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Depressions and Openings

Two major types of surface markings


Narrow slit between adjacent parts of bones through which BV or nerve passes


Opening thorugh which BV, nerves, or ligaments pass


Shallow depression


Furrow along a bone surface that accommodates a BV, nerve, or tendon


Tub-like opening


Projections or outgrowths on bone that form joints or attachment points for CT, such as ligaments and tendons


Large, round protuberance at the end of a bone


Smooth flat articular surface.


Rounded articular projection supported on the neck (constricted portion) of a bone.


Prominent ridge or elongated projection.


Projection above a condyle.


Long narrow ridge or border.

Spinous Process

Sharp slender projection.


Very large projection.


Small, rounded prjection


Large, rounded, usually roughened projection.


How many bones make up the skull (cranium)?

Cranial and Facial

Two categories of the bones of the skull


How many bones make up the cranial cavity?


How many facial bones form the face?

Nasal/ Orbits/ Paranasal sinuses

Several smaller cavities formed in the skull.

Special sense organs and brain

Two things that cranial and facial bones protect and support.


Immovable joints that fuse most of the skull bones together.

Frontal Bone

Forms the forhead

Parietal Bones

Form the sides and roof of the cranial cavity

Temporal Bones

Form the lateral aspects and floor of the cranium

Occipital Bone

Forms the posterior part and most of the base of the cranium.

Sphenoid Bone

Lies at the middle part of the base of the skull.

Ethmoid Bone

Located on the midline in the anterior part of the cranial floor medial to the orbits


Thin projections which are lined by mucous membranes.

Nasal Bones

Form the bridge of the nose


For the upper jawbone and separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity

Zygomatic Bone

Commonly called cheekbones.

Lacrimal Bones

Form part of the medial wall of each orbit

Palatine Bones

Form the posterior portion of the hard palate

Inferior Nasal Conchae

Form a part of the inferior lateral wall of the nasal cavity.


Forms the inferior portion of the nasal septum.


Lower jawbone; the only movable skull bone.

Nasal Septum

Divides the interior of nasal cavity into right and left sides


Eye socket


Openings for BV, nerves, or ligaments of the skull.

Sutures/ Paranasal sinuses/ Fontanels

Three Unique features of the skull.

Lambdoid/ Squamous/ Sagittal/ Coronal

Types of sutures

Sound/ moisten/ prolong sound/ reduce weight

Functions of Paranasal Sinuses


Areas of unossified tissue at birth

Supports Tongue, Provides attachment for muscles

Functions of hyoid bone

Spine, backbone, spinal column

Three other names for the Vertebral Column

Protects spinal cord, supports head, point of attachment

Functions of vertebral column

Increase column strength, helps maintain balance, absorb shock

Why the vertebral column is curved


Anterior curvature that occurs in the thoracic region


Curvature that occurs in the lumbar region


Abnormal lateral curvature int he thoracic region

7 Cervical

Vertebrae in the neck

12 thoracic

vertebrae posterior to the thoracic cavity

5 lumbar

vertebrae that support lower back

1 sacrum

Consists of five fused sacral vertebrae

1 coccyx

consists of four fused coccygeal vertebrae

Intervertebral disks

Found between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae

Form strong joints, permit various movements, absorb shock

Functions of intervertebral disks


Supports the weight of head and trunk


Two short stalks that are projected posteriorly from each vertebral body


Two plates that arise from the pedicles

Spinous Process

Laminae arise from pedicles and fuse in the back to form what

Vertebral foramen

Pedicles, laminae, and spinous process togehter complete a bony vertebral arch around what; spinal cord passes

Transverse Process

Between pedicles and laminae; projects laterally and posteriorly

Sites for muscles and ligaments to attach

Functions of spinous and transverse processes

Intervertebral Foramina

Openings found between adjacent vertebrae where spinal nerves pass through and connect to spinal cord


First cervical vertebra


Second cervical vertebra

Thoracic Vertebrae

Vertebrae that articulates with the ribs

Lumbar Vertebrae

Vertebrae that provides attachment for large back muscles


Triangular bone formed by union of five sacral vertebrae; serves as strong foundation of pelvic girdle


Formed by fusion of four coccygeal vertebrae

Large vertebral foramen, stumpy spinous process, bifid

Distinctive features of typical cervical vertebra


Toothlike structure on its body

Sternum, Ribs, Costal Cartilage, thoracic vertebrae

Four parts that form the thoracic cage

Protect internal organs, Supports bones, role in breathing

Function of thoracic cage


How many pairs of ribs

Vertebrosternal ribs

Anatomical name for true ribs; first seven pairs of ribs

Vertebrochondral rib

Anatomical name for false ribs; middle 5 pair of ribs


Anatomical name for floating ribs; last 2 pair of ribs


Located along midline in anterior portion of thoracic cage

Manubrium, Body, Xiphoid Process

Three parts of the sternum


Triangular, superior portion of sternum


Middle largest portion of the sternum

Xiphoid Process

Inferior smallest portion of the sternum

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