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What percent of children are born to unmarried parents?
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Terms in this set (41)
fast starters: long-term job, married, own a home, caring for children

parents without careers: women who do not work at all or work at short-term jobs, men have jobs but do not seek education

educated partners: highly educated, no children, continue to seek education

educated singles: educated but do not live with a partner, more likely to live with parents

working singles: more likely to live at home, feel more comfortable with a steady relationship

slow starters: not settled in a stable job, most likely to live with parents and not involved in romantic relationships
What are some reasons children hide feelings?-avoid negative consequences -protect feelings of self-esteem -maintain good relationships -observe social conventionsHow do parents emotions affect children's?it was found that children of parents who express positive emotions show more positive feelings in schoolDescribe the development of gender identity in an elementary aged child?-continuing to develop -comprehend the constancy and stability of gender across situations -develop attitudes about what is appropriate, but still flexible, although behavior is fairly fixedWhat is an elementary aged child's self-worth related to?-feelings of competence -amount of social support -self-esteem influenced by early experience but is not fixedWhat parental qualities are associated with prosocial behavior?-being warm and supportive -developing mutually responsive relationships -help understand others' feelings -including children in decision making -helping development of internal code of rules -modeling caring and concern for othersWhat is a parents' role in negative behaviors?-harsh discipline predicted aggressive and impulsive behavior problems in k-4th grade -parents more demanding of boys and more disapproving of misbehaviorDescribe the peer relationships of elementary aged children?-spend about 30% or more time with peers -attracted to peers with similar interests -engage in cooperative play, rather than just parallel playDescribe aggression in elementary aged children?-boys are more likely to experience physical aggression -girls are more likely to experience relational aggression (acts designed to deprive children of friends)Describe a victim of bullying-accept aggression and withdraw -become depressed and develop behavior problems -prone to depression in adulthoodDescribe the brain development of an early adolescent-increased development of frontal and prefrontal areas -increased planning, reasoning, and problem solvingWhat stage of piaget's theory is an early adolescent in?Formal operations-adolescent is better able to: think abstractly, reason logically about verbal propositions, meta-cognitionDescribe aspects of early adolescents involvement in school-increased responsibility and self direction -less teacher involvement -students may lose interest and grades declineDescribe the emotional development of an early adolescent-decline in good feelings and increase in negative feelings -report more anxiety and nervousness at school-positive feelings at home -stressful events at home and school create a spillover effectDescribe the self-regulation of an early adolescentbetter able to delay gratification but still more likely to choose immediate small rewards over large delayed rewardsDescribe how parental support affects early adolescents-positive relationship between parents' support and cognitive, emotional, and social competence -parents monitoring teens leads to teens being less likely to engage in risky behaviorsdescribe early adolescents' peer relationships-continue to choose friends with similar interests -personal feelings of social acceptance may come from friendships and activities outside of school -bullying and harrassmentwhat are the tasks and concerns of parents during the early adolescent stage?-single most important influence in the child's life -modeling self controlled, responsible behavior -being sensitive to needs and feelings -monitoring activities and behaviors -making time-being available -providing support during changesDescribe teens thoughts on adolescent sexual activity-teens overestimate the number of teens who are having sexual intercourse -focus is on pregnancy but they ignore other dangers -80% of teens want more info on sexual health issuesDescribe the intellectual development of late adolescents-growth in attention, memory, abstract reasoning, and organizational skills which enable them to plan activities and make more effective decisions -decision making effective when calm and not emotionally arousedDescribe late adolescents school experience-qualities of school and teachers increasingly important -some mastery attitude towards learning resulting in fewer delinquent behaviors -some who struggle academically will have more delinquent behaviors -want schools/teachers to respect them -involvement in extracurricular activitiesDescribe adolescents and working-most adolescents work during the school year -work is most beneficial for those who can balance between work and school and who only work a few hours a weekDescribe late adolescents emotional development-teens have strong emotional reactions because of slow development of emotional and cognitive skills -extracurricular and community activities bring feelings of competence and confidenceDescribe late adolescents relationship with gender identity-gender intensification-pressure to meet gender role expectations -boys rate as higher math competenceDescribe gay/lesbian emotional development identity in late adolescence-changes in attitudes, more accepting -disclosing teens have less internalized self-hatred and less fear of parents finding outDescribe cross-gender identity emotional development in late adolescence-less information available -deal with gender identity disorderDescribe ethnic identity development in late adolescence-continue to explore ethnic identities -experiencing discrimination can prolong the exploratory stageDescribe parent-child attachment in late adolescence-parents remain a secure base as children exploreDescribe styles of parenting in late adolescence-authoritative: consistently generates competence and deterred problem behavior -authoritarian: negative outcomes in european american, positive in african american and asian americanDescribe friendships in late adolescence-provide intimacy, companionship, and understanding -crowds-invite only certain peopleDescribe dating in late adolescence-romantic relationships often intense and brief -quality of dating relationships closely related peer friendshipsWhat are the tasks of parents in late adolescence?promoting healthy sleep habits, healthy eating habits, later and protected sexual activity, discouraging substance use