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33 terms

AP environmental science ch. 15

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aerosols
the movements of the atmosphere are sufficient to keep large quantity of solid and liquid particles suspended within it
- collectively these tiny solid & liquid articles are called aerosols
air
2 gases : nitrogen and oxygen make up 99% of the volume of clean , dry air
albedo
the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by a surface is called its albedo
autumnal equinox
equinoxes occur midway between the solstices
- September 22 or 23 is the date of the autumnal equinox
circle of illumination
the line separating the dark half of earth from the lighted half
climate
based on observations that have been accumulated over many years
- the average weather
conduction
is the transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity
convection
total energy that radiates from the sun, they are only part of a large array of energy called electromagnetic radiation
element(of weather and climate)
1) air temperature
2)humidity
3) type and amount of cloudiness
4) type and amount of precipitation
5) air pressure
6) speed and direction of wind
environmental lapse rate
the temperature decrease in the troposphere is called the environmental lapse rate
greenhouse effect
not the same thing as global warming
- gases get trapped in our atmosphere
heat
id defined as the total kinetic energy of all atoms or molecules that make up a substance
inclination of the axis
earth's axis is not perpendicular
- instead it's tilted
-if it weren't tilted there would be no season changes
infrared
longer wave length
- can not be seen but which we can detect as heat
mesosphere
temperatures again decrease with height until, at the mesopause , more than 50 miles above the surface the temperature reaches -90 Celsius
ozone
important component of the atmosphere
- crucial to people on earth
- absorbs harmful (UV) rays from the sun
radiation
radiates fro the sun, large array of energy
- or electromagnetic radiation
reflection
is the process whereby light bounces back from an object at the same angle at which it encounters a surface with the same intensity
revolution
refers to the movement of earth in its orbit around the sun
rotation
is the spinning of earth on its axis
scattering
produces a larger # of weaker rays that travel in different directions
spring equinox
- march 21 or 22 is the date of the spring equinox
stratosphere
- beyond the tropopause
- the temp remains constant to height of 12 miles , and begins to gradually increase until the statopause
summer solstice
- june 21 or 22
- the official date summer starts
temperature
is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual atoms or molecules in a substance
thermospere
- the fourth layer extends outward from the mesopause and as no well defined upper limit
- a layer that contains only a tiny fraction of the atmosphere's mass
tropic of cancer
vertical rays of the sun strike north of the equator
tropic of Capricorn
the suns vertical rays strike 23 1/2 south latitude
- this parall is known as the tropic of Capricorn
troposphere
the bottom layer in which we live, where temperatures decrease with an increase in altitude
(UV) ultraviolet
the closest invisible waves to violet
- dangerous to humans
visible light
is the only portion of the spectrum we can see
weather
- is constantly changing, sometimes from hour to hour and at times from day to day
- it is a term that refers to the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place
winter solstice
- December 21 or 22
- the first day of winter