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The sum of the processes by which an animal or plant takes in and uses food substances.


Proteins, carbohydrates, and fat


Amino acids linked by peptide bonds

Essential Amino Acids

cannot be manufactered in the body (must be obtained from the food supply or some other exogenous source)

Nonessential Amino Acids

The body is able to manufacter them from dietary nitrogen and fragments of carbohydrate and fat

Complete Protein

Food source that supplies all of the essential amino acids in appropriate ratios

Incomplete Protein

Food source lacking in one or more essential amino acids

Carbohydrates and Fats for energy

To save protein for tissue repair and growth


Amino acids that are used to assist in energy production


The feeling of fullness

How much protein an average person should obtain


Minimal acceptable intake of protein

Bodybuilder- 1.0, Active Recreational Athlete- 1.0, Endurance Athlete- 1.4

One gram of protein yields how many calories?

One gram yields 4 calories


Neutral componds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (such as sugars, starches, and cellulose) which make up a large portion of animal foods.


A singular sugar unit, many of which are connected to make starches and glycogen

Perfered source of energy and muscular exertion


How much carbohydrates an average person should obtain


One gram of carbohydrates yields how many calroies?

One gram of carbohydrates yields 4 calories


A group of compounds that includes triglycerides (fats and oils) phospholipids and sterols.

Fatty Acids

May be saturated or unsaturated


Make up one of the main classes of macronutrients; Help the body use vitamins and keep the skin healthy; serve as an energy source for the body.


Fatty acid that has one double bond in its carbon chain


Fatty acid that has more then one point of unsaturation; aids in providing important essentail fatty acids to the body


Fatty acids implicated as a risk factor for heart disease because they raise bad cholesterol levels (LDL)

Unsaturated Fats

Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated; increase good cholesterol levels (HDL)

Fat intake recommended for weight loss


One gram of fat yields how many calories?

One gram of fat yields 9 calories


Average amount of water a person should consume in a day

Functions of water

Improves endocrine gland function, relieves fluid tension, decrease appetite, distributes nutirents, improves body temperature regulation, maintains blood volume

Biological value

A measure of protein quality, or how well it satisfies the body's essential amino acid needs

Amino Acids

There are two types: essential and nonessential

Negative side effects associated with high protein diets

Calcium depletion, heart disease, some types of cancer, fluid imbalance (dehydration), kidneys overworked due to increase in urea


The storage of carbohydrates in humans

Glycemic Index

The rate at which ingested carbohydrates raise blood sugar and its accompanying effect on insulin release

Wieght loss is related to....

The total energy intake not the source of food eaten

Two attributing factors that a low carbohydrate diet has on weight loss

Low caloric intake and loss of fat mass

Energy Systems in the body

ATP-PCr, Glycolysis, Lactic Acid system, and Oxygen System


The energy system for fast, powerful muscle contractions;uses ATP as the immediate energy source, the spent ATP being quickly regenerated by breakdown of PCr. Responsible for muscle contraction.


Second source of energy, used when carbohydrate energy is needed.

Lactic Acid System

(aka anaerobic glycolysis) Cannot be used as a direct source for muscular contractions but can replace ATP rapidly if necessary; associated with short powerful exercise events such as 200-800 meter run

Lactic Acid

By-product of the process necessary to increase ATP production; build up of this may be associated with onset muscle soreness

Oxygen System

(aka aerobics system) The energy system that produces ATP via the oxidation of various foodstuffs, fats and carbohydrates

Can the oxygen system be used as a direct source of energyfor muscle contraction?

No, however, it does produce ATP in rather large quantites from other energy sources in the body.

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