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ap psych flashcards key terms 1-5
Terms in this set (198)
anecdotal research of an individual cognitive state
Structuralism was the first school of psychology and focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components. Researchers tried to understand the basic elements of consciousness using a method known as introspection. Founded by Wilhelm Wundt. Historical School.
Historical school. Functionalism formed as a reaction to the structuralism and was heavily influenced by the work of William James and the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin. Functionalists sought to explain the mental processes in a more systematic and accurate manner. Rather than focusing on the elements of consciousness, functionalists focused on the purpose of consciousness and behavior
Historical school. we behave based on unconscious desires and motivations
Historical school. focused on only observable behaviors, not cognition itself. Had an emphasis an conditioning. Founded by John B Watson.
Claimed behaviors are a result of unimpeded free will and are driven by an individual desire to reach self-actualization.
First psychologist. Founder of structuralism.
founder of functionalism
Mary Whiton Calkins
first women president of the APA, also an important structuralist
Margaret Floy Washburn
first woman PHD in psych
G. Stanley Hall
first president of APA, child development psychologist
Historical School. Placed heavy emphasis on perception.
founder of Gestalt
Founder of psychoanalysis school, psychodynamic theory, psychosexual theory, and all around nut job.
John B Watson
founder of behaviorism
dog guy. classical conditioning researcher
used the skinner box to research operant conditioning
A hybrid field combining the ideas of the biological, behavioral, and social cultural perspective
Emphasizes the fact that natural selection has favored the traits that are prevalent today
Focuses only on observable behaviors, expansion of Behaviorism
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking."
Social Cultural Perspective
Emphasizes the impact of social interaction and culture on behavior
founder of humanism and Maslow's hierarchy of needs
A important expander of humanistic perspective. Constructed the ideas of: self-concept, self-actualization,
premiere developmental psychologist, discovered Piaget's stages of cognitive development
overestimating your ability to have predicted past events
Applied v. Basic Research
applied research has a direct practical application (research on the best teaching methods) and basic research doesn't (structure of consciousness)
Independent v. Control v. Dependent Variable
directions on how to research variables
relatability to the target, precision
getting consistent results
random selection of a group from a large population
the broad target group of an experiment
a sample that is representative on the population
extraneous variables that have an unaccounted for bearing on data.
grouping a sample into subgroups based on sex, iq, age, ect
Double Blind v. Single Blind
who knows the group condition
tendency of subjects to respond in the way they think they are suppose to
Social Desirability Bias
subjects giving answers that make them look good, true or not
Same as Response bias. tendency of subjects to respond in the way a experimenter intends.
The Hawthorne effect (also referred to as the observer effect) is a type of reactivity in which individuals modify or improve an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed. Example 'the factory study'
Feeling an 'effect' just because they are receiving a treatment.
relatedness of variables
research in the natural habitat of a subject
study on one specific occurrence. Ex. HM case
Descriptive v. inferential Statistics
describes data (mean), infers a conclusion (whether the data is statistically significant or not)
Mean, Median, Mode, Outliers, Standard Deviation, range
types of descriptive statistics
possibility that the order of 2 treatments could favor one over the other. solved by counterbalancing
Positive v. Negative Skew
Skewed right=positive skew. Skewed left= negative skew.
the extent to which a sample differs from the general population
Institutional Review Board
approve psych experiments
outlawed by APA. all experiments must be voluntary
participant must know that they are involved in a experiment and approve of the research methods
subjects in research must remain anonymous
at the conclusion of the experiment participants must be told the purpose and results of the experiment
cellular unit of the nervous system
receive signal from other neurons
sends signals to other neurons
body of the neuron
cord by which neural signal are sent within a neuron
insulates the axon of a neuron to increase transmission speed; lack of myelin sheath results in multiple scolerosis
the chemicals that can stimulate a neuron to fire
connections between neuron
sites on the dendrites that accept the neurotransmitters
the amount of neurotransmitter that is required to trigger action potential
electric message firing of the neuron
All or nothing Principle
the neuron either fires or it doesn't, there is no in between
Excitatory v. Inhibitor Neurotransmitters
excitaroty transmitters encourage the connected cells to fire while inhibitory transmitters discourage their firing
motor movement. defieciency results in alsheimers disease
alertness and reward sensation. deficiency results in Parkinson, overabundance leads to schizophrania
pain control. involved in addiction
mood control and sleep. deficiency leads to depression
main neural inhibitor. deficiency leads to seizures
involved in memory, cognition, and sensation. main neural excitatory transmitter. Deficiency results in migraine
alertness; deficiency results in depression
Afferent v. Efferent Neurons
to brain v. away from brain
Central Nervous System
spinal cord and brain
Autonomic Nervous System
controls involuntary muscles and functions
Somatic Nervous System
controls voluntary muscles movements, along with cns it is the broadest heading
Peripheral Nervous System
controls all nerves except those in the brain or spinal cord
Sympathetic v. Parasympathetic
stress response system v. rest and digest
destruction of part of the brain
observes level of consciousness based on electrical activity. used in sleep studies
shows structures of the brain. used to find tumors
uses magnets to show structures of the brain. more detailed than the cat scan
combination of PET and MRI scans, shows structure + activity levels
uses glucose to track different types of chemicals throughout the brain. used to tracks oxygen levels or neurotransmitter levels
includes everything essential for survival: medulla, pons, cerebllum
controls heart rate and breathing
controls facial expression, sleep, basic autonomic function, and relaying info between the basic 'old brain' structures
controls habitual movements, and maintains balance, and evolutionarily basic functions
controls and integrates some sensory info and connects hind/forebrains
controls advanced functioning: thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus
traffic directors for afferent signals
controls homeostasis and hunger. Ventromedial hypothalamus (supresses hunger), Lateral hypothalamus (stimulates hunger)
the broad system that controls emotions and memory: including the amygdala, thalamus, hippocampus
most information processing. its what makes us human. it contains 'fiisures' or folds which help it fit into our skulls
Left vs. Right Hemispheres
spatial and logical reasoning v. emotions/creativity
the specialization of different hemispheres of the brain
specialization of different areas of the brain
the junction that connects the two halves of the brain
the parts of the cerebral cortex that involves integrating and interpreting info from sensory cortexes(mainly in frontal lobe. They DO NOT identify the raw senses themselves, they just interpret them.
controls emotions, decision making, and abstract thought
used to understand language
part of the frontal lobe that controls movement
Part of the parietal lobe that processes sensory information
processes touch, warmth, most sensations. also involved in creating a body map
includes visual cortex. lobes functions are almost all related to vision
includes auditory cortex. lobe processes sound and memory
the ability of our brain to change and alter itself over our lifetime
produce fight or flight hormone
guy with a damaged hippocampus that had anterograde amnesia
guy with pole through his head and damage to frontal lobe
Michael Gazzaniga and Roger Sperry
first people to cut a corpus callosum to solve seizures, and researched split brain functions
studied identical twins to further the nature vs. nurture debate
the process of transforming stimuli into neural signals
XXY genotype. leads to stunted sexual growth and extreme introversion
X genotype. shortness and stunted sexual growth
Example: not feeling your clothes on your body
Cocktail Party Effect
the ability to focus in on one voice even in a room full of chatter
Sensation v. Perception
Vision and Hearing
Smell and Taste
the protective covering of the eye
the muscle that controls pupil dilation
screen on the back of your eye
Feature Detectors are specialized nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement.
Connected to ganglion cells. carry signals to the brain from the eyes.
Receive signal from the bipolar cells and carry them to the optic nerve.
Receives signals from a group of cones/rods and carries it to the ganglion cells
Changes visible light into blurry black or white images (located more so in peripheral vision)/changes visible light to colored images.
Contains the highest concentration of cones (center of vision)
The region where the optic nerve connects to the eyeball. The brain fills in the blind spot automatically.
Says are cones come in 3 colors: (Blue, Red, Green)
Opponent Processing Theory
Says we process colors in pairs (Blue/yellow, red/green, black/white)
Amplitude v. Frequency c. Tamber
Inner Ear Function
a fluid filled 'shell' called the cochlea receives vibrations from the oval window (which connects the inner and middle ear). the vibrations travel through the fluid and move the hairs in basilar membrane. The sensory neurons connected to those hairs then transduce the vibrations into neural impulses and send them to the auditory nerve.
Middle Ear Function
The vibrations from the eardrum (which separates the outer and middle ear) are passed along from the hammer to the anvil to the stirrup (HAS)
Outer Ear Function
The wide ear collects sound which travels down the ear canal until it reaches the eardrum where the sound is changed into vibrations.
Frequency and place theory
We sense theory because certain hairs in the cochlea (those further along) are more adept to sensing higher frequencies.
Says that low frequencies are sensed because of the slower firing rate of sensory neurons in the ear.
Conduction v. Nerve Deafness
Middle ear bones are broke v. nerves are screwed up
This theory suggests that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that either blocks pain signals or allows them to continue on to the brain. Also states that there are two 'paths' for touch sensation to reach the brain, one for minor sensation and one for excruciating pain. This theory explains why people shake their hand after burning it.
gives us balance and coordination (mainly controlled by the semicircular canals in the ear)
tells us where are body parts are in space and in relation to other body parts
hidden messages below our absolute threshold. sometimes used in ads but proven ineffective.
Difference v. Absolute Threshold
The smallest difference in stimuli that you can sense v. The lowest stimuli that you can sense
Says difference threshold should be proportional not discrete because people can notice the difference between 1 and 3 volume but not 45 and 47 volume.
Signal Detection Theory
We are more likely to notice certain stimuli amongst an entire assortment of other stimuli due to a variety of reasons such as emotions, intensity, hunger, ect.
Top-down processing is defined as the development of pattern recognition through the use of contextual information. For instance, you are presented with a paragraph written with difficult handwriting. It is easier to understand what the writer wants to convey if you read the whole paragraph rather than reading the words in separate terms. The brain may be able to perceive and understand the gist of the paragraph due to the context supplied by the surrounding words
A perceptual set is basically a tendency to view things only in a certain way due to our experiences and expectation. Perceptual sets can impact how we interpret and respond to the world around us and can be influenced by a number of different factors. "our mental tool kit"
Simple description and observation based directly and
Proximity (Gestalt Grouping Rule)
objects close together are likely to be perceived in the same group
Closure (Gestalt Grouping Rule)
tendency to mentally close gaps
Similarity (Gestalt Grouping Rule)
tendency to group things that are similar
Continuity (Gestalt Grouping Rule)
tendency to perceive things that are technically in parts as whole. For example a wave with a line through it.
Law of common fate
tendency to perceive things moving together as whole
the ability to maintain a constant perception of an object regardless of lighting, distance, or angle viewed
Monocular (requires one eye: size, lighting, clarity) and binocular: retinal disparity (difference in the perspectives of the two eyes that contribute to depth)
David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel
Discovered feature detectors
Put babies of a plexyglass 'visual cliff' and discovered that depth perception develop early on around 6 mothes
Conscious v. Nonconscious v. Preconscious v. Subconscious v. Unconscious levels
voluntary thoughts and actions v. heartbeat, breathing and other involuntary functions v. memories or thoughts that you could readily think about if you wanted to v. 'unconcious' mental associations such as those involved in priming or the 'mere exposure effect v. socially unacceptable feelings hidden within our psyche
stage 1-4 and REM
when we dream, our most active sleep state
inability to sleep
Manifest v. Latent content
literal meaning of dreams v. the unconscious desires and motives that inspired that dream
sudden sleep attacks and general inability to stay awake
periodic ceasing f breathing through the night
extreme nightmares often coupled with screams and sweating all during sleep. Along with sleep walking, this occurs in stage 4
Activation Synthesis Theory
says dreams are a completely random storyline resulting from massive amounts of neural activity and our brains futile attempt to make sense of it all.
information processing theory
says that our dreams are often related to our daily experiences and that the body integrates our experiences into our memories during sleep
1.the induction of a state of consciousness in which a person apparently loses the power of voluntary action and is highly responsive to suggestion or direction. Its use in therapy, typically to recover suppressed memories or to allow modification of behavior by suggestion, has been revived but is still controversial.
Role Theory of Hypnosis
says hyponitization is just the subject attempting to it the role of hypnotized person. kinda like the placebo effect
State Theory of Hypnosis
says that hypnosis causes people to enter a unique suggestable state of consciousness
Dissociation Theory of Hypnosis
Dissociation is a split in the mind in which there can be two independent streams of consciousness occurring at the same time, allowing some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others. According to some, dissociation is the foundation of hypnosis - the hypnotized person is able to maintain control of certain thoughts and behaviors, while others are being influenced by the hypnotist.
Read more: http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?term=Dissociation#ixzz44jM3oAkd
drugs which, by changing the chemistry of the brain, alter our consciousness
block the reuptake process by clogging the receptor sites and thus flooding the synapse with neurotransmitter
enhance the effect of neurotransmitters by mimicking their shape
speed up bodily processes: nicotine, cocaine
slow down bodily processes: alcohol and marijuana
Tolerance and Withdrawl
cause hallucinations: shrooms and lsd
heroin, meth, morphine. They all act like endorphins. Are extremely addictive and dangerous. Cause a reduction in pain signals, induce euphoria, and depress the central nervous system.
discovered dissociation theory of hypnosis
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