MET 1010: Chapter Five
Intro to Atmosphere
Terms in this set (106)
Dew is most likely to form on nights:
that are clear and calm.
The name given to a liquid drop of dew that freezes when the air temperature drops below freezing is:
The cooling of the ground to produce dew is mainly the result of:
For frozen dew to form,
the dew point must be above freezing, the minimum temperature must fall to freezing or below, dew must form and then freeze.
Suppose it is a winter night and at about 10 PM, the air cools to the dew point temperature and a thick radiation fog develops. If the air continues to cool during the night, in 5 hours the dew point temperature will probably:
decrease as the air becomes drier.
Particles that serve as surfaces on which water vapor may condense are called:
Frost forms when:
the dew point is at or below freezing. When the air temperature cools to the dew point and further cooling occurs (water vapor can change directly to ice without becoming a liquid first, a process called deposition).
On a humid day, the ______ causes salty potato chips left outside in an uncovered bowl turn soggy.
the attraction of water by hygroscopic condensation nuclei
Frost typically forms on the inside of a windowpane (rather than the outside) because:
there is more water vapor touching the inside of the pane.
Condensation nuclei may be:
particles of dust, nitric acid particles, smoke from forest fires, and salt from the ocean.
Condensation nuclei are important in the atmosphere because:
without them condensation would not form easily in the atmosphere.
Under what circumstances could the relative humidity exceed 100 percent without producing fog?
There are no condensation nuclei.
Wet haze forms when the relative humidity is:
less than 100 percent.
On a cold winter morning, the air near the surface is full of smoke particles. If fog should form in this air, it will probably be ________ fog that forms in cleaner air.
High fog is also called:
When radiation fog "burns off," the fog tends to dissipate:
as the warmer air mixes in toward the denser foggy area.
When fog "burns off," it:
On a clear night, the minimum temperature drops to 34°F. The following night, fog forms early in the evening. It is a good bet the minimum temperature will not be as low because of the:
absorption of infrared energy by the water vapor and fog droplets and the release of latent heat during condensation.
Winter fog in the Central Valley region of California is mainly due to:
On a cold, winter morning, the most likely place for radiation fog to form is:
The fog that forms along the Pacific coastline to North America is mainly which type?
Fog that forms off the coast of Newfoundland is mainly a form of:
Along an irregular coastline, advection fog is more likely to form at the headlands than at the beaches because of the ______ surface winds and ______ air.
If fog is forming at Denver, Colorado, and the wind is blowing from the east, then the fog is most likely:
Exhaled breath from your mouth can condense when:
moist air from your mouth or nose meets the cold air and mixes with it.
When you see your breath on a cold morning, the air temperature:
can be above or below freezing.
The use of helicopters to mix air and disperse radiation fog at airports is effective provided that:
the fog is shallow radiation fog with low-liquid content.
On a cold, calm autumn morning, the formation of fog above a relatively warm lake would most likely be:
Which fog does not necessarily form in air that is cooling?
Frontal fog most commonly forms as ______ raindrops fall into a layer of ______ air.
Fog that most often forms as warm rain falls into a cold layer of surface air is called:
evaporation (mixing) fog.
Clouds are classified by:
A reasonably successful method of dispersing cold fog is:
to seed the fog with dry ice.
Fog is a major hazard to aviation.
Which of the following associations is NOT correct?
Altostratus- high cloud.
At which city might you be able to observe cirrus clouds at an altitude of 3,000 m (10,000 feet) about the surface?
Even at high elevations where cirrus clouds are found, liquid water still exists in the clouds.
Which associations below is NOT correct?
Which cloud is LEAST likely to produce precipitation that reaches the ground?
In middle latitudes, which cloud will have the highest base?
A halo around the moon means that:
cirrostratus clouds are present.
Which cloud type is composed of ice crystals and can cause a halo to form around the sun or moon?
Which of the following associations is NOT correct?
Light or moderate-but-steady precipitation is most often associated with ______ clouds.
In middle latitudes, which cloud will have the lowest base?
Which of the following cloud types would be found at the highest elevation above the earth's surface?
Which of the following pairs of cloud types could be very similar in appearance?
Altocumulus and cirrocumulus.
Which clouds often appear in parallel waves or bands?
A "mackerel sky" describes what type of clouds?
When viewed from the surface, the smallest individual cloud elements (puffs) are observed with which cloud?
Cirrus clouds are compose primarily of:
Detached clouds of delicate and fibrous appearance, without shading, usually white in color and sometimes of a silky appearance are:
Suppose the sky is completely covered with a thin, white layered-type cloud. You look at the ground and see that objects cast a distinct shadow. From this you conclude that the cloud must be:
At middle latitudes, the base of an altostratus or altocumulus cloud would generally be found between:
6,500 and 23,000 feet.
A middle cloud that sometimes forms in parallel waves or bands is:
A dim, "watery" sun visible through a gray sheet-like cloud layer is often a good indication of:
The name given to ragged-looking clouds that rapidly drift with the wind beneath a rain-producing cloud is:
stratus fractus, or scud.
An anvil-shaped top is most often associated with:
If you hold your hand at arm's length and cloud elements appear to be about the size of your fist, the cloud type is probably:
The name given to a towering cloud that has NOT fully developed into a thunderstorm is:
A low, lumpy cloud layer that appears in rows, patches, or rounded masses would be classified:
Hail is usually associated with what cloud?
The cloud with the greatest vertical growth is:
As Apollo 2 ascended into the atmosphere, the height of the surrounding clouds was noted to be 42,000 feet. A lightning stroke was seen within these clouds, indicating that they must have been:
Which of the following clouds would form in the stratosphere?
Nacreous or noctilucent clouds.
Which of the following clouds form in descending air?
Which below is NOT a way in which a contrail may form?
Due to heating of air by the engine exhaust.
The small, smooth cloud that may form just above the top of a towering cumulus cloud is called:
an incus (anvil) cloud.
The cloud-like streamer often seen forming behind an aircraft flying at high altitudes is called:
Clouds that have a characteristic lens-shaped appearance are referred to as:
Clouds that appear as bag-like sacks hanging from beneath a cloud are:
An altocumulus in the form of parallel waves would be described as an altocumulus:
Another name for a "mother of pearl" cloud is:
"Luminous night clouds" are also called"
Which term below describes a situation in which clouds cover between one-tenth and five-tenths of the sky?
When clouds are viewed near the horizon, the individual cloud elements usually:
appear closer together than is actually the case.
Which of the following can be used to determine the height of cloud bases?
Ceiling ballons, rotating-beam ceilometer, and fixed-beam ceilometer (all of the above).
If a pilot ballon rises at a rate of 100 meters per minute, and if it disappears into a deck of stratus clouds 500 meters thick in 5 minutes, what is the ceiling of the cloud layer.
Which of the following would provide the most accurate method of determining cloud base altitude?
Infrared and visible satellite images might provide a way of determining cloud thickness and altitude.
On an infrared satellite image, low, warm clouds appear dark and high, cold clouds appear light.
Infrared and visible images are computer enhanced to increase the contrast between specific features in picture.
Satellite images taken of clouds at night use radiometers.
If a cloud appears white on a visible satellite image and gray on an infrared image, then the cloud could be a low cloud.
The TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite provides information on tropical:
rainfall, sea surface temperatures with a microwave scanner.
Names given to satellites:
Geostationary, polar-orbiting, TRIOS, GOES, TRMM
remain permanently fixed in exactly the same position in the sky.
can observe clouds in earth's orbit. Provides extremely valuable cloud photographs of areas where there are no ground-based observations.
closely parallel the earth's meridian lines. Pass over the north and south polar regions on each revolution. Covers the entire earth.
A rotating-beam ceilometer is useful for:
measuring cloud ceilings.
Lenticular clouds typically form ______ a mountain range.
When temperatures are below freezing, the temperatures to which air must be cooled in order for a phase change to occur is called the:
Dew, frozen dew, and frost form when the below-freezing layer of air is:
saturated and close to the ground.
On humid days, salt in saltshakers sometimes becomes moist and no loner pours out easily. The salt can be described as:
Radiation fog typically forms on:
calm, clear nights with a breeze less than 5 knots over land.
In hilly areas, cold air typically collects:
When fog is "burning off," the cloud droplets are preventing solar radiation from reaching the ground.
Stratus and high fog are:
Advection fog is often observed along the Pacific coast during summer, as westerly winds carry moist air toward the shore. The fog forms because the surface water near the coast is ______ the surface water farther offshore.
much colder than
Suppose two ocean currents with different temperatures are flowing next to one another. If the wind blows perpendicular to the currents, we would expect to find:
Upslope fog forms because air ______ as it flows up a hill or mountain range.
expands and then cools
Suppose two unsaturated air masses mix horizontally. The resulting mixture cannot possibly be saturated.
In order to be effective, fog lamps on cars should be directed:
Which two clouds can produce precipitation?
Cumulus and stratus clouds.
Which of the following clouds are almost always composed of ice crystals?
Stratus clouds are typically puffy and form by convection.
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