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In sequential order, the components of the intrinsic conduction system, beginning at the SA node, are ________.

AV node, AV bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers

The function of the intrinsic conduction system is to ________.

insure that the heart beats in a sequential and coordinated manner

The electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG) shows a record of ________.

electrical excitation of the heart

The QRS complex is associated with ________.

depolarization of the ventricles

A normal Q-T interval is ________.

0.31-0.41 sec when heart rate is 70 beats/min

If the AV node is damaged so that it can no longer transmit the signal from the SA node (total heart block), will the ventricles continue to contract? Why or why not?

Yes: however, ventricular contractions will no longer follow atrial contractions, and the rate of ventricular contractions will be significantly slowed.

How does holding the breath affect heart rate?

heart rate decreases

During exercise, the heart rate ________.

increases proportional to the exertion involved

Bradycardia describes a heart rate of ________.

less than 60 beats/min

Ventricular fibrillation is ________.

rapid, uncoordinated ventricular contractions

Arteries and veins are constructed of ________ tunics.


The tunica media consists of ________.

smooth muscle and elastic fibers

The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) ________.

is an example of an anastomosis, lies at the base of the brain, and may provide an alternative set of pathways for blood to reach brain tissue

Two pairs of arteries supply the brain. They are: ________.

vertebrals and internal carotids

The subclavian artery that arises directly from the aorta supplies the ________.

left upper extremity and neck

Bronchial arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the lungs and bronchi arise from the ________.

thoracic aorta

The aorta terminates when it divides into the ________.

common iliac arteries

These veins drain the brain.

internal jugular veins

The inferior vena cava drains the ________.

abdomen and lower extremities

The external iliac vein ________.

receives venous blood from the lower extremity

Blood vessels that absorb strong pressure pulses contain more of this type of tissue.


In a microscopic field showing an artery and its corresponding vein, you can easily distinguish the two because ________.

veins have thinner walls and are irregular in shape

There are two brachiocephalic veins and ________ brachiocephalic artery (or arteries).


These arteries supply the intercostal muscles, spinal cord, and vertebrae.

posterior intercostals

In correct sequence from superior to inferior, the three single arteries that arise from the abdominal aorta are ________.

celiac trunk, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric

This artery of the foot is often palpated to assess the circulatory efficiency of the limb as a whole.

dorsalis pedis artery

These veins drain the thigh.


Arteries that supply the intestines arise from the aorta. Veins that drain the intestines ________.

ultimately drain into the hepatic portal vein

Which of the following veins drain the brain?

internal jugular

In the fetus, which blood vessel(s) carries carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes from the fetus to the placenta?

umbilical arteries

A woman in her early 50s appeared at a walk-in clinic, complaining of aching pain in her right leg following a fall. Visual examination revealed that the medial aspect of that leg was red and swollen. A diagnosis of phlebitis was made. What is phlebitis, and what more serious condition may result if proper healing does not occur?

Phlebitis is an inflammation of a vein accompanied by painful throbbing and redness of the skin over the inflamed vessel. Thrombophlebitis can result if proper healing does not occur.

T OR F: The outermost layer of a blood vessel is the tunica intima.


Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?

tunica intima

Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?

tunica media

Histologically, the ________ is squamous epithelium supported by a sparse connective tissue layer.

tunica intima

The aorta is an example of a(n):

elastic artery

Which arteries carry deoxygenated blood?

pulmonary arteries

T OR F: The thick-walled arteries close to the heart are called muscular arteries.


T OR F: Vasodilation is a widening of the lumen due to smooth muscle contraction.


Which statement best describes arteries?

All carry blood away from the heart.

The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the ________.

muscular arteries

Which of the choices below explains why the arterioles are known as resistance vessels?

The contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in their walls can change their diameter.

The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called ________.


Gas and nutrient exchange occur in the:


Which vessels carry blood away from the heart?


What type of tissue is found in the walls of the arteries that leave the heart but not in the walls of the large veins that enter the heart?

elastic tissue

Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease of blood vessels that is responsible for millions of deaths each year. Which of the following answers is correct for the disease process?

Damage occurs to the tunica intima, resulting in release of chemicals and accumulation of fats, LDLs, and cholesterol. These cells are transformed into foam cells, which become fatty streaks that form atherosclerotic plaques, resulting in a narrowing of the blood vessels.

T OR F: A precapillary sphincter is a cuff of smooth muscle that regulates the flow of blood into the capillaries.


Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ________.


Fenestrated capillaries ________.

are not found in the brain.

Modified capillaries that are lined with phagocytes are called ________.


Leaky capillaries found in the bone marrow are called_________.

sinusoidal capillaries

Which of the following is true about veins?

Veins have valves; arteries do not.

Which of the following would decrease peripheral resistance to blood flow?


Which capillaries are the most common in the body?

continuous capillaries

Which of the following is true about veins?

Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.

_____ is the pressure that propels blood to the tissues.

mean arterial pressure

Mrs. Gray, a 50-year-old mother of seven children, is complaining of dull, aching pains in her legs. She reports that the pain has been getting progressively worse since the birth of her last child. During her physical examination, numerous varicosities are seen in both legs. What pathologic changes have occurred in these veins?

The veins have become tortuous and dilated because of incompetent valves that allow the blood to pool, stretching the vein walls.

A pregnant patient comes into a clinic and asks about a small dark bulge that is becoming more apparent on her leg. What is it and what caused it?

A varicose vein. The growing fetus puts downward pressure on the vessels of the groin and restricts the return of blood to the heart, causing the valves in the peripheral veins to begin to fail.

T OR F: The pancreas is an example of an organ with arteries that do not anastomose.


T OR F: Arteries supplying the same territory are often merged with one another, forming arterial anastomoses


Arterial ________ provide alternate pathways for blood to get to an organ.


T OR F: An increase in blood viscosity will cause an increase in peripheral resistance.


Peripheral resistance ________.

increases as blood viscosity increases

The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is ________.

significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius

Select the correct statement about blood flow.

Blood flow through the entire vascular system is equivalent to cardiac output.

Which of the following will lower blood pressure?

Atrial natriuretic peptide

Which of the following is NOT an important source of resistance to blood flow?

blood viscosity
vessel length
vessel diameter

The pulse pressure is ________.

systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure

Which of the choices below does not explain why low capillary pressures are desirable?

Most capillaries are extremely permeable and thus even low pressures force solute-containing fluid out of the bloodstream.
Capillaries are fragile and high pressures would rupture them.

Factors that aid venous return include all except ________.

pressure changes in the thorax
venous valves
activity of skeletal muscles

Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure.

Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase.

Arteriole blood pressure increases in response to all but which of the following?

increasing stroke volume
increasing heart rate
rising blood volume
all of these

________ pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure.


The lowest venous blood pressure is found in the ________.

Venae Cavae

Which of the following is directly involved in long-term blood pressure regulation?

Renal mechanisms

Why is it important that blood pressure drop to lower levels as it reaches the capillary beds?

capillaries are fragile and extremely permeable

T OR F: Hypotension is generally considered systolic blood pressure that is below 100 mm Hg.


T OR F: The carotid sinus reflex protects the blood supply to the brain, whereas the aortic reflex is more concerned with maintaining adequate blood pressure in the systemic circuit as a whole.


Which of the following is not one of the three main factors influencing blood pressure?

blood volume
peripheral resistance
cardiac output

Which of the following chemicals does not help regulate blood pressure?

atrial natriuretic peptide
angiotensin II

Aldosterone will ________.

promote an increase in blood pressure

Which of the following processes provides a long-term response to changes in blood pressure?

renal regulation

Which of the following do not influence arterial pulse rate?

postural changes;

Which of the following blood pressure readings would be indicative of hypertension?

170/96 in a 50-year-old man

Mechanisms that do not help regulate blood pressure include ________.

nervous control that operates via reflex arcs involving baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, and higher brain centers;
chemical controls such as atrial natriuretic peptide;
renal regulation via the renin-angiotensin system of vasoconstriction

A patient with essential hypertension might have pressures of 200/120 mm Hg. This hypertensive state could result in all of the following changes except ________.

increased damage to blood vessel endothelium;
increased work of the left ventricle;
increased incidence of coronary artery disease

The short-term controls of blood pressure, mediated by the nervous system and bloodborne chemicals, primarily operate via all but which of the following?

reflex arcs associated with vasomotor fibers;
reflex arcs involving baroreceptors;

Secondary hypertension can be caused by ________.


Which of the following would not result in the dilation of the feeder arterioles and opening of the precapillary sphincters in systemic capillary beds?

a local increase in histamine;
an increase in local tissue carbon dioxide;
a decrease in local tissue oxygen content

The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to which of the following?

changes in arterial pressure

The ________ in the carotid sinuses and aortic arch detect increases in blood pressure.


As a blood pressure cuff is deflated on the arm, sounds of ________ can be heard.


Which of the following is an example of autoregulation of blood flow?

nitric oxide

Which of the following would experience a decreased blood flow during exercise?


Which of the following would not move by diffusion across a capillary into the surrounding tissue?

Carbon dioxide;
Lipid-soluble substances;

Which of the following is a long-term mechanism for maintaining blood pressure?

renal regulation

Where are the sensors for the arterial baroreceptor reflex located?

carotid sinus and aortic arch

If blood pressure is increased at the arterial baroreceptors, what would happen with the activity level of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS)?

increased PNS activity and decreased SNS activity

Which of the following would cause vasodilation of arterioles?

decreased activity of the sympathetic nervous system

Stimulation of the adrenal medulla would result in which of the following?

an increase in heart rate and contractility

A decrease in blood pressure at the arterial baroreceptors would result in which of the following?

an increase in heart contractility

What would be the effect of a high salt diet on blood pressure? What is the physiological basis for your answer?

Increased blood pressure. This is due to increased sodium in the blood, increasing the total extracellular fluid volume.

How would a blow to the head that damages (disables) the vasomotor center affect blood pressure? What is the physiological basis for your answer?

Damage to the vasomotor center will cause a loss of vasomotor tone and a drop in blood pressure, because the vasomotor center is the integrating center for blood pressure control.

How would an attack by a mugger effect blood pressure? What is the physiological basis for your answer?

Blood pressure would increase due to sympathetic nervous system stimulation.

How would a hypothalamic tumor resulting in excess ADH production affect blood pressure? What is the physiological basis for your answer?

Excess ADH production would cause an increase in blood pressure through increased water retention and, therefore, increased blood volume. ADH also stimulates vasoconstriction.

Mr. Wilson is a 45-year-old stockbroker with essential hypertension. He is African American, obese, and he smokes 2-3 packs of cigarettes daily. What risk factors for hypertension are typified by Mr. Wilson? What complications are likely if corrective steps are not taken?

The risk factors are obesity, race, a high-stress job, and smoking. Complications could include atherosclerosis, heart failure, renal failure, and stroke.

A patient lost a lot of blood during surgery and his blood pressure dropped from 120/80 to 90/50. How did the kidneys respond to this change in blood pressure?

Aldosterone and ADH release is triggered. Aldosterone causes increased sodium absorption and ADH causes increased water absorption, increasing blood volume and blood pressure.

T OR F: The adjustment of blood flow to each tissue in proportion to its requirements at any point in time is termed autoregulation.


T OR F: Osmotic pressure is created by the presence in a fluid of small diffusible molecules that easily move through the capillary membrane.


T OR F: Every minute, about 1.5 ml of fluid leaks out of the capillaries.


T OR F: Whereas diffusion is more important for solute exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid, bulk flow is more important for regulation of the relative volumes of blood and interstitial fluid.


Which of the following signs of hypovolemic shock is a relatively late sign?

rapidly falling blood pressure

Which of the following is likely during vigorous exercise?

Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood.

Brain blood flow autoregulation ________.

is abolished when abnormally high CO2 levels persist

Blood flow to the skin ________.

increases when environmental temperature rises

Which of the choices below reflects the balance (or imbalance) between the direction and amount of fluid that flows across the capillary walls?

hydrostatic and osmotic pressure

Which of the following is a type of circulatory shock?

vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone

The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is ________.

shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or after severe vomiting or diarrhea

In the dynamics of blood flow through capillaries, hydrostatic pressure ________.

is the same as capillary blood pressure

Which of the choices below does not involve tissue perfusion?

gas exchange in the lungs;
absorption of nutrients from the digestive tract;
delivery of oxygen and nutrients to, and removal of wastes from, tissue cells;

The velocity of blood flow is ________.

slowest in the capillaries because the total cross-sectional area is the greatest

Cerebral blood flow is regulated by ________.

intrinsic autoregulatory mechanisms

Where in the body would you find low oxygen levels causing vasoconstriction and high levels causing vasodilation?


If blood pressure is almost normal in a person who has lost blood, does that mean the tissues are receiving adequate blood flow?

not necessarily

The most common form of shock is ________.


A family of peptides called ________ are released by the endothelium and are among the most potent vasoconstrictors known.


________ shock is due to abnormal expansion of blood vessels and a rapid drop in blood pressure.


Which of the following would be a result of anaphylaxis (a systemic allergic reaction)?

Vascular shock

Blood from the lower limbs is returned to the heart via the:

inferior vena cava

The inferior vena cava carries blood ____ the ______ of the heart.

to; right atrium

Substances absorbed in the intestines would be routed to the liver via the__________.

hepatic portal system

T OR F: Vasodilation will result in increased blood flow to a given tissue.


T OR F: All capillary beds are continuously perfused with blood.


Which organ blood-flow pattern results in low oxygen levels causing vasoconstriction and high oxygen levels causing vasodilation?


Which of the following is NOT a capillary transport mechanism?

movement through intracellular clefts or fenestrations;
diffusion through the membrane;
transport via vesicles or caveolae

In the capillaries, hydrostatic pressure (HP) is exerted by __________.

blood pressure

The net hydrostatic pressure (HP) is the hydrostatic pressure in the __________ minus hydrostatic pressure in the __________.

capillary; interstitial fluid

What is the effect of hypovolemic shock on the blood vessels and the heart?

Blood vessels constrict to increase venous return and maintain pressure. Heart rate increases to compensate for loss of blood pressure and to maintain cardiac output.

What are the smallest blood vessels in the body?


Bulk fluid movement across capillary walls is typically through what structures?

intercellular clefts

Net (positive) hydrostatic pressure tends to move fluid out of capillaries. The resulting bulk fluid movement is known as __________.


Net (positive) osmotic pressure tends to move fluid into capillaries. The resulting bulk fluid movement is known as __________.


Near the arteriole end of a capillary, what is the relationship between net hydrostatic pressure and net osmotic pressure?

Net hydrostatic pressure is greater than net osmotic pressure.

How do net hydrostatic pressure and net osmotic pressure each change along the length of a capillary (from arteriole to venule)?

Net osmotic pressure stays about the same and net hydrostatic pressure decreases.

Which of the following most accurately describes how net filtration pressure (NFP) affects bulk fluid flow across capillary walls?

positive NFP causes filtration

At a given point along a capillary, the net hydrostatic pressure (Net HP) is 20 mm Hg and the net osmotic pressure (Net OP) is 25 mm Hg. What is the Net Filtration Pressure (NFP) at that point?

-5mm Hg

Overall, fluid moves out of capillaries and into the interstitial space. Which of the following best describes why this occurs?

Capillary filtration is greater than capillary reabsorption

Which of the following most correctly describes the need for a functional lymphatic system?

Lymphatic vessels return interstitial fluid to the blood.

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