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This set includes studies on pain, blood and lymphatic disorders, cardiovascular disorders, respiratory disorders, digestive disorders, urinary system disorders, and the endocrine system and its disorders

The border between the atria and ventricles is marked by

coronary sulci

The semilunar valves are

prevent back flow of blood into ventricles

Where are conducting cells found? What are their fuction?

distribute contractile stimulus to the myocardium && are found in the AV bundle and purkinje fibers

The heart beat is influenced by

contractile cells and noncontractile cells

Which wall in the heart is thicker

The left ventricular wall
- it must eject blood into circulation

What seperates the left and right sides of the heart

the septum

What transports blood away from the heart


What transports blood to the heart


What is the term used for listening to the sounds of the heart, usually with a stethoscope


What is an ECG test for

used to record the image of the heart and the valve movements

What test may be performed in order to see the heart internally

A cardiac catherization

What does Arterial blood gas determine

the oxygen level and acid-base balance

Name the semilunar valves

aortic and pulmonary valves

Arteries and veins are different in that

veins have valves

An unclosed foramen ovale results in

blood back flow of the left atrium into the pulmonary circuit &hypertrophy of the heart - eventually death

myocardial infarcations result from

plaque formation of arterial walls (clogged arteries)
-this triggers the clotting effect

A cardiac pacemaker is found where in the heart

The SA nodes

Regular but slow heart rate is referred to as


Regular but rapid heart rate is known as


The alternating between Tachycardia and Bradycardia is known as

Sick sinus syndrome

What involves the transfer of gases between air-filled spaces between the lungs and blood


The conducting airways span from...

the nasopharynx to the bronchioles

PO2 refers to

the oxygen in a dissolved state in the plasma

What refers to how stiff the lungs are


In a "normal" patient, what percentage of air is left behind in dead spaces after expiration


A low V/Q ratio could possibly be an indication of...

asthma or an obstructive disease

The impulses related to acute pain are usually transmitted by...

myelinated A delta fibers

In what structure do pain impulses ascend the spinal cord

the spinothalamic tract

what is the term used to describe the degree of pain that is endured before action is taken

pain tolerance

Pain percieved in the left arm during the course of a heart attack is an example of:

referred pain

A headache that is related to changes in cerebral blood flow is classified as what type of headache


what is a common analgesic administered to a patient with moderate pain


what is a common analgesic administered to a patient with severe pain


what is a common analgesic administered to a patient with mild pain

Acetaminophen (Aspirin)

What are pain receptors that are stimulated by thermal, chemical, or physical means


What process takes place during an injection of spinal anesthesia

The drug is injected into the CSF or the epidural space numbing the patient at the site of injection and below

What defines severe pain that cannot be controlled by medication

Intractable pain

T or F
Young infants respond to pain with Brachycardia and a decrease in blood pressure

infants will respond with an increased heart rate (Tachycardia) and increase in blood pressure

What term is used to describe a deficit of all types of blood cells


Vitamin K is required by the liver to synthesize what


T or F
Individuals with type O blood are considered to be universal donors because their blood contains A and B antibodies

Type O blood lacks A and B antiGENS

What is the cause of sickle cell anemia

A defective gene inherited from both parents

What causes numbness and tingling in the fingers of inidviduals with untreated pernicious anemia

vitamin B12 deficit causin peripheral nerve demylination

What characteristics do erythrocytes have in pernicious anemia

RBC's are very large (megaloblastic or macrocytic) & contain a nuclei

What are the typical early general signs/symptoms of anemia

pallor, dyspnea, and fatigue

What is the cause of oral ulcerations and delayed healing occurring with any severe anemia

a deficit of oxygen for epithelial cell mitosis

T or F
Hypochlorhydria is present in pernicious anemia


What are the common early signs of aplastic anemia

excessive bleeding and recurrent infections

Why do vascular occlusions and infarcts occur frequently with sickle-cell anemia

Erythrocytes change shape when hypoxia occurs

In the case of Polycythemia vera why is blood pressure elevated

due to increased blood volume

Petechiae and purpura are common signs of

increased bleeding tendencies

T or F
Heparin is classified as an anticoagulant


Multiple infections are able to develop with acute leukemia due to

many circulating leukocytes are immature

Why is excessive bleeding a common occurrence with acute leukemia

decreased platelets

T or F
In Hodgkin's disease the initial tumor is large, very painful, yet no effect on lymph nodes

the initial tumor in Hodgkin's disease is often a single tumor, painless & lymph nodes become enlarged.
Often cervical

Hodgkin's lymphoma and NonHodgkin's lymphoma differ, in that NonHodgkin's presents itself as

scattered, multiple, enlarged and painless lymph nodes

Multiple myeloma is a malignant tumor involving

plasma cells

The Reed-Sternberg cell is diagnostic for

Hodgkin's lymphoma

Pancytopenia develops in which type of anemia

Aplastic anemia

T or F
Aplastic anemia is idiopathic in many cases and is a disorder inherited genetically

Anemia is not a genetic disorder

T or F
An increased ventricular pressure causes the atrioventricular valve to close


The normal delay in conduction through the atrioventricular node is essential for

completing ventricular filling

T or F
Vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels would be a result from an increase in the secretion of epinephrine

increased secretion of epinephrine would cause increased heart rate and force of contractions

T or F
Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system causes an increased heart rate


Which event causes the QRS wave on an ECG tracing

ventricular depolarization

What will a partial obstruction in a coronary artery likely cause

angina attacks

Cigarette smoking is a risk factor in coronary artery disease because smoking

promotes platelet adhesion

What does the term arteriosclerosis specifically refer to

degeneration with loss of elasticity and obstruction in small arteries

An atheroma develops from

an accumulation of lipids, cells, and fibrin where endothelial injury has occurred

What promotes atheroma development

Low-Density lipoproteins (LDL)

T or F
Myocardial Infarction pain is relieved by rest and the intake of nitroglycerin

Heart attacks are not, Angina pain are relieved this way

What best describes the basic pathophysiology of myocardial infarction

Total obstruction of a coronary artery causes myocardial necrosis

Calcium-blocking channels are effective in

reducing cardiac and smooth muscle contractions

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is marked by

hemoptysis and rales

What would be a sign of aortic stenosis

a heart murmur

What would an incompetent mitral valve cause

decreased output from the LEFT VENTRICLE

In children with tetralogy of Fallot, why does unoxygenated blood enter the systemic circulation

pulmonary stenosis changes the ventricular pressures

Why does pericarditis cause a reduction in cardiac output

excess fluid in the pericardial cavity decreases ventricular filling

What is concidered to be the basic pathophysiologic change in essential hypertension

increases systemic vasoconstriction

Where is uncontrolled hypertension most likely to cause ischemia and loss of function

kidneys, brain, and retinas of the eye

When is a diagnosis of essential hypertension likely to be considered

when blood pressure constantly remains above 140/90

A friction rub is associated with what


How does a dissecting aortic aneurysm develop

a tear in the intimal lining allows blood flow between layers of the aortic wall

How is shock defined

decreased circulating blood and tissue perfusion

The cause of essential hypertension is concidered to be


What type of cardiac malfunction would a pacemaker most likely be inserted

total heart block

What is the most dangerous arrhythmia

ventricular fibrillation

T or F
Niroglycerin strenthens the myocaridal contraction

It decreases myocardial workload by causing systemic vasodilation

What is the most common factor predisposing to the development of varicose veins

increased venous pressure

Heart block, in which a conduction delay at the AV node resultsin intermittent missed ventricular contractions is called

second-degree block

A very rapid heart rate reduces cardiac output because

ventricular filling is reduced

In patients with congestive heart failure, ACE inhibitor drugs are useful because they

reduce renin and aldosterone secretion

In a child with ventricular septal defect, altered blow flow is called

a left-to-right shunt

what would hypercapnia cause

respiratory acidosis

What would hyperventilation cause

respiratory alkalosis

What does the term hemopysis refer to

bright red streaks of blood in frothy sputum

Difficulty breathing in a recumbent position is referred to as


What are typical signs and symptoms of epiglottitis

sudden fever, sore throat, and drooling saliva

What is the most common cause of viral pneumonia

influenza virus (A or B)

How does severe hypoxia develop with pneumonia

oxygen diffusion is impaired by the congestion

What is the cause of Legionnaires' disease

a gram-negative bacteria

How is primary TB identified

caseation necrosis and formation of a tubercle in the lungs

Histoplasmosis is caused by


Cystic Fibrosis is transmitted by

an autosomal recessive gene

T or F
Depression of the cough and swallow reflexes due to drugs would be a predipsing factor to postoperative aspirtaion


Destruction of alveolar walls and septae is a typical change in


What are the typical changes with bronchiectasis

airway obstructions and weak, dilated bronchial walls

Why does cor pulmonale develop with chronic pulmonary disease

Pulmonary fibrosis and vasoconstriction increase vasuclar resistance

What is caused by frequent inhalation of irritating particles such as silica

fibrosis and loss of compliance

T or F
Hyperproteinemia is a cause of pulmonary edema


What is a large-sized pulmonary embolus likely to cause

hypotension and right-sided heart failure

What is a common source of pulmonary embolus

thrombus forming in the femoral veins

T or F
asymmetrical chest movements is a manifestation of a simple closed pneumothorax


Infant respiratory distress syndrome results from

insufficient surfactant production

Which term refers to the level of stimulation required to activate sensory nerve endings and cause pain in an individual

pain threshold

Whcih term refers to pain felt at a different location that differs from the actual origin

referred pain

Transmission of impulses on small A delta afferent fibers is a characteristic of

acute pain, sharp and localized

T or F
increased release of endorphines usually increases pain tolerance


T or F
endorphines are chemically similar to opiates


What is the primary purpose of pain

The bodys defense or warning signal that something is wrong

Migrane headaches are related to

abnormal cerebral blood flow

What method of adminstration is used for spinal anesthesia

Epidural injection in lower spinal cord

Cutaneous pain is also referred to as

Somatic Pain

Impulses for acute pain are transmitted by

neospinothalamic tract

Which type of anemia is jaundice most likely to occur

Hemolytic anemia

What type of anemia may be accompanied by excessive bleeding and leukopenia

Aplastic anemia

What type of anemia may be caused by chemotherapy treatments

Aplastic anemia

What type of disorder is sickle cell anemia

autosomal recessive

What type of anemia may be caused by radiotherapy used in the treatment of cancer

Aplastic anemia

What type of anemia may cause vascular occulations and infarcations in various organs

Sickle cell anemia
-Think about how the shape of sickle cells affect other organs in forms of clotting

What type of anemia is caused by lack of intrinsic factor

Pernicious anemia

What type of anemia is characterized by neurological symptoms such as lack of muscle coordination

Perniciouos anemia

What type of anemia is likely to cause inflammation of the tongue and mouth

iron-deficiency anemia

What type of anemia may be treated by bone marrow transplantation

Aplastic anemia

What disorder is characterized by the presence of Reid-Steiberg cell

Hodgkin's disease

Leukemia is classified according to

the type of white blood cell that has undergone malignant transformation

What type of disorder is hemophilia

sex-linked recessive

What is the most common cause of essential hypertension

essential hypertension is ideopathic

What is the most common site of myocardial infarction

left ventricular wall

Orthopenia is a classic manifestation of

left-sided heart failure

swelling of the ankles and other signs of peripheral edema are classic manifestations of

right-sided heart failure

Pulmonary edema is a complication of

left-sided heart failure

Which valve defect would most likely cause left sided heart failure

aortic stenosis

What medications are used in the treatment of septic shock


Which type of shock is characterized by extreme dsypnea


T or F
Metabolic alkalosis is a manifestation of shock


The inner layer of the heart is called


What is concidered to be the "pacemaker" of the heart

SA nodes

In an ECG the P wave represents the

depoloarization of the atria

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