37 terms

2.1.2 Computing Hardware

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What is hardware?
The physical components of a computer system. It is anything that can be seen or touched.
What does CPU stand for?
Central Processing Unit
What is the CPU responsible for?
Processing data
What are the types of hardware components?
input, output, storage and processing devices.
What are the 2 parts of the CPU?
ALU (Arithmetic and logic unit) and Control Unit
What is the ALU responsible for?
Logical calculations and arithmetic equations.
What is the Control Unit responsible for?
controls the flow of data. It takes an instruction, processes it, and produces an output which is sent to be used/run by other hardware in the computer.
What process does the CPU carry out?
The fetch-execute cycle.
What is the speed of a CPU affected by?
Clock speed, cache size, number of cores
What does the clock speed mean?
number of fetch-decode-execute cycles per second is measured in Hertz (Hz).
What is cache memory?
The lowest level of memory, meaning it is closest to the CPU.
What does having multiple cores helpful for?
make a computer better at multitasking, as different cores can carry out different operations simultaneously.
What does RAM stand for?
Random Access Memory
What are the 2 main type of memory?
RAM and ROM.
What does ROM stand for?
Read Only Memory
Which type of memory is volatile?
RAM
What does volatile mean?
data is lost when it is turned off
How can changes in memory technologies are leading to innovative computer designs?
Memory; Smaller in size. Faster access. Larger capacity. More durable. Costs less per byte/kb. Technology can; be smaller be more mobile/portable. have similar capacity
Which is smaller, RAM or ROM?
ROM
Which is faster?
RAM
What is stored in the ROM?
BIOS (basic input/output system) and hardware drivers.
What are the 2 states in binary?
1 and 0. On or Off.
Why is binary used?
because circuit only check for two states which are 1 or 0.
What are the 3 main logic gates?
NOT, AND and OR.
What is the function of the NOT gate?
If the input is 1 this gate will output 0. If the input is 0 this gate will output 1.
What is the function of the AND gate?
Outputs 1 ONLY if both A and B are 1. Otherwise outputs 0.
What is the function of the OR gate?
Outputs 1 if AT LEAST one of the inputs is 1. Otherwise outputs 0.
Give an example of an input device.
Keyboard. Mouse. Touchscreen. Touchscreen. Microphone
What is accessibility?
Designing products in a way so that they can be used by disabled users.
Give an example of an output device.
Monitor. Speakers. Touchscreen. Printer.
Which device is both an input and output device?
Touch Screen
Give an example of a accessible input device.
Braille keyboard, Foot-Mouse, Speech-to-text.
Give an example of a accessible output device.
High contract monitors, Braille printer, Text-to-speech.
What the the 3 main types of secondary storage?
Magnetic, optical, flash
Which type of secondary storage is the most expensive?
Flash storage
Which type of secondary storage is the fastest?
Flash storage
Which type of secondary storage is the most portable
Optical