24 terms

Chapter 9: Water Resources

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Terms in this set (...)

Aquifer
A permeable layer of rock and sediment that contains groundwater.
Unconfined aquifer
An aquifer made of porous rock covered by soil out of which water can easily flow.
Confined aquifer
An aquifer surrounded by a layer of impermeable rock or clay that impedes water flow.
Water table
The uppermost level at which the water in a given area fully saturates rock or soil.
Groundwater recharge
A process by which water percolates through the soil and works its way into an aquifer.
Spring
A natural source of water formed when water from an aquifer percolates up to the ground surface.
Artesian well
A well created by drilling a hole into a confined aquifer.
Cone of depression
An area lacking groundwater due to rapid withdrawal by a well.
Saltwater intrusion
An infiltration of salt water in an area where groundwater pressure has been reduced from extensive drilling of wells.
Floodplain
The land adjacent to a river.
Impermeable surface
Pavement or buildings that do not allow water penetration.
Levee
An enlarged bank built up on each side of a river.
Dike
A structure built to prevent ocean waters from flooding adjacent land.
Dam
A barrier that runs across a river or stream to control the flow of water.
Reservoir
The water body created by damming a river or stream.
Fish ladder
A stair-like structure that allows migrating fish to get around a dam.
Aqueduct
A canal or ditch used to carry water from one location to another.
Desalination
The process of removing the salt from salt water. Also known as Desalinization.
Distillation
A process of desalination in which water is boiled and the resulting steam is captured and condensed to yield pure water.
Reverse osmosis
A process of desalination in which water is forced through a thin semipermeable membrane at high pressure.
Water footprint
The total daily per capita use of fresh water.
Hydroponic agriculture
The cultivation of plants in greenhouse conditions by immersing roots in a nutrient-rich solution.
Gray water
Wastewater from baths, showers, bathrooms, and washing machines.
Contaminated water
Wastewater from toilets, kitchen sinks, and dishwashers.