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Chemistry Chapter 10
Terms in this set (62)
How many covalent bonds are formed by a neutral atom for each of the following elements?
N forms: 3 bonds
H forms: 1 bond
O forms: 2 bonds
Match. Marked bond in the structure shown with the correct description
1. wedged bond c - in front of the page
2. dashed bond b - behind the plane of the page
3. solid line bond a - in the plane of the page
In what way does the structural formula of a compound differ from its molecular formula?
The structural formula shows the arrangement of atoms and bonds
Which of the following statements correctly describe organic compounds?
1. All organic compounds contain carbon atoms
2. organic compounds may contain nitrogen or oxygen atoms
The central carbon atom in the structure shown is bonded to four different groups. This molecule is ___ and is ___ on its mirror image. The central carbon atom is therefore chiral.
not symmetrical; not superimposable
Some drugs modify the body's functions by binding to the active site of a(n) ___, thus preventing the natural substrate from binding at the site.
Match. Element to the number of covalent bonds it usually forms in a neutral compound.
Which of the following options correctly interpret the carbon skeleton formula shown?
1. This compound contains 6 carbon atoms
2. The atom marked "b" is a carbon atom
3. The atom marked "a" has 1 hydrogen atom attached to it
What does the general rule "like dissolves like" mean when referring to organic compounds?
Nonpolar compounds will dissolve in nonpolar solvents
Which of the following options correctly describe a line-angle drawing of an organic compound?
1. A line-angle drawing allows one to focus on the carbon backbone of the molecule
2. The carbon backbone of the molecule is drawn as a zigzag line
3. A carbon atom is assumed to occupy each vertex position
Classify each of the compounds shown correctly according to its functional group
B: carboxylic acid
In order for a drug to show a particular biological activity, the three-dimensional arrangement of the molecule must fit the shape of the active site on a specific ___. Since compounds that are optical isomers have ___ three-dimensional arrangements they often do not have the same biological activity.
Match. Component or formulation of ephedra with the condition(s) it has been used to treat
1. pseudoephedrine: nasal decongestant
2. ephedra dietary supplements: weight loss aid
3. ephedrine: bronchodilator
Which of the following options correctly describes organic compounds?
Organic compounds contain carbon, combined with a small number of other elements
Which of the following are included under the FDA definition of a dietary supplement?
2. amino acids
3. herbal extracts
A drug that contains either an anime group or a carboxylic ___ can be made more water soluble by neutralizing it and forming a(n) ___
Compounds such as aspirin and tylenol are collectively referred to as ___
A drug that is chemically equivalent to a pioneer drug, but is marketed more cheaply, is called a(n) ___ drug
Which of the following options correctly describe the functional groups in the molecule shown?
1. The functional group marked "a" is an ester group
2. Functional group "c" is a hydroxyl group
A substance whose reactions are catalyzed by a particular enzyme is known as a ___
Which of the following options correctly describe the properties and function of receptor sites in the body?
1. Receptor sites often control the passage of substances across a cell membrane
2. The active site on a receptor has a specific three-dimensional shape
3. The ability of a substrate to bind to a particular receptor is dependent both on its functional groups and its shape
Match. Compound involved in the inflammatory response with its correct function
1. arachidonic acid: released by a damaged cell
2. cyclooxygenases: catalyze the synthesis of hormone-like compounds involved in inflammation
3. prostaglandins: produce an array of effects that contribute to inflammation
Match. Marked carbon atom in the incomplete organic structure shown with the correct number of H atoms needed to fulfill its normal bonding requirement
1. a - 3
2. b - 1
3. c - 2
A ___ group is a distinctive arrangement of atoms in a molecule that is responsible for the characteristic physical and chemical properties of the molecule
Match. General formula for each functional group to its correct name
1. A - aldehyde
2. B - ester
3. C - amine
4. D - hydroxyl
5. E - ether
Why are many drugs containing carboxylic acid or amine groups often administered as their salts?
1. The salt form of the drug is often more stable and has a longer shelf life
2. The salts tend to be more soluble in water
Chemical messengers produced by the body's endocrine glands are called ___
Compounds that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other are called ___ isomers
Isomers have the same ___ formula but different ___ formulas
Which of the following options correctly describe a condensed structural formula?
1. In the condensed formula CH3CH2CH2CH3, the carbon and hydrogen atoms are understood to be joined by single bonds
2. Carbon-to-hydrogen bonds are not drawn out explicitly
A substance, natural or synthetic, that is intended to prevent, alleviate, or cure an illness is called a(n)
Which of the following pathways is responsible for MOST of the communication between different parts of the body?
Chemical messengers released into the bloodstream circulate to the appropriate target organ
Which of the following options correctly represent therapeutic uses of steroidal drugs?
1. treatment of inflammation
2. treatment of rashes
What is the relationship between Compound Y and each of the other structures shown?
A: identical to compound Y
B: different, unrelated compound
C: isomer of Compound Y
Proteins that act as biochemical catalysts are called ___
Match. Naturally occurring steroid with its chief function in the human body
1. progesterone: regulation of the female reproductive cycle
2. cholic acid: digestion of fat
3. cholesterol: important component of cell membranes
4. cortisone: regulation of inflammation
Which of the following conditions could be treated using stereoidal anti-inflammatories?
A structural formula in which carbon-to-hydrogen bonds are not shown explicitly is called a(n) ___ structural formula
Organic molecules containing nitrogen atoms can exist in two forms, illustrated in the accompanying figure. Structure A represents the ___ form of the amine, hwich can be converted to its salt (B) by reaction with aqueous ___
Which of the following options correctly defines a chiral molecule?
a molecule that cannot be superimposed on its mirror image
Which of the options given are correct representations of structure W?
In a line-angle drawing such as the one shown, each vertex represents a(n) ___ atom
Water is a polar molecule. What does this mean?
1. The oxygen atom of a water molecule carries a partial negative charge
2. Water has an unsymmetrical distribution of electrons
Match. Herbal remedy to condition it is commonly used to treat
1. Echinacea: colds, flu
2. St. John's wort: depression
3. Peppermint: digestive problems
4. Ginkgo biloba: memory loss
Which of the following condensed formulas is a correct representation of the expanded structure shown?
Combinatorial chemistry involves the preparation of ___, which are large collections of compounds that can be rapidly synthesized and screened
Functional groups containing ___ and ___ atoms usually increase the polarity of a molecule
Which statement correctly describes the system of drug scheduling regulated by the Controlled Substance Act?
a schedule V drug has the lowest potential for abuse
Which of the following factors contribute to the overall polarity of water?
1. the water molecule has a bent geometry
2. a water molecule contains polar covalent bonds
3. water has an asymmetric distribution of electrons
What class of compound share the fused ring structure shown in the accompanying figure?
An ester is formed by the reaction of a(n) ___ with a(n) ___
alcohol; carboxylic acid
Match. Interaction of each optical isomer in a pair with the correct description and designation
1. (-) isomer: counterclockwise rotation of polarized light
2. (+) isomer: clockwise rotation of polarized light
Any object that is not superimposable on its mirror image shows "handedness" and is described as being
Which of the following options correctly describe the properties and action of THC, the major psychoactive compound in marijuana?
1. THC binds to specific receptors on nerve cells
2. THC acts directly on receptors in the brain
3. THC affects physical coordination
Which statement correctly describes a structure-activity relationship study?
Small variations are made in the structure of a compound to determine their effects on its activity
Which of the following is NOT a correct representation of the expanded structure shown?
Which of the following options correctly describe the action of opiates, such as morphine, in the human body?
1. Opiates stimulate endorphin pathways in the brain
2. Morphine-type drugs bind to a receptor that interrupts transmission of pain to the spinal cord
Which of the structures provided is the correct product for the reaction shown?
Which of the marked carbon atoms in the structure shown are chiral carbons?
a & c
Which of the structures shown represents the optical isomer of compound Y?
Which of the following options describe ways in which NSAIDs reduce inflammation?
1. All NSAIDs block the action of cyclooxygenase enzymes
2. NSAIDs may suppress the pain receptors in the body
Match. Functional group correctly to its condensed structural formula
1. R-COOH: carboxylic acid
2. R-CO-R': ketone
3. R-CHO: aldehyde
4. R-COOR': ester
5. RCONH2: amide
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