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Chapter 10 Tests of Intelligence
Terms in this set (90)
the first published intelligence test to provide organized and detailed administration and scoring instructions
item subbed for regular item under specified conds.(ex: sit. where examiner failed to properly admin reg. item)
Ratio of testtaker's mental age divided by his chronological age, mult. by 100 to elimin. decimals
reflects comparison of performance of individual with perform. of others same age in the standardization sample
essent. converted to standard score with mean of 100 & SD of 16
So performance at same level as the avg person same age IQ = 100
different items grouped by age
test organized into subtests by item category, not by age at which most test takers are presumed capable of responding in the way that is keyed as correct
test score or index derived from combination of, and/ or a mathematical transformation of, one or more subtest scores
designed to illustrate the task required and assure the examiner that the examinee understands
Lowest level items on subtest
highest level of items on subtest
Base level criterion that must be met for testing on the subtest to continue
reached when examinees fail a certain number of items in a row
way examinee copes with frustration; how examinee reacts to items considered very easy; amount of support required; general approach to task; anxious, fatigued, cooperative, distractible, or compulsive examinee appears
one that is administered to obtain a composite score
supplemental subtest (optional subtest)
Used for purposes such as providing additional clinical information or extending the number of abilities or processes sampled
index designed to help understand the way the test taker processes various kinds of information
test that has been abbreviated in length, typ. to reduce time for test admin., scoring, and interpretation
Army Alpha test
Test administered to Army recruits who could read. Contained tasks such as general info questions, analogies, and scrambled sentences
Army Beta test
designed for admin to foreign-born recruits with poor knowledge of English or to illiterate recruits
group intelligence test
known as school ability test
psychological dimension that characterizes consistency with which one acquires and processes information
reflects the ability to process info about the visual appearance of objects as well as pictorial properties of the object (such as shape, color, and texture)
deductive reasoning process that entails recall and consideration of facts as well as a series of logical judgments to narrow down solutions and eventually arrive at one solution
Reasoning process in which thought is free to move in many different directions, making several solutions possible
What figures into a test users appeal?
theory on which test is based,
eased which scored,
ease results can be interpreted,
adequacy of norms,
acceptability of published reliability and validity indices,
utility in terms of cost vs benefit
What are some tests of intelligence constructed on?
An intelligence test may be developed on the basis of one theory but _________ in terms of another theory?
What year did Lewis Terman begin a collaboration with a Stanford colleague, Maude Merrill, to revise the Stanford Binet?
What year did Binet collaborate with Simon to create the worlds first formal test of intelligence?
What was a major critcism to the first Binet test?
lack of representation of minority groups
A major innovation in the second Binet test of 1960 was?
deviation IQ tables in place of the ratio IQ tables
What was the problem with the 1972 Revision of the Stanford Binet?
Norms may have overrepresented the West, as well as large urban communities.
The Fourth edition of the Binet was different how?
Represented a significant departure from previous versions in theoretical organization, test organization, test administration, test scoring, and test interpretation. Went from an age scale to a point scale.
What does standardization of a test mean?
Implies uniformity of procedures in administrating and scoring the test.
Stanford-Binet 5th edition
An individually admin. intelligence test approp. for use with individs. from 2 - 85,
-based on hierarchical model of intelligence includes a global "g" factor at one level and broad factors at a second level
-2nd level includes CHC 5-factor model of cognitive abilities (fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative processing, visual-spatial processing, and working-memory)
testing in which client's responses to earlier qs deter. subseq. qs presented to them
-help ensure assessee is engaged in testing process; not too difficult or easy to deter attention
What are the benefits of beginning and intelligence test or subtest at an optimal difficulty level?
-allows test to provide max info in min time
-minimizes potential for examinee fatigue
Subtest to direct testtaker to suitable item difficulty level; determine which test to give next
-Two used in Standford-Binet:
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
WAIS is most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.
of Wechsler Tests
All raw scores converted to standardized scores
-Mean of 100
-Standard deviation of 15
How many core subtests does the WAIS have?
-block design, similarities, digit span, matrix reasoning, vocabulary, arithmetic, symbol search, visual puzzles, information, and coding
optional subtest (supplemental subtests)
one of a test's subtests may be used for purposes of providing additional info or in place of a core subtest if, for any reason, the use of a score on a core subtest would be questionable
What are the composite scores for the stanford-binet 5th edition?
All composite scores have mean set at 100 and standard deviation of 15.
What are the sub test scores for the stanford-binet 5th edition
All sub test scores have a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3.
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children
(WISC) Ages 6:0 to 16:11 months
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
(WPPSI) 2:6- 7:7
Culture Fair tests
Lack predictive validity, Minority groups tended to score lower
culture specific test, Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogenity, did yield higher scores for minority but lacked predictive validity, looked at streetwiseness
The WAIS IV
based on original W-B I, 1930 Wechsler was employed by Bellevue Hospital in NYC
How many core subtests and supplemental subtests does the WAIS IV have?
10 cored subtests and 5 supplemental
What improvements did the WAIS IV have?
more explicit admin instructs, expanded use of demo and sample/practice items, practice items ensure low scores are due to a deficit and not a misunderstanding of directions, expanded floor and ceiling, Floor FSIQ of 40/Ceiling FSIQ of 160, ages up to 90 yrs 11 months
What was the standardization/Norms of the WAIS IV
2,200 adults from 16 to 90.11, 2005 census info, stopped using ref group of ages 20-34 years and now use same age group as testtakers
WAIS IV has high reliability/satisfactory validity?
Differences between WAIS IV and SB5?
Comparable scores in middle ranges for IQ but at extreme ends discrepancies. Intellectually disabled WAIS full scale scores approx 16 points higher than SB5
What is the WISC-IV?
Wechsler intelligence scale for children fourth edition
When was the original WISC published?
1949, standardized only for whites, items perpetuated gender and culture stereotypes
intelligence scale for children revised in 1974, included non whites in standardization, pics culturally balanced, child friendly (candy cars instead of cigars),
Todays child test, closer to CHC model of intelligence, g factor, cognitive functions interrelated, in real life cog tasks are rarely done in isolation
WISC-IV has FSIQ(full scale intelligence quotient) and 4 index scores
verbal comp, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed, does NOT yield sep Verbal and Performance IQ scores--10 core and 5 supplemental
aka tailored, sequential, branched, and response contingent testing
What 3 Wechsler IQ tests are used today?
WAIS-IV 16-90.11, WISC-IV ages 6-16.11, WPPSI-III ages 3-7.3
The WAIS III was more user friendly and had larger test materials for older adults?
WISC-IV compared to SB5
both publised in 2003, about 1 hour for full FSIQ of 10 subtests, WISC-IV has 5 supp tests SB5 has none,WISC IV no short forms but SB5 has abbreviated battery IQ, both child friendly, both have optional avail software for scoring and report writing.
WPPSI or whipsy - Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
Project head start fostered interest in development of new test for preschoolers. pub in 1967, ext age range down to 4, first test that adeq. sampled total pop of US including racial minorities. This greatly contributed to its success.
The WISC IV (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) includes parent education as one stratifying variable while the SB5 does not?
The SB5 included socioeconomic status and testtaker education as stratifying variables while the WISC IV did not?
What is a short form?
refers to test that has been abbreviated in length, typically to reduce the time needed for test administration, scoring and interpretation.
Who might use a short form?
school psychologists with long waiting lists for assessment appts, forensic psychologists in over burdened criminal justice system, health insurers seeking to pay less for assessment services.
What are the concerns with using short forms?
whether transfer of validity from the parent form to the short form can be achieved, reducing item number in test typically reduces the tests reliability and hence its validity. Wechsler stated in 1958 to use short forms only for screening and to find the time for the full test.
WASI Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence
published in 1999, designed to answer need for short instrument to screen intellectual ability from 6 to 89 years of age. comes in 2 subtests form Vocabulary and Block Design and 4 subtest form Vocab, Block Design, Similarities and Matrix Reasoning. Yields measures of Verbal IQ, Performance IQ and Full Scale IQ. set at 100 with SD of 15.
Name examples of Short forms
WASI, Kaufman Brief Intelligence Scale Second Edition (KBIT-2), Wide Range Intelligence Test (WRIT) all have high convergent validity.
helps to discover the smallest number of psychological dimensions or factors that can account for the various behaviors, symptoms and test scores we observe.
-can help researchers decide how best to summarize large amounts of info about people by using just a few scores.
Kaufman Assessment Battery
for Children (K-ABC)
A test designed for individual administration. The K-ABC departed conceptually from previously published intelligence tests with its focus on information processing and, more specifically, with its distinction between sequential and simultaneous processing. The Kaufmans drew on the theoretical writings of A. R. Luria.
Army General Classification Test (AGCT).
the threat of a second world war loomed that interest in group intelligence testing reemerged; this led to development of the Army General Classification Test (AGCT).
An assessment unit discretely
named the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) developed innovative measures for selecting spies and secret agents to work abroad. By the way, the OSS was a predecessor to today's Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
an instrument or procedure used to identify a particular trait or constellation of traits at a gross or imprecise level.
group tests used today by the armed forces?
the Officer Qualifying Test (a 115-item multiple-choice test used by the U.S. Navy as an admissions
test to Officer Candidate School), the Airman Qualifying Exam (a 200-item multiple-choice test given to all U.S. Air Force volunteers), and the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB).
the group intelligence test, now also referred to as a school ability test, is by no means extinct. In many states, legal mandates prohibit the use of group intelligence data alone for class assignment purposes. However, group intelligence test data can, when combined with other data, be useful in developing a profile of a child's intellectual assets.
What are some of the many group intelligence tests available for use in school settings?
The California Test of Mental Maturity, the Kuhlmann-Anderson Intelligence Tests, the Henmon-Nelson Tests of Mental Ability, and the Cognitive Abilities Test.
What was the first group intelligence test to be used in U.S. schools?
Otis-Lennon School Ability Test, formerly the Otis Mental Ability Test. In its current edition,is designed to measure abstract thinking and reasoning ability and to assist in school evaluation and placement decision-making. A nationally standardized test yields Verbal and Non-verbal score indexes as well as an overall School Ability Index (SAI).
Who came up with the idea of visual object ability, the ability to process info about the visual appearance and pictorial properties of objects, a new proposed component of intelligence.
What are 4 terms common to measures of creativity?
originality, fluency, flexibility and elaboration.
In 1954 Guilford described what tasks to measure creativity?
Consequences ("Imagine what would happen if . . .") Unusual Uses (for example, "Name as many uses as you can think of for a rubber band").
Included in Guilford et al.'s (1974) test battery, the Structure-of-Intellect Abilities, are verbally oriented tasks (such as Word Fluency) and nonverbally oriented tasks (such as Sketches)
-Based on the work of Mednick (1962), the Remote Associates Test (RAT) presents the testtaker with three words; the task is to find a fourth word associated with the other three.
-The Torrance (1966, 1987a, 1987b) Tests of
Creative Thinking consist of word-based, picture-based, and sound-based test materials. In a subtest of different sounds, for example, the exam-
inee's task is to respond with the thoughts that each sound conjures up. Each subtest is designed to measure various characteristics deemed important in the process of creative thought.
Name some tests of Creativity and explain them.
Creativity tests tend to have ________
tenuous reliability and validity estimates.
What are psychoeducational batteries?
In recent years test packages have been developed to test not only intelligence but also related abilities in educational settings.
Give an example of a intelligence Theory that was reconceptualized
CHC Cattell Horn Carroll
In 1916 who published a translation and extension of the Binet Simon intelligence scale that helped get worldwide recognition for Binet test?
What is the ability to process info about the visual appearance and pictorial properties of objects, a new proposed component of intelligence?
visual object ability
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