SSUSH#1 13 Colonies

Lawley & Whitehart
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New World
name given to the Americas during the time of European exploration and colonization
Joint Stock Company
A business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits [VA]
Headright System
The Virginia Company's system in which settlers and the family members who came with them each received 50 acres of land
Jamestown
The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607.
John Smith
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
Powhatan Indians
original tribes in the area surrounding Jamestown, gave the settlers food, taught them the ways of the forests and introduced new crops (corn and yams), constantly warring with the settlers
Tobacco
Cash crop that made a profit and saved Jamestown [Brown Gold]
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legislative acts.
Nathaniel Bacon
agitator who led poor former indentured servants and frontiersmen on a rampage against Indians and colonial government
Bacon's Rebellion
rebels felt the governor of Virginia failed to protect the frontier from the Native Americans
Agricultural Society
a society based on large-scale agriculture
Indentured Servant
A migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years.
Slave
a person who is owned by another person and works without pay
Royal Colony
colony under the direct control of the English Crown
New England
a region of northeastern United States comprising Maine and New Hampshire and Vermont and Massachusetts and Rhode Island and Connecticut
Plymouth Colony
Colony founded by the Separatist Pilgrims who came over on the Mayflower. Located in New England.
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
one of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of Massachusetts, originally where Boston is located. It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community
King Philip
Indian leader who waged an unsuccessful war against New England [Chief Metacom]
Roger Williams
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
Rhode Island
Roger Williams founded this colony when he was expelled from Massachusetts for religious disagreements. Supported the separation of church and state and paying the Indians for their land.
Anne Hutchinson
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
John Winthrop
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. .
Heretics
those who hold to a belief opposed to the established teachings of a church
Town Meetings
meeting in colonial New England where settlers discussed and voted on issues
Salem Witch Trials
in the 1680's and 1690's adolescent girls of Salem, Massachusetts, accused several West Indian servants of voodoo lore, and hundreds of people (mostly women) of witchcraft (exercising of satanic powers), ending with 19 being put to death, and the girls who had been the accusers, admitting that they fabricated their story. This was one of the many examples of hysteria and chaos that broke out due to the tensions that built in Puritan communities.
Halfway Covenant
A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
Middle Colonies
New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware
Dutch Settlement
Settled in the Hudson valley, had no standing military, traded with Natives for furs, and wanted to tap directly into the wealth flowing out of North America. English took it over and made it New York
New Amsterdam
Dutch colony, present day New York City
William Penn
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
Quakers
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in 1681, Charles II awarded the land of PA to William Penn, in order to pay off a debt to his father. He established Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers
Merchants
a person whose business is buying and selling goods
Navigation Acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Fur Trade
The trading of fur and animal pelts in the Canada because the Northern soil was not suitable for cash crops.
Quebec
First permanent French settlement in North America (1608), founded by Samuel de Champlain
New France
French colonies in North America; extended from St. Lawrence River along Great Lakes and down Mississippi River valley system.
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer who founded Quebec, the first permanent French settlement in North America
St. Lawrence River
a river in North America that flows from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean
Catholic Missionaries
Priests who try to persuade people to convert to their religion.
Taught Indians new skills/catholic faith.
New Orleans
Strategic Southern French outpost at the mouth of the Mississippi