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90 terms

Experience Psychology-CH 13

1.Which of the following statements about biological therapies is FALSE?
A. Biological therapies are treatments that reduce or eliminate the symptoms of psychological disorders by altering aspects of body functioning.
B. Drug therapy is the most common form of biological therapy.
C. Psychologists can prescribe drugs for psychological disorders in most states.
D. Medical doctors can prescribe drugs for psychological disorders.
2.Which of the following biomedical interventions for changing behavior is used LEAST often?
A. Aversive conditioning
B. Electroconvulsive therapy
C. Psychosurgery
D. Drug therapy
3. Tranquilizers are ____ drugs.
A. antianxiety
B. antidepressant
C. antipsychotic
D. MAO inhibitor
4. Xanax, Valium, and Librium are benzodiazepines that are commonly used drug therapies for treating ____
A. mood disorders
B. anxiety disorders
C. schizophrenia
D. dissociative disorders
5. Which of the following classes of drugs are NOT considered antidepressants?
A. Tricylics
B. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors
C. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
D. Benzodiazepines
6. ____ treat depression by increasing the level of norepinephrine and serotonin.
A. Tricylics
B. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors
C. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
D. Benzodiazepines
7. Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft are what type of antidepressant drugs?
A. Tricylics
B. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors
C. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
D. Benzodiazepines
8. Lithium is commonly used to treat ____
A. panic attack disorder
B. bipolar disorder
C. schizophrenia
D. major depression
9. In addition to providing treatment for depression, antidepressant drugs may also be an effective treatment for ____
A. schizophrenia
B. anxiety disorders and eating disorders
C. dissociative amnesia
D. antisocial personality disorder
10. Elizabeth visited a psychiatrist who, after interviewing her, recommended either Paxil or Prozac. These drugs are generally used to treat ____
A. social skills deficiencies
B. depression and anxiety
C. bipolar disorder
D. psychosis
11. Lithium is an effective ____ drug.
A. antipsychotic
B. antianxiety
C. barbituate
D. mood-stabilizing
12. Experimental studies on whether antidepressants increase risk of suicide in children and adolescents show that, compared to the control group, children who use antidepressants____
A. were less likely to attempt suicide
B. were three times as likely to attempt suicide
C. were five times as likely to commit suicide
D. showed a greater number of spontaneous statements about suicidal thoughts
13. Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat ____
A. obsessive-compulsive disorder
B. major depressive disorder
C. schizophrenia
D. panic disorder
14. Neuroleptic drugs ____
A. are antianxiety drugs
B. reduce schizophrenic symptoms
C. effectively block serotonin activity in the brain
D. cure schizophrenia
15. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment sometimes used for ____
A. dissociative identity disorder
B. depression
C. schizophrenia
D. obsessive-compulsive disorder
16. Sharon is seeing a new doctor after many different medications have failed to help with her condition. This doctor tells her that many well-designed studies suggest that electroconvulsive therapy is effective in
the treatment of ____
A. borderline personality disorder
B. panic attack disorder
C. schizophrenia
D. depression
17. Ivan is very depressed, and the danger of suicide is eminent. He is not responding to the drugs normally employed to treat depression. Which of the following treatments is most likely to prove helpful in reducing Ivan's depression and suicidal behavior?
A. A self-help group
B. Electroconvulsive therapy
C. Encounter groups
D. Minor tranquilizers
18. Which of the following statements about psychosurgery is FALSE?
A Psychosurgery is a biological therapy that involves the removal or destruction of brain tissue to improve the individual's adjustment.
B.A prefrontal lobotomy is a type of psychosurgery that involves severing fibers that connect the frontal lobe and the thalamus.
C. The effects of psychosurgery can be reversed with intensive therapy.
D. Present-day psychosurgery involves making just a small lesion in the amygdala or another part of the limbic system.
19. Which of the following forms of treatment would be used only as a last resort to help patients with severely debilitating conditions?
A. Drug therapy
B. Cognitive therapy
C. Psychosurgery
D. Psychoanalysis
20. Which of the following perspectives views abnormal behavior as the result of unresolved unconscious conflicts?
A. Psychodynamic therapy
B. Humanistic therapy
C. Social learning therapy
D. Biological therapy
21. According to the psychoanalytic approach to psychotherapy, which of the following is an essential part of the job of a psychotherapist?
A. Point out inconsistencies in the patient's thoughts and behaviors.
B. Encourage the patient to explore his or her potential for growth.
C. Encourage the client to assess his or her own problems through client-centered therapy.
D. Interpret the disguised revelations of the unconscious mind to the patient.
22. The main goal of psychoanalysis is to ____
A. persuade clients to abandon their irrational, misery-inducing beliefs
B. provide clients with insight into their unconscious conflicts
C. train clients to avoid maladaptive patterns of behavior through modeling of appropriate behaviors
D. demonstrate unconditional positive regard toward the client
23. Psychoanalysts attempt to eliminate self-defeating behaviors by ____
A. convincing the client of the inappropriateness of the behaviors
B. paraphrasing the client's statements and asking for clarification
C. training the client in social skills
D. bringing unconscious material to consciousness
24. Dr. Billings is a therapist who specializes in psychoanalysis. The types of techniques that she is likely to use would include ____
A. free association, dream interpretation, transference, and interpreting the client's resistance to discussing painful memories
B. teaching clients to replace their fears systematically with more relaxed responses
C. systematic desensitization and token economies
D. prescribing strong medication that will reduce the client's anxiety so that the client can learn to relax and gain insight
25. Your psychotherapist asks you to "free associate." What are you being asked to do?
A. You are being asked to concentrate on relaxing as your therapist presents you with anxiety-provoking stimuli.
B. You are being asked to completely empty your mind of all thoughts.
C. You are being asked to just "talk" in an undirected manner without reflecting on what you are about to say.
D. You are being asked to recall everything you can about traumatic childhood events.
26. In psychoanalytic theory, the term transference is used to describe ____
A. the gradual shifting of erogenous desires from the mouth to the genitals
B. the phenomenon in which the patient comes to relate to the therapist in ways that resemble her or his other relationships
C. efforts to redirect anxiety-provoking desires into socially acceptable actions
D. the repression of painful memories from conscious awareness
27. Sherice started seeing a psychotherapist because of marital problems. She is unhappy because she feels her husband does not give her enough attention. After several sessions, she is quite taken with her male therapist because he gives her undivided attention. This growing affection for the therapist is called ____
A. resistance
B. latent content
C. reflection
D. transference
28. Bruce is seeing a therapist for his depression but he is always late and has missed several appointments. He talks about sports and the weather to try and avoid facing his problems and he often becomes argumentative with his therapist. According to psychoanalytic theory, Bruce's behavior is a classic example of ____
A. transference
B. resistance
C. projection
D. catharsis
29. James dreamed that he went to his neighbor's house at midnight and made himself a sandwich. His psychoanalyst interpreted the dream to mean that James really wanted to have sex with his neighbor's wife. Making the sandwich was the ____
A. symbolic content of the dream
B. manifest content of the dream
C. latent content of the dream
D. resistant content of the dream
30. According to Freudian dream interpretation, the obvious content of a person's dream hides the true meaning or content of the dream, called the ____ content.
A. obtuse
B. subliminal
C. latent
D. manifest
31. Alice is trying to decide on a type of therapy. Two that were recommended to her were Heinz Kohut's contemporary psychodynamic therapy and humanistic psychotherapy. What do these therapies have in common?
A. They both believe that therapy should replace the patient's unhealthy childhood relationships.
B. They both believe that therapy should bring the patient's feelings into conscious awareness.
C. They both believe that empathy and understanding are needed in therapeutic interactions.
D. They both believe that repressed sexual motives are at the root of emotional disturbance.
32. Dr. Patterson tries to create a warm supportive atmosphere to help her clients improve their self-concepts and to encourage insight into problems. Dr. Patterson says little to her depressed client. Instead, she waits for him to express his feelings and for him to decide what he wants to do about his problems. This emphasis on encouraging self-reflection indicates that Dr. Patterson is practicing ____
A. client-centered therapy
B. behavior therapy
C. psychoanalysis
D. cognitive therapy
33. Mary has been working with a therapist because she has felt very confused and unsure about herself for the past few years. Mary's therapist tends to be very non-directive and devotes a great deal of the session to allowing Mary to explore her identity, wants, and dreams for the future. The therapist rarely gives direct advice and instead is primarily interested in helping Mary clarify her own ideas and feelings. Mary's therapist is most likely associated with the ____ perspective of psychotherapy.
A. cognitive
B. behavioral
C. humanistic
D. psychoanalytic
34. You are a humanistic therapist. A potential client is unfamiliar with your school of therapy and asks you to sum it up. You tell him the primary premise of humanistic therapy is that ____
A. individuals possess the capacity to heal themselves
B. irrational thought results in negative consequences
C. the unconscious mind can affect conscious behavior
D. abnormal behavior can be manipulated in therapy
35. "I have never been a good problem solver. I am not direct enough to be successful," the client complained. "You do not see yourself as a direct problem solver?" responded the therapist. This conversation is an example of ____ and ____ is typical of
A. free association / client-centered therapy
B. transference / psychodynamic therapy
C. reflective speech / psychodynamic therapy
D. reflective speech / client-centered therapy
36. ____ are called insight therapies because they encourage self-awareness as the key to psychological health.
A. Cognitive and sociocultural therapies
B. Behavior and humanistic therapies
C. Psychodynamic and humanistic therapies
D. Psychodynamic and behavior therapies
37. The primary goal of behavior therapy is to ____
A. uncover unconscious conflicts
B. gain self-awareness
C. reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior
D. be sensitive to the cultural and contextual needs of the client
38. Two key assumptions of the ____ approach to therapy are that psychological disorders are learned in exactly the same way as normal behaviors are and that they can be treated by applying the basic principles of learning.
A. biological
B. interpersonal
C. humanistic
D. behavioral
39. All of the following are examples of therapy procedures derived directly from the principles of classical conditioning EXCEPT ____
A. flooding
B. behavior modification
C. systematic desensitization
D. aversive conditioning
40. Systematic desensitization involves ____
A.pairing a feared stimulus with a state of deep relaxation by being exposed to feared situations in a gradual hierarchical fashion
B. exposing an individual to feared stimuli to an excessive degree while not allowing him or her to avoid the stimuli
C. gaining systematic insight into the source of your fear
D. using a gradual build up of self-reflective speech
41. Frank is seeing a therapist for his spider phobia. The therapist first teaches him muscle relaxation and then they develop a stimulus hierarchy. Frank is seeing a therapist who uses____
A. flooding
B. systematic desensitization
C. psychoanalysis
D. social skills training
42. Which of the following is NOT considered a form of behavior therapy?
A. Applied behavior analysis
B. Aversive conditioning
C. Systematic desensitization
D. Client-centered therapy
43. Aversive conditioning can be an effective treatment for ____
A. schizophrenia and panic disorder
B. depression
C. smoking, overeating, and drinking alcohol
D. generalized anxiety disorder
44. As part of a smoking cessation program, Paul receives an injection of a nausea-inducing drug and then is asked to smoke a cigarette. Even though he knows he is receiving the drug, it is hoped that Paul will associate the nausea symptoms with smoking and will thus smoke less. This example best demonstrates the procedures typically used in ____
A. aversive conditioning
B. behavior modification
C. rational emotive therapy
D. systematic desensitization
45. If a therapist gives an alcoholic a drink laced with a nausea-inducing drug so that she or he will become ill after drinking the alcohol, the therapist is using ____
A. systematic desensitization
B. aversive conditioning
C. social skills training
D. an unethical procedure
46. Which of the following therapies represents the application of operant principles to psychological disorders?
A. Systematic desensitization
B. Flooding
C. Applied behavior analysis
D. Aversion therapy
47. ____ therapy is based on the assumption that abnormal behavior is due to faulty ways of thinking and believing.
A. Humanistic
B. Cognitive
C. Gestalt
D. Psychoanalytic
48. A therapist who uses cognitive restructuring believes that ____ behavior are the causes of abnormal
A. parental relationships
B. maladaptive beliefs
C. chemical imbalances
D. childhood experiences
49. A psychologist who practices cognitive therapy might try to help a patient who suffers from a major depressive disorder by ____
A. using systematic desensitization to replace depression with relaxation
B. trying to get the patient to stop having irrational thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes
C. analyzing unconscious conflicts from the patient's past
D. involving the patient in satisfying social activities
50. ____ suggests that psychological disorders are the result of irrational and self-defeating beliefs.
A. Psychoanalysis
B. Humanistic therapy
C. Rational-emotive behavior theory
D. Integrative therapy
51. ____ is an example of a cognitive therapy.
A. Rational-emotive therapy
B. Client-centered therapy
C. Family therapy
D. Psychoanalysis
52. A therapist challenges her client during a therapy session by saying, "So what if your fiancée left you and married your roommate instead? Why does that mean that you are not a good person?" The therapist is working from which perspective?
A. Integrative therapy
B. Psychoanalysis
C. Rational-emotive behavior
D. Person-centered
53. Dr. Tetris is a rational-emotive behavior therapist speaking to a civic group. Which of the following would likely be his summary statement?
A. "Children must be reared with appropriate high-quality role models."
B. "Behavior that is normal in one society may be deviant in others."
C. "You must get in touch with your own feelings!"
D. "Our unrealistic beliefs cause many emotional problems."
54. Judy thinks she is depressed over her teacher's criticism of her paper. Judy's therapist explains to her that Judy's own irrational belief—that the criticism means she is stupid—is really why she is depressed. Judy is likely to be seeing a therapist who is providing ____ therapy
A. behavioral
B. Beck's cognitive
C. humanistic
D. psychoanalytic
55. Beck's cognitive therapy focuses on ____
A. illogical thoughts
B. resistance
C. positive reinforcement
D. the relationship between therapist and client
56. Luanne is being treated for depression after a breakup with her boyfriend. Her therapist points out that her thoughts, and not the situation itself, cause her depression. Luanne's therapist seems to practice ____ therapy.
A. psychodynamic
B. humanistic
C. client-centered
D. Beck's cognitive
57. ____ is very directive, persuasive, and confrontational. In contrast, involves more of an open-ended dialogue between the therapist and the individual.
A. Beck's cognitive therapy / rational-emotive behavior therapy
B. Rational-emotive behavior therapy / Beck's cognitive therapy
C. Client-centered therapy / behavior therapy
D. Integrative therapy / psychodynamic therapy
58. ____ is an important aspect of cognitive-behavior therapy.
A. Self-efficacy
B. Insight
C. Self-awareness
D. Cultural sensitivity
59. Research suggests that cognitive therapy can be an effective treatment for____
A. anxiety disorders and mood disorders
B. schizophrenia
C. personality disorders
D. All of these
60. Tasha is seeing a therapist because she is depressed. Her therapist gives her examples of reinforcing self- statements and trains Tasha on self-instructional methods that allow her to modify her own behavior.
Tasha's therapist is most likely practicing____
A. psychodynamic therapy
B. humanistic therapy
C. cognitive-behavior therapy
D. family therapy
61. Research shows that cognitive therapy can be a promising treatment for ____
A. depression
B. panic disorder
C. post-traumatic stress disorder
D. All of these
62. Dr. Guerrero judges which particular methods will provide the greatest benefit for her clients. Currently she is using use a behavioral approach to treat an individual with panic disorder and a cognitive therapy approach to treat a client with major depressive disorder. Dr. Guerrero is practicing ____
A. psychoanalysis
B. humanistic therapy
C. biological therapy
D. integrative therapy
63. Integrative therapy is most compatible with the ____ model of abnormal behavior.
A. psychodynamic
B. humanistic
C. biopsychosocial
D. cognitive
64. One goal of cognitive therapy may be to help individuals gain control over automatic emotional reactions in the _______with control processes originating in the ______.
A. amygdala / prefrontal cortex
B. prefrontal cortex / amygdala
C. cerebrum / hypothalamus
D. amygdala / hypothalamus
65. A major advantage to group therapy is that ____
A. clients have more opportunity to develop social skills
B. clients can get more undivided attention from the therapist
C. the therapist has less work to do because the clients do most of the work
D. it is better suited to clients with severe problems
66. Dr. Houltin is a therapist who regularly meets with several clients simultaneously. In this setting, clients share information and provide feedback to each other. Dr. Houltin is practicing ____
A. family therapy
B. group therapy
C. unethical behavior
D. feminist therapy
67. Dr. Susan is your family therapist. She believes that to adequately understand psychological problems, she must understand the role that you play in the family system. Which of these statements supports that underlying belief?
A. Older siblings are usually relied upon to provide therapeutic solutions.
B. The individual must be cured before the remainder of the family is infected.
C. Problems of the individual are often caused by problems in the family.
D. Mothers and fathers are the cause of almost every psychological problem.
68. Which of the following statements about family therapy is TRUE?
A Family therapists assume that although one person may have some abnormal symptoms, the symptoms are a function of the family relationships.
B. Psychodynamic, humanistic, and behavior therapies may be used in family therapy.
C. Validation, reframing, structural change, and detriangulation are the most widely used family therapy techniques.
D. All of these
69. A researcher has found that in families with high levels of emotional expression, schizophrenics are more likely to relapse after returning home from the hospital. An observation such as this would warrant the
use of which of the following therapies?
A. Family therapy
B. Aversive therapy
C. Psychoactive medications
D. Interpersonal therapy
70. One aspect of family therapy is the idea that a family member's symptoms are a function of the family relationships. If, for example, a teenage son is the scapegoat of the parents, which family therapy technique would be the most appropriate to use?
A. Validation
B. Reframing
C. Structural change
D. Detriangulation
71. Validation, reframing, structural change, and detriangulation are techniques commonly used in ____
A. psychoanalysis
B. cognitive therapy
C. family therapy
D. behavioral therapy
72. Which of the following forms of treatment relies on paraprofessionals?
A. Family therapy
B. Couples therapy
C. Self-help groups
D. Humanistic therapy
73. Which of the following is a goal of couples therapy?
A. To improve the communication between the partners
B. To facilitate better sexual relations
C. To decrease the number of rules set for each of the partners
D. To increase the amount of warmth between the partners
74. John does not have much money, but requires the help of a mental health professional. He might best be served by contacting a ____
A. board-certified psychiatrist
B. self-help support group
C. humanistic therapist
D. counseling psychologist
75. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is based on which of the following therapeutic approaches?
A. Family therapy
B. Self-help group
C. Rational-emotive therapy
D. Cognitive-behavioral therapy
76. Research has shown that online support groups are more likely to emerge for ____
A. younger persons than older persons
B. problems that are potentially stigmatizing and for problems that are more likely to be suffered by women rather than men
C. severe and chronic psychological disorders than for mild or short-lived disorders
D. anxiety disorders than for personality disorders
77. Deinstitutionalization ____
A. is a process that began with the passage of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963
B. was motivated by a desire to have individuals with disorders remain within society and with their families while receiving treatment in community mental health centers
C. has been implicated in rising rates of homelessness
D. All of these
78. Community mental health programs seek to help people who are disenfranchised from society to lead happier, more productive lives through the concept of ____
A. unconditional positive regard
B. empowerment
C. transference
D. cognitive-restructuring
79. Given that collectivist cultures place more importance on the group than on the individual, some psychologists have suggested that ____ is likely to be more effective with people from Asian and Latin cultures.
A. psychoanalysis
B. humanistic therapy
C. family therapy
D. a self-help support group
80. Researchers have found that when there is an ethnic match between the therapist and the client and when ethnic-specific services are provided,____
A. clients are more likely to drop out of therapy early
B. clients have better treatment outcomes
C. treatment outcomes are the same as when there is no ethnic match
D. both the client and therapist typically show evidence of bias or prejudice against other groups
81. When working with a psychotherapy client who is from a different culture, Dr. Johnson uses her knowledge of the person's culture and ethnicity in working with the client, but is careful not to over- generalize and blindly apply her stereotypes. Which of the following labels best describes Dr. Johnson?
A. Dr. Johnson appears to be culturally insensitive.
B. Dr. Johnson appears to be culturally skilled.
C. Dr. Johnson appears to be ethnically diverse.
D. Dr. Johnson appears to be an eclectic therapist.
82. Which form of psychotherapy has been shown to be the most effective in treating psychological disorders?
A. Psychoanalysis
B. Humanistic
C. Cognitive-behavioral
D. All of the above can be equally effective.
83. Research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy ____.
A. is mixed, in that psychotherapy works well for women but not for men
B. clearly shows that psychotherapy works
C. shows that psychoanalysis is more effective than cognitive therapy
D. shows that humanistic therapy is more effective than behavioral therapy
84. Therapy benefits most individuals with psychological problems at least through the first ____ and possibly longer.
A. month
B. three months
C. six months
D. year
85. A therapy is considered effective if ______.
A. a person feels as though it was personally beneficial
B. it frees a person from the negative effects of a psychological disorder
C. a person experiences a high level of well-being
D. it can make a person physically healthier
86. _____is a short-term, problem-focused, directive therapy that encourages clients to accentuate the positive.
A. Psychoanalysis
B. Humanistic therapy
C. Client-centered therapy
D. Well-being therapy
87. Effective psychotherapies have which of the following characteristics?
A. Expectations of help
B. Mastery
C. Emotional arousal
D. All of these
88. The therapeutic alliance is the relationship between the therapist and_____
A. the client
B. the American Psychiatric Association
C. the local government
D. other professional therapists who practice in the same state
89. Clients of therapists who do not monitor the quality of the therapeutic alliance are ______.
A. more likely to drop out of therapy
B. less likely to experience negative outcomes as a result of therapy
C. likely to feel more hopeful about overcoming their disorder
D. likely to feel more respected and supported by the therapist
90. Research shows that ____ is the most important determinant of therapy outcome.
A. the therapist's credentials
B. the cost of the therapist
C. the quality of the client's participation
D. the client's age