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161 terms

Final Exam

This set includes studies on pain, blood and lymphatic disorders, cardiovascular disorders, respiratory disorders, digestive disorders, urinary system disorders, and the endocrine system and its disorders
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The border between the atria and ventricles is marked by
coronary sulci
The semilunar valves are
prevent back flow of blood into ventricles
Where are conducting cells found? What are their fuction?
distribute contractile stimulus to the myocardium && are found in the AV bundle and purkinje fibers
The heart beat is influenced by
contractile cells and noncontractile cells
Which wall in the heart is thicker
The left ventricular wall
- it must eject blood into circulation
What seperates the left and right sides of the heart
the septum
What transports blood away from the heart
arteries
What transports blood to the heart
veins
What is the term used for listening to the sounds of the heart, usually with a stethoscope
auscultation
What is an ECG test for
used to record the image of the heart and the valve movements
What test may be performed in order to see the heart internally
A cardiac catherization
What does Arterial blood gas determine
the oxygen level and acid-base balance
Name the semilunar valves
aortic and pulmonary valves
Arteries and veins are different in that
veins have valves
An unclosed foramen ovale results in
blood back flow of the left atrium into the pulmonary circuit &hypertrophy of the heart - eventually death
myocardial infarcations result from
plaque formation of arterial walls (clogged arteries)
-this triggers the clotting effect
A cardiac pacemaker is found where in the heart
The SA nodes
Regular but slow heart rate is referred to as
Bradycardia
Regular but rapid heart rate is known as
Tachycardia
The alternating between Tachycardia and Bradycardia is known as
Sick sinus syndrome
What involves the transfer of gases between air-filled spaces between the lungs and blood
diffusion
The conducting airways span from...
the nasopharynx to the bronchioles
PO2 refers to
the oxygen in a dissolved state in the plasma
What refers to how stiff the lungs are
compliance
In a "normal" patient, what percentage of air is left behind in dead spaces after expiration
30%
A low V/Q ratio could possibly be an indication of...
asthma or an obstructive disease
The impulses related to acute pain are usually transmitted by...
myelinated A delta fibers
In what structure do pain impulses ascend the spinal cord
the spinothalamic tract
what is the term used to describe the degree of pain that is endured before action is taken
pain tolerance
Pain percieved in the left arm during the course of a heart attack is an example of:
referred pain
A headache that is related to changes in cerebral blood flow is classified as what type of headache
migraine
what is a common analgesic administered to a patient with moderate pain
codeine
what is a common analgesic administered to a patient with severe pain
morphine
what is a common analgesic administered to a patient with mild pain
Acetaminophen (Aspirin)
What are pain receptors that are stimulated by thermal, chemical, or physical means
nociceptors
What process takes place during an injection of spinal anesthesia
The drug is injected into the CSF or the epidural space numbing the patient at the site of injection and below
What defines severe pain that cannot be controlled by medication
Intractable pain
T or F
Young infants respond to pain with Brachycardia and a decrease in blood pressure
F
infants will respond with an increased heart rate (Tachycardia) and increase in blood pressure
What term is used to describe a deficit of all types of blood cells
pancytopenia
Vitamin K is required by the liver to synthesize what
prothrombin
T or F
Individuals with type O blood are considered to be universal donors because their blood contains A and B antibodies
F
Type O blood lacks A and B antiGENS
What is the cause of sickle cell anemia
A defective gene inherited from both parents
What causes numbness and tingling in the fingers of inidviduals with untreated pernicious anemia
vitamin B12 deficit causin peripheral nerve demylination
What characteristics do erythrocytes have in pernicious anemia
RBC's are very large (megaloblastic or macrocytic) & contain a nuclei
What are the typical early general signs/symptoms of anemia
pallor, dyspnea, and fatigue
What is the cause of oral ulcerations and delayed healing occurring with any severe anemia
a deficit of oxygen for epithelial cell mitosis
T or F
Hypochlorhydria is present in pernicious anemia
True
What are the common early signs of aplastic anemia
excessive bleeding and recurrent infections
Why do vascular occlusions and infarcts occur frequently with sickle-cell anemia
Erythrocytes change shape when hypoxia occurs
In the case of Polycythemia vera why is blood pressure elevated
due to increased blood volume
Petechiae and purpura are common signs of
increased bleeding tendencies
T or F
Heparin is classified as an anticoagulant
True
Multiple infections are able to develop with acute leukemia due to
many circulating leukocytes are immature
Why is excessive bleeding a common occurrence with acute leukemia
decreased platelets
T or F
In Hodgkin's disease the initial tumor is large, very painful, yet no effect on lymph nodes
False
the initial tumor in Hodgkin's disease is often a single tumor, painless & lymph nodes become enlarged.
Often cervical
Hodgkin's lymphoma and NonHodgkin's lymphoma differ, in that NonHodgkin's presents itself as
scattered, multiple, enlarged and painless lymph nodes
Multiple myeloma is a malignant tumor involving
plasma cells
The Reed-Sternberg cell is diagnostic for
Hodgkin's lymphoma
Pancytopenia develops in which type of anemia
Aplastic anemia
T or F
Aplastic anemia is idiopathic in many cases and is a disorder inherited genetically
False
Anemia is not a genetic disorder
T or F
An increased ventricular pressure causes the atrioventricular valve to close
True
The normal delay in conduction through the atrioventricular node is essential for
completing ventricular filling
T or F
Vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels would be a result from an increase in the secretion of epinephrine
False
increased secretion of epinephrine would cause increased heart rate and force of contractions
T or F
Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system causes an increased heart rate
True
Which event causes the QRS wave on an ECG tracing
ventricular depolarization
What will a partial obstruction in a coronary artery likely cause
angina attacks
Cigarette smoking is a risk factor in coronary artery disease because smoking
promotes platelet adhesion
What does the term arteriosclerosis specifically refer to
degeneration with loss of elasticity and obstruction in small arteries
An atheroma develops from
an accumulation of lipids, cells, and fibrin where endothelial injury has occurred
What promotes atheroma development
Low-Density lipoproteins (LDL)
T or F
Myocardial Infarction pain is relieved by rest and the intake of nitroglycerin
False
Heart attacks are not, Angina pain are relieved this way
What best describes the basic pathophysiology of myocardial infarction
Total obstruction of a coronary artery causes myocardial necrosis
Calcium-blocking channels are effective in
reducing cardiac and smooth muscle contractions
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is marked by
hemoptysis and rales
What would be a sign of aortic stenosis
a heart murmur
What would an incompetent mitral valve cause
decreased output from the LEFT VENTRICLE
In children with tetralogy of Fallot, why does unoxygenated blood enter the systemic circulation
pulmonary stenosis changes the ventricular pressures
Why does pericarditis cause a reduction in cardiac output
excess fluid in the pericardial cavity decreases ventricular filling
What is concidered to be the basic pathophysiologic change in essential hypertension
increases systemic vasoconstriction
Where is uncontrolled hypertension most likely to cause ischemia and loss of function
kidneys, brain, and retinas of the eye
When is a diagnosis of essential hypertension likely to be considered
when blood pressure constantly remains above 140/90
A friction rub is associated with what
pericarditis
How does a dissecting aortic aneurysm develop
a tear in the intimal lining allows blood flow between layers of the aortic wall
How is shock defined
decreased circulating blood and tissue perfusion
The cause of essential hypertension is concidered to be
idopathic
What type of cardiac malfunction would a pacemaker most likely be inserted
total heart block
What is the most dangerous arrhythmia
ventricular fibrillation
T or F
Niroglycerin strenthens the myocaridal contraction
False
It decreases myocardial workload by causing systemic vasodilation
What is the most common factor predisposing to the development of varicose veins
increased venous pressure
Heart block, in which a conduction delay at the AV node resultsin intermittent missed ventricular contractions is called
second-degree block
A very rapid heart rate reduces cardiac output because
ventricular filling is reduced
In patients with congestive heart failure, ACE inhibitor drugs are useful because they
reduce renin and aldosterone secretion
In a child with ventricular septal defect, altered blow flow is called
a left-to-right shunt
what would hypercapnia cause
respiratory acidosis
What would hyperventilation cause
respiratory alkalosis
What does the term hemopysis refer to
bright red streaks of blood in frothy sputum
Difficulty breathing in a recumbent position is referred to as
Orthopnea
What are typical signs and symptoms of epiglottitis
sudden fever, sore throat, and drooling saliva
What is the most common cause of viral pneumonia
influenza virus (A or B)
How does severe hypoxia develop with pneumonia
oxygen diffusion is impaired by the congestion
What is the cause of Legionnaires' disease
a gram-negative bacteria
How is primary TB identified
caseation necrosis and formation of a tubercle in the lungs
Histoplasmosis is caused by
fungus
Cystic Fibrosis is transmitted by
an autosomal recessive gene
T or F
Depression of the cough and swallow reflexes due to drugs would be a predipsing factor to postoperative aspirtaion
True
Destruction of alveolar walls and septae is a typical change in
emphysema
What are the typical changes with bronchiectasis
airway obstructions and weak, dilated bronchial walls
Why does cor pulmonale develop with chronic pulmonary disease
Pulmonary fibrosis and vasoconstriction increase vasuclar resistance
What is caused by frequent inhalation of irritating particles such as silica
fibrosis and loss of compliance
T or F
Hyperproteinemia is a cause of pulmonary edema
False
Hypoproteinemia
What is a large-sized pulmonary embolus likely to cause
hypotension and right-sided heart failure
What is a common source of pulmonary embolus
thrombus forming in the femoral veins
T or F
asymmetrical chest movements is a manifestation of a simple closed pneumothorax
True
Infant respiratory distress syndrome results from
insufficient surfactant production
Which term refers to the level of stimulation required to activate sensory nerve endings and cause pain in an individual
pain threshold
Whcih term refers to pain felt at a different location that differs from the actual origin
referred pain
Transmission of impulses on small A delta afferent fibers is a characteristic of
acute pain, sharp and localized
T or F
increased release of endorphines usually increases pain tolerance
True
T or F
endorphines are chemically similar to opiates
True
What is the primary purpose of pain
The bodys defense or warning signal that something is wrong
Migrane headaches are related to
abnormal cerebral blood flow
What method of adminstration is used for spinal anesthesia
Epidural injection in lower spinal cord
Cutaneous pain is also referred to as
Somatic Pain
Impulses for acute pain are transmitted by
neospinothalamic tract
Which type of anemia is jaundice most likely to occur
Hemolytic anemia
What type of anemia may be accompanied by excessive bleeding and leukopenia
Aplastic anemia
What type of anemia may be caused by chemotherapy treatments
Aplastic anemia
What type of disorder is sickle cell anemia
autosomal recessive
What type of anemia may be caused by radiotherapy used in the treatment of cancer
Aplastic anemia
What type of anemia may cause vascular occulations and infarcations in various organs
Sickle cell anemia
-Think about how the shape of sickle cells affect other organs in forms of clotting
What type of anemia is caused by lack of intrinsic factor
Pernicious anemia
What type of anemia is characterized by neurological symptoms such as lack of muscle coordination
Perniciouos anemia
What type of anemia is likely to cause inflammation of the tongue and mouth
iron-deficiency anemia
What type of anemia may be treated by bone marrow transplantation
Aplastic anemia
What disorder is characterized by the presence of Reid-Steiberg cell
Hodgkin's disease
Leukemia is classified according to
the type of white blood cell that has undergone malignant transformation
What type of disorder is hemophilia
sex-linked recessive
What is the most common cause of essential hypertension
essential hypertension is ideopathic
What is the most common site of myocardial infarction
left ventricular wall
Orthopenia is a classic manifestation of
left-sided heart failure
swelling of the ankles and other signs of peripheral edema are classic manifestations of
right-sided heart failure
Pulmonary edema is a complication of
left-sided heart failure
Which valve defect would most likely cause left sided heart failure
aortic stenosis
What medications are used in the treatment of septic shock
antimicrobials
Which type of shock is characterized by extreme dsypnea
anaphylactic
T or F
Metabolic alkalosis is a manifestation of shock
False
The inner layer of the heart is called
endocardium
What is concidered to be the "pacemaker" of the heart
SA nodes
In an ECG the P wave represents the
depoloarization of the atria
The cardiac control center is located in what region of the brain
medulla oblongata
ACE inhibitors are what type of drugs
antihypertensive drugs
How is a diagnosis of TB confirmed
septum containing tuberculosis bacilli
Where do a large number of pulmonary emboli originate
leg veins
Accumulation of air in the plural cavity is referred to as
pneumothorax
What is hemoptysis
...
Which type of hepatitis has a carrier state
Hepatitis B and C
Which type of viral hepatitis is transmitted via the fecal-oral route
Hepatitis A
Which type(s) of hepatitis is (are) transmitted through blood or other bodily fluids
Hepatitis B and C
What is responsible for the encephalopathy that occurs in the end-stage of cirrhosis
accumulation of toxins within the blood
T or F
Crohn's disease commonly affects the ileum
True
Steatorrhea is a characteristic sign of
celiac disease