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Essential Amino Acids
cannot be manufactered in the body (must be obtained from the food supply or some other exogenous source)
Nonessential Amino Acids
The body is able to manufacter them from dietary nitrogen and fragments of carbohydrate and fat
Minimal acceptable intake of protein
Bodybuilder- 1.0, Active Recreational Athlete- 1.0, Endurance Athlete- 1.4
Neutral componds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (such as sugars, starches, and cellulose) which make up a large portion of animal foods.
Make up one of the main classes of macronutrients; Help the body use vitamins and keep the skin healthy; serve as an energy source for the body.
Fatty acid that has more then one point of unsaturation; aids in providing important essentail fatty acids to the body
Fatty acids implicated as a risk factor for heart disease because they raise bad cholesterol levels (LDL)
Functions of water
Improves endocrine gland function, relieves fluid tension, decrease appetite, distributes nutirents, improves body temperature regulation, maintains blood volume
A measure of protein quality, or how well it satisfies the body's essential amino acid needs
Negative side effects associated with high protein diets
Calcium depletion, heart disease, some types of cancer, fluid imbalance (dehydration), kidneys overworked due to increase in urea
The rate at which ingested carbohydrates raise blood sugar and its accompanying effect on insulin release
Two attributing factors that a low carbohydrate diet has on weight loss
Low caloric intake and loss of fat mass
The energy system for fast, powerful muscle contractions;uses ATP as the immediate energy source, the spent ATP being quickly regenerated by breakdown of PCr. Responsible for muscle contraction.
Lactic Acid System
(aka anaerobic glycolysis) Cannot be used as a direct source for muscular contractions but can replace ATP rapidly if necessary; associated with short powerful exercise events such as 200-800 meter run
By-product of the process necessary to increase ATP production; build up of this may be associated with onset muscle soreness
(aka aerobics system) The energy system that produces ATP via the oxidation of various foodstuffs, fats and carbohydrates
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