embassy was captured in Tehran. It helped destroy the chances for Carter's reelection.
A movement begun in the early 1980's among religious conservatives that supported primarily conservative Republicans opposed to abortion, communism and liberalism.
Supply side economics used by the Reagan administration. It concluded that tax cuts and de-regulation on top producers would spur economic growth. The opponents derided it as "trickle down" and voodoo economics.
Conservative movement that was not content with Jimmy Carter's direction liberalism, and the moral decline in America.
_______ was a anemic economy with double digit inflation, and high interest rates in the Ford and Carter years.
Feminist sponsored legislation to further women's rights in the late 1970s that failed to pass with the necessary votes in the Senate in the early 1980s.
Music Television Station that became a cultural happening in the 1980s, which has since been utilized by political groups to reach the youth vote.
Ronald Reagan's description of Soviet Union because of his fierce anti-communist views and the USSR's history of violation of human rights and aggression.
The Strategic Defense Initiative was a missile defense program Reagan proposed to protect the USA from ememy nuclear missiles. Derided as STAR WARS by his political opponents who believed it rekindled an all out arms race.
The "Vietnam" of the Soviet Union. Reagan supported anti-communist "freedom fighters" with American weapons until the USSR withdrew in defeat.
1970s communist/terrorists organization formed out of primarily middle class youth disillusioned with American captitalism noted for kidnapping/recruitment of Patty Hearst. Symbionese Liberation Army
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty - 1972 Nixon/Breschnev agreement to bilateral nuclear reduction. As part of the easing of tensions (détente) in the 1970s.
Camp David Accords
A peace deal broken by James Earl Carter that involved Israel and Egypt in 1978.
Consumer rights activist who in the 1960's and 70's attacked cooperate America's unsafe products. He wrote a book about the auto industry Unsafe at Any Speed.
Nintendo War/CNN War
Nicknames of the first Gulf War fought in 1991 after Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait.
Worst US terror attack that resulted in the destruction of the WTC in NYC and began the War on Terror.
1989 collapse of the Berlin Wall marked the end of the Cold War.
Monica Lewinski Scandal
An affair which ultimately resulted in the impeachment of Bill Clinton.
Scandal implicating Bill Clinton which resulted in an extensive republican investigation in congress. Regarding Clintons' financial records in Arkansas.
North American Free Trade Agreement between Canada US and Mexico
Contract with America
Newt Gingrich conservative Republican realigning election 1994.
Federal siege of Branch Davidian (cult) that resulted in the deaths of many of the members of church during the Clinton era. Used by Timothy McVeigh bombing of the Federal building in Oklahoma in 1995.