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67 terms

Mod D Chapter 6

Cardiopulmonary Procedures
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alternating current (AC) interference
Electrical interference that appears as small, uniform spikes on ECG tracing.
Amplifier
Device on the electrocardiograph that magnifies or enlarge the heart's electrical impulses so they can be recorded.
Arrhythmia
Abnormal heart rate, rhythm, and conductionsystem; also called dysrhythmia
Artifact
Unwanted changes in an ECG tracing caused by movement, machine malfunction, or other factors.
Atrioventricular (AV) node
Knot of specialized cells in the lower portion of the right atrium that produces the heart's electrical impulses
Augmented Leads
Leads that measure cardiac activity from one electrode on the body at a time; recordings are augmented (made larger) so they can be read.
Baseline
Line that separates the various cardiac waves
Bipolar Leads
Standard limb leads
Bundle branches
Branches of cardiac fibers that receive electrical impulses from the bundle of His.
Bundle of His
Small band of atypical cardiac muscle fibers that receive electrical impulses from the AV node
Cardiac cycle
one heartbeat; one contraction/relaxtion phase of the heart
chest (precordial) leads
Leads that measure in only one direction.
Depolarization
Discharge of electrical energy that causes contraction, such as in heart muscle.
Electrocardiogram (ECG)
Graphic picture of the heart's electrical activity
Electrocardiograph
Machine that records the electrical activity of the heart.
Electrocardiography
Noninvasive procedure used to detect the heart's electrical activity.
Electrodes
Devices made of a conductive material to pick up the electrical activity of the heart; sensors.
Forced vital capacity (FVC)
Measurement of the maximum volume of air that can be expired when the patient exhales forcefully.
Galvanometer
Device that detects and converts the amplified electrical signal into a tracing on the ECG machine
Holter monitor
Ambulatory heart monitor that records heart activity during a 24- to 48- hour period.
interval
ECG pattern that shows the length of a wave with a segment.
Ischemia
Poor blood supply to body tissue causing a lack of oxygen to that tissue.
Leads
Covered wires that carry electrical impulses from the sensors to the ECG machine.
Myocardial infarction (MI)
Heart attack; death of heart tissue caused by blockage of the heart's blood vessels.
Normal sinus rhythm (NSR)
Rhythm measurement that starts at the SA node, occurs within an established time frame, and follows an expected, est pattern.
Oximetry sensor
Device attached to a patient's finger that detects oxygen content in arterial blood
P Wave
ECG pattern that shows atrial contraction originating at the SA node
Pacemaker
Device that delivers electrical impulses to the heart muscle when the SA node is unable to do so
paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT)
Sudden onset and ending of atrial tachycardial, 150 to 250 beats per min
Peak flow meter (PFM)
A hand-held device that measures expiratory flow.
Photodetector
Device that records the percentage of oxygen in the blood after a light source passes through arterial blood
Polarization
Phase when the heart is in a ready state to contract
PR interval
time interval from atrial contraction to ventricular contraction
PR segment
Time interval necessary for an electrical impulse to cause contraction of the atria and begin contraction of the ventricles
Premature atrial contraction (PAC)
Condition in which an electrical impulse in the atria starts before the next expected heartbeat
Premature ventricular contraction (PVC)
Condition in which the ventricles receive an impulse prematurely and contract early
Pulmonary function tests (PFTs)
Tests done to assess lung function
Pulse oximetry
Method to measure the amount of oxygen in a patient's blood
Purkinje fibers
fibers from bundle branches that spread throughout ventricles carry electrical impulses, causing them to contract
QRS complex
ECG pattern that shows when the impulse moves through the ventricles and reaches the Purkinje fibers, depicting contraction of both ventricles
QT interval
Time interval on ECG that shows the time needed for the ventricles to contract and recover
Repolarization
rest phase of the ECG cycle
Rhythm strip
Lead II recording on ECG that shows the hearts rhythm
Segment
ECG pattern between two waves
Sinoatrial (SA) node
Pacemaker of the heart, located in the right atrium
Sinus bradycardia
Slow heart rate, less than 60 beats per minute
Sinus tachycardia
Rapid heart rate, 100 to 180 beats per minute
Somatic tremor
Body tremor caused by voluntary or involuntary muscle movement
Spirometry
Type of test that measures lung volume and capacity over time
ST segment
Time interval between the ventricular contraction and the beginning of ventricular relaxation
Standard limb lead
Device that carries the electrical impulses to the ECG and traces the electrical impulse of the heart in two different directions simultaneously
Standardization
The process of making a test or procedure the same for everyone so that results can be compared to each other.
Standardization mark
mark made on ECG paper that indicates the ECG is standardized
Stylus
Heated device that records the heart's activity on heat sensitive graph paper
T wave
wave represents the Ventricles resting ;(repolarization)
Tracing
recording of the ECG cycle.
Treadmill test
The use of exercise during electrocardiography to examine heart function under stress
U wave
normal, small upward curve that occasionally follows a complete ECG cycle after the PQRST; has unknown indication.
Unipolar leads
Augmented leads
V leads
Chest (precordial) leads
Ventricular fibrillation
Disorganized, and ineffective twitching of the ventricles, resulting in no blood flow and a state of cardiac arrest
Ventricular tachycardia
Three or more consecutive PVCs with heart rate exceeding 100 beats per minute
Vital capacity
Measurement of the volume of air that can be expired when the patient exhales completely
Wandering baseline
Shift on the ECG tracing from the baseline or center of the paper
Wave
ECG pattern that represents specific electrical heart activity
How many leads on a standard ECG
12 leads
Augmented limb leads
aVR, aVL, aVF