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A weather warning indicates that

Hazardous weather is either imminent or occurring within the forecast area

A weather watch would probably be issued for which of the following conditions?

There is a chance for tornadoes tomorrow

An analysis is:

A surface or upper-level chart that interprets the present weather patterns

A forecast of an extended period of dry weather would be made for a region beneath:

An upper-level ridge

Suppose it is warm and raining, and a cold front is moving toward your location. Directly behind the cold front, it is cold and snowing. Still further behind the front, the weather is cold and clearing. If the front is scheduled to pass your area in 6 hours, a persistence forecast for your area for 2 hours from now would be:

Warm and raining

The least accurate forecast method of predicting the weather two days into the future during changeable weather conditions is usually the:

Persistence forecast

Weather forecast that predicts that the future weather will be the same as the present weather is called:

Persistence forecasting

Which forecasting method assumes that weather systems will move in the same direction and at the same speed as they have been moving?

Steady state (trend) forecast

A persistence forecast could be quite accurate when:

You are positioned in the middle of a large, stationary air mass

A weather forecast for the immediate future that employs the trend method is called:


By examining a surface map, the movement of a surface low pressure area can be predicted based upon the:

All of the above

Predicting the weather by weather types employs which forecasting method?


A forecast method that compares past weather maps and weather patterns to those of the present is:

The analogue method

The forecasting technique that produces several versions of a forecast model, each beginning with slightly different weather information to reflect errors in the measurements, is called:

Ensemble forecasting

Suppose that where you live, the middle of January is typically several degrees warmer than the rest of the month. If you forecast this "January thaw" for the middle of next January, you would have made a:

Climatological forecast

A probability forecast that calls for a "40 percent chance of rain" means that:

There is a 40% chance of rain that any random place in a forecasted area can receive measurable rain

Which of the following is presently a problem with modern-day weather predictions?

All of the above

An accurate forecast:

May or may not show skill

For a forecast to show skill it must:

Be better than a persistence forecast or a climatological forecast

A prog is:

The final forecast chart representing the atmosphere at a specified future time called a prognostic chart (prog)

The forecasting of weather by a computer is known as:

Numerical weather prediction

The greatest improvement in forecasting skill during the past 30 years has been made in forecasting:

Sever storm warnings for hurricanes and tornadoes

Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) measure:

Wind, temperature, pressure, cloud - base height, and runway visibility at various airports

A wind that changes direction in a counterclockwise sense with increasing height is called a(n):

Backing wind

Warm advection is most likely to occur:

From the surface up to the 500mb level ahead of an advancing warm front

The National Weather Service system of watches, warnings, and advisories generally don't address weather conditions which limit visibility.


Suppose there are two cloud layers above you. The lower cloud layer is moving from a westerly direction, while the higher cloud layer is moving from a northwesterly direction. From this observation you conclude that the wind is ____ with height and ____ advection is occurring between the cloud layers.

Back; cold

When making a forecast, a meteorologist typically examines:

Surface charts, upper air charts, radar display, satellite imagery (all of the above)

Modern computer forecasting models have increasingly smaller grid spacing. This presents which of the following problems?

Much more computations are needed

Very short-range forecasts often utilize which of the following forecast methods?

Subjective interpretations of surface observations, satellite imagery and Doppler radar information

Lines connecting points of equal pressure change are called:


A comma cloud is:

A band of organized cumuliform clouds that look like a comma on a satellite photograph

If you wanted to make a persistence forecast of minimum and maximum temperatures for a particular city, which type of chart would be most helpful?

A surface weather map

All thunderstorms require:

Rising air

The initial stage of an ordinary thunderstorm is the:

Cumulus stage

Ordinary thunderstorms only last about one hour and begin to dissipate when:

The downdraft spreads throughout the cloud and cuts off the updraft

An ordinary thunderstorm is a:

Scattered or isolated storm that is not severe

Downdrafts spread throughout a thunderstorm during the ____ stage.


An ordinary thunderstorm is most intense during the ____ stage.


The most likely time for an ordinary thunderstorm to form is:


Severe thunderstorms are different from ordinary thunderstorms in that severe thunderstorms:

Have a tilted updraft in the mature stage

A supercell storm is:

An enormous thunderstorm that last for several hours

Severe thunderstorms are capable of producing:

Large hail, tornadoes, flash floods (all of the above)

In a severe thunderstorm, hail may:

Fall from the base of the anvil, fall from the bottom of the cloud, be tossed out the side of cloud (all of the above

A Mesoscale Convective Complex is actually:

Individual thunderstorms that grow into a large, long - lasting weather system

Thunderstorms which produce tornadoes:

Have rotating updrafts

The downdraft in an ordinary thunderstorm is created mainly by:

Evaporating raindrops that make the air cold and heavy

The cloud that forms along the leading edge of a gust front is called:

A roll cloud

The leading edge of a thunderstorm's cold downdraft is known as a:

Gust front

The small area of high pressure created by the cold, heavy air of a thunderstorm downdraft is called:


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