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format or structure followed by a writer such as comparison/contrast or process analysis
ad hominem argument
an argument attacking an individual's character rather than his or her position on an issue
a reference to something literary, mythological, or historical that the author assumes the reader will recognize
a concise statement that expresses succinctly a general truth or idea, often using rhyme or balance
a pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by reason and logic, and asserts a position, belief or conclusion
repetition of similar vowel sounds, preceded and followed by different consonants, in the stressed syllables of adjacent words (ex: The sergeant asked him to bomb the lawn with hotpots.)
a construction in which elements are presented in a series without conjunctions (ex: They spent the day wondering, searching, thinking, understanding.)
a sentence in which words, phrases, or clauses are set off against each other to emphasize a contrast (ex: If thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought.)
a pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by its analysis of why something happens; often links situations and events in time, with causes preceding events
a pattern of writing or speaking characterized by the process of breaking a whole into parts, and the often subsequent process of sorting individual items into categories
a pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by, in its narrowest sense, how two or more things are similar and/or how two or more things are different
a sentence with two or more coordinate independent clauses, often joined by one or more conjunctions
a sentence with two or more principal clauses and one or more subordinate clauses
cumulative sentence (loose sentence)
a sentence in which the main independent clause is elaborated by the successive addition of modifying clauses or phrases
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case
a pattern of writing or speaking which strives to inform the audience on what a term means and how it is different from other terms in its class
a pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by physical descriptions of a person, place or thing. It is a pattern that relies on the five senses to inform it
a variety of speech characterized by its own particular grammar or pronunciation, often associated with a particular geographical region
the omission of a word or phrase which is grammatically necessary but can be deduced from the context (ex: Some people prefer cats; others, dogs.)
the persuasive appeal of one's character, or credibility (usually deals with one's morals or values)
a sentence expressing strong feeling, usually punctuated with an exclamation mark
a pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by using one or more particular cases, or examples, to illustrate or explain a general point or an abstract concept
an expression in a given language that cannot be understood from the literal meaning of the words in the expression; or, a regional speech or dialect (ex: fly on the wall, cut to the chase)
a sentence constructed so that the predicate comes before the subject (ex: In the woods I am walking.)
the use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning; or, incongruity between what is expected and what actually occurs
a type of understatement in which an idea is expressed by negating its opposite (describing a particularly horrific scene by saying, "It was not a pretty picture.")
is a dominant pattern of writing or speaking which strives to tell a story by presenting events in an orderly, logical sequence; conventionally utilizes the first or third person perspective
an apparently contradictory statement that actually contains some truth (ex: Whoever loses his life shall find it.)
a pattern of writing or speaking which is characterized by it's explanation of how to do something or how something occurs; presents a sequence of steps and shows how those steps lead to a particular result
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