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Depressions and Openings
Two major types of surface markings
Narrow slit between adjacent parts of bones through which BV or nerve passes
Opening thorugh which BV, nerves, or ligaments pass
Furrow along a bone surface that accommodates a BV, nerve, or tendon
Projections or outgrowths on bone that form joints or attachment points for CT, such as ligaments and tendons
Large, round protuberance at the end of a bone
Smooth flat articular surface.
Rounded articular projection supported on the neck (constricted portion) of a bone.
Prominent ridge or elongated projection.
Projection above a condyle.
Long narrow ridge or border.
Sharp slender projection.
Very large projection.
Small, rounded prjection
Large, rounded, usually roughened projection.
How many bones make up the skull (cranium)?
Cranial and Facial
Two categories of the bones of the skull
How many bones make up the cranial cavity?
How many facial bones form the face?
Nasal/ Orbits/ Paranasal sinuses
Several smaller cavities formed in the skull.
Special sense organs and brain
Two things that cranial and facial bones protect and support.
Immovable joints that fuse most of the skull bones together.
Forms the forhead
Form the sides and roof of the cranial cavity
Form the lateral aspects and floor of the cranium
Forms the posterior part and most of the base of the cranium.
Lies at the middle part of the base of the skull.
Located on the midline in the anterior part of the cranial floor medial to the orbits
Thin projections which are lined by mucous membranes.
Form the bridge of the nose
For the upper jawbone and separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
Commonly called cheekbones.
Form part of the medial wall of each orbit
Form the posterior portion of the hard palate
Inferior Nasal Conchae
Form a part of the inferior lateral wall of the nasal cavity.
Forms the inferior portion of the nasal septum.
Lower jawbone; the only movable skull bone.
Divides the interior of nasal cavity into right and left sides
Openings for BV, nerves, or ligaments of the skull.
Sutures/ Paranasal sinuses/ Fontanels
Three Unique features of the skull.
Lambdoid/ Squamous/ Sagittal/ Coronal
Types of sutures
Sound/ moisten/ prolong sound/ reduce weight
Functions of Paranasal Sinuses
Areas of unossified tissue at birth
Supports Tongue, Provides attachment for muscles
Functions of hyoid bone
Spine, backbone, spinal column
Three other names for the Vertebral Column
Protects spinal cord, supports head, point of attachment
Functions of vertebral column
Increase column strength, helps maintain balance, absorb shock
Why the vertebral column is curved
Anterior curvature that occurs in the thoracic region
Curvature that occurs in the lumbar region
Abnormal lateral curvature int he thoracic region
Vertebrae in the neck
vertebrae posterior to the thoracic cavity
vertebrae that support lower back
Consists of five fused sacral vertebrae
consists of four fused coccygeal vertebrae
Found between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae
Form strong joints, permit various movements, absorb shock
Functions of intervertebral disks
Supports the weight of head and trunk
Two short stalks that are projected posteriorly from each vertebral body
Two plates that arise from the pedicles
Laminae arise from pedicles and fuse in the back to form what
Pedicles, laminae, and spinous process togehter complete a bony vertebral arch around what; spinal cord passes
Between pedicles and laminae; projects laterally and posteriorly
Sites for muscles and ligaments to attach
Functions of spinous and transverse processes
Openings found between adjacent vertebrae where spinal nerves pass through and connect to spinal cord
First cervical vertebra
Second cervical vertebra
Vertebrae that articulates with the ribs
Vertebrae that provides attachment for large back muscles
Triangular bone formed by union of five sacral vertebrae; serves as strong foundation of pelvic girdle
Formed by fusion of four coccygeal vertebrae
Large vertebral foramen, stumpy spinous process, bifid
Distinctive features of typical cervical vertebra
Toothlike structure on its body
Sternum, Ribs, Costal Cartilage, thoracic vertebrae
Four parts that form the thoracic cage
Protect internal organs, Supports bones, role in breathing
Function of thoracic cage
How many pairs of ribs
Anatomical name for true ribs; first seven pairs of ribs
Anatomical name for false ribs; middle 5 pair of ribs
Anatomical name for floating ribs; last 2 pair of ribs
Located along midline in anterior portion of thoracic cage
Manubrium, Body, Xiphoid Process
Three parts of the sternum
Triangular, superior portion of sternum
Middle largest portion of the sternum
Inferior smallest portion of the sternum