The sum of the processes by which an animal or plant takes in and uses food substances.
Proteins, carbohydrates, and fat
Amino acids linked by peptide bonds
Essential Amino Acids
cannot be manufactered in the body (must be obtained from the food supply or some other exogenous source)
Nonessential Amino Acids
The body is able to manufacter them from dietary nitrogen and fragments of carbohydrate and fat
Food source that supplies all of the essential amino acids in appropriate ratios
Food source lacking in one or more essential amino acids
Carbohydrates and Fats for energy
To save protein for tissue repair and growth
Amino acids that are used to assist in energy production
The feeling of fullness
How much protein an average person should obtain
Minimal acceptable intake of protein
Bodybuilder- 1.0, Active Recreational Athlete- 1.0, Endurance Athlete- 1.4
One gram of protein yields how many calories?
One gram yields 4 calories
Neutral componds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (such as sugars, starches, and cellulose) which make up a large portion of animal foods.
A singular sugar unit, many of which are connected to make starches and glycogen
Perfered source of energy and muscular exertion
How much carbohydrates an average person should obtain
One gram of carbohydrates yields how many calroies?
One gram of carbohydrates yields 4 calories
A group of compounds that includes triglycerides (fats and oils) phospholipids and sterols.
May be saturated or unsaturated
Make up one of the main classes of macronutrients; Help the body use vitamins and keep the skin healthy; serve as an energy source for the body.
Fatty acid that has one double bond in its carbon chain
Fatty acid that has more then one point of unsaturation; aids in providing important essentail fatty acids to the body
Fatty acids implicated as a risk factor for heart disease because they raise bad cholesterol levels (LDL)
Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated; increase good cholesterol levels (HDL)
Fat intake recommended for weight loss
One gram of fat yields how many calories?
One gram of fat yields 9 calories
Average amount of water a person should consume in a day
Functions of water
Improves endocrine gland function, relieves fluid tension, decrease appetite, distributes nutirents, improves body temperature regulation, maintains blood volume
A measure of protein quality, or how well it satisfies the body's essential amino acid needs
There are two types: essential and nonessential
Negative side effects associated with high protein diets
Calcium depletion, heart disease, some types of cancer, fluid imbalance (dehydration), kidneys overworked due to increase in urea
The storage of carbohydrates in humans
The rate at which ingested carbohydrates raise blood sugar and its accompanying effect on insulin release
Wieght loss is related to....
The total energy intake not the source of food eaten
Two attributing factors that a low carbohydrate diet has on weight loss
Low caloric intake and loss of fat mass
Energy Systems in the body
ATP-PCr, Glycolysis, Lactic Acid system, and Oxygen System
The energy system for fast, powerful muscle contractions;uses ATP as the immediate energy source, the spent ATP being quickly regenerated by breakdown of PCr. Responsible for muscle contraction.
Second source of energy, used when carbohydrate energy is needed.
Lactic Acid System
(aka anaerobic glycolysis) Cannot be used as a direct source for muscular contractions but can replace ATP rapidly if necessary; associated with short powerful exercise events such as 200-800 meter run
By-product of the process necessary to increase ATP production; build up of this may be associated with onset muscle soreness
(aka aerobics system) The energy system that produces ATP via the oxidation of various foodstuffs, fats and carbohydrates
Can the oxygen system be used as a direct source of energyfor muscle contraction?
No, however, it does produce ATP in rather large quantites from other energy sources in the body.