In the Soviet Union, under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, the Russians embraced many material values of Western capitalist societies and were similar to the new nations of the 20th century, all of which were seeking development. This involved a frontal attack on long-standing inequalities of class and gender, an effort to prevent the making of new inequalities as the process of modern development unfolded, and the promotion of cultural values of selflessness and collectivism that could support a socialist society. This political state, dominated by the Communist Party, also controlled almost the entire economy and various professional groups operated under party control. The Chinese had substantial administrative and governing experience, unlike the Bolsheviks. The Chinese communists came to power as the champions of the rural masses, whereas the Bolsheviks lacked experience in the countryside. In economic terms, China faced even more daunting prospects than did the Soviet Union. Its population was far greater, its industrial base far smaller, and the availability of new agricultural land was far more limited than in the Soviet Union. China's literacy and modern education, and its transportation network, were likewise much less developed. Thus, Chinese communists had to build a modern society from the ground up. (Original: p. 668; With Sources: p. 1038) Socially: Banned plays, operas, films, and translations of Western classics reappeared; a problem of urban over-crowding; terrible pollution in major cities; street crime, prostitution, gambling, drug addiction, and a criminal underworld
Politically: Some 100,000 political prisoners, many of them high-ranking communists, were released and restored to important positions. Local governments and private enterprises joined forces in thousands of flourishing township that produced food, clothing, building materials, and much more.
Economically: rapid dismantling of the country's system of collectivized farming and a return to something close to small scale private agriculture. Managers of state enterprises were given greater authority and encouraged to act like private owners,