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87 terms

Chapter 7

STUDY
PLAY
Depressions and Openings
Two major types of surface markings
Fissure
Narrow slit between adjacent parts of bones through which BV or nerve passes
Foramen
Opening thorugh which BV, nerves, or ligaments pass
Fossa
Shallow depression
Sulcus
Furrow along a bone surface that accommodates a BV, nerve, or tendon
Meatus
Tub-like opening
Processes
Projections or outgrowths on bone that form joints or attachment points for CT, such as ligaments and tendons
Condyle
Large, round protuberance at the end of a bone
Facet
Smooth flat articular surface.
Head
Rounded articular projection supported on the neck (constricted portion) of a bone.
Crest
Prominent ridge or elongated projection.
Epicondyle
Projection above a condyle.
Line
Long narrow ridge or border.
Spinous Process
Sharp slender projection.
Trochanter
Very large projection.
Tubercle
Small, rounded prjection
Tuberosity
Large, rounded, usually roughened projection.
22
How many bones make up the skull (cranium)?
Cranial and Facial
Two categories of the bones of the skull
8
How many bones make up the cranial cavity?
14
How many facial bones form the face?
Nasal/ Orbits/ Paranasal sinuses
Several smaller cavities formed in the skull.
Special sense organs and brain
Two things that cranial and facial bones protect and support.
Sutures
Immovable joints that fuse most of the skull bones together.
Frontal Bone
Forms the forhead
Parietal Bones
Form the sides and roof of the cranial cavity
Temporal Bones
Form the lateral aspects and floor of the cranium
Occipital Bone
Forms the posterior part and most of the base of the cranium.
Sphenoid Bone
Lies at the middle part of the base of the skull.
Ethmoid Bone
Located on the midline in the anterior part of the cranial floor medial to the orbits
Conchae
Thin projections which are lined by mucous membranes.
Nasal Bones
Form the bridge of the nose
Maxillae
For the upper jawbone and separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
Zygomatic Bone
Commonly called cheekbones.
Lacrimal Bones
Form part of the medial wall of each orbit
Palatine Bones
Form the posterior portion of the hard palate
Inferior Nasal Conchae
Form a part of the inferior lateral wall of the nasal cavity.
Vomer
Forms the inferior portion of the nasal septum.
Mandible
Lower jawbone; the only movable skull bone.
Nasal Septum
Divides the interior of nasal cavity into right and left sides
Orbit
Eye socket
Foramina
Openings for BV, nerves, or ligaments of the skull.
Sutures/ Paranasal sinuses/ Fontanels
Three Unique features of the skull.
Lambdoid/ Squamous/ Sagittal/ Coronal
Types of sutures
Sound/ moisten/ prolong sound/ reduce weight
Functions of Paranasal Sinuses
Fontanels
Areas of unossified tissue at birth
Supports Tongue, Provides attachment for muscles
Functions of hyoid bone
Spine, backbone, spinal column
Three other names for the Vertebral Column
Protects spinal cord, supports head, point of attachment
Functions of vertebral column
Increase column strength, helps maintain balance, absorb shock
Why the vertebral column is curved
Kyphosis
Anterior curvature that occurs in the thoracic region
Lordosis
Curvature that occurs in the lumbar region
Scolosis
Abnormal lateral curvature int he thoracic region
7 Cervical
Vertebrae in the neck
12 thoracic
vertebrae posterior to the thoracic cavity
5 lumbar
vertebrae that support lower back
1 sacrum
Consists of five fused sacral vertebrae
1 coccyx
consists of four fused coccygeal vertebrae
Intervertebral disks
Found between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae
Form strong joints, permit various movements, absorb shock
Functions of intervertebral disks
Body
Supports the weight of head and trunk
Pedicles
Two short stalks that are projected posteriorly from each vertebral body
Laminae
Two plates that arise from the pedicles
Spinous Process
Laminae arise from pedicles and fuse in the back to form what
Vertebral foramen
Pedicles, laminae, and spinous process togehter complete a bony vertebral arch around what; spinal cord passes
Transverse Process
Between pedicles and laminae; projects laterally and posteriorly
Sites for muscles and ligaments to attach
Functions of spinous and transverse processes
Intervertebral Foramina
Openings found between adjacent vertebrae where spinal nerves pass through and connect to spinal cord
Atlas
First cervical vertebra
Axis
Second cervical vertebra
Thoracic Vertebrae
Vertebrae that articulates with the ribs
Lumbar Vertebrae
Vertebrae that provides attachment for large back muscles
Sacrum
Triangular bone formed by union of five sacral vertebrae; serves as strong foundation of pelvic girdle
Coccyx
Formed by fusion of four coccygeal vertebrae
Large vertebral foramen, stumpy spinous process, bifid
Distinctive features of typical cervical vertebra
Dens
Toothlike structure on its body
Sternum, Ribs, Costal Cartilage, thoracic vertebrae
Four parts that form the thoracic cage
Protect internal organs, Supports bones, role in breathing
Function of thoracic cage
12
How many pairs of ribs
Vertebrosternal ribs
Anatomical name for true ribs; first seven pairs of ribs
Vertebrochondral rib
Anatomical name for false ribs; middle 5 pair of ribs
Vertebral
Anatomical name for floating ribs; last 2 pair of ribs
Sternum
Located along midline in anterior portion of thoracic cage
Manubrium, Body, Xiphoid Process
Three parts of the sternum
Manubrium
Triangular, superior portion of sternum
Body
Middle largest portion of the sternum
Xiphoid Process
Inferior smallest portion of the sternum