U.S. History AIR Test Study Guide
Terms in this set (79)
gave congress the power to tax people's incomes
1913 constitutional amendment allowing American voters to directly elect US senators
prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
granted women the right to vote in 1920
Twenty First Amendment
Repealed or ended the 18th amendment that banned alcohol
Plessy V. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Declaration of Independence
Drafted in 1776 by T. Jefferson declaring America's separation from Great Britain (3 parts-New theory of government, reasons for separation, formal declaration of war and independence)
1787 law that set up a government for the Northwest Territory and a plan for admitting new states to the Union (first states to be added were Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, Michigan)
Articles of Confederation
First governing document of US - created a WEAK central government; issues with trade - different currencies in each state, tariffs on goods traded between states
"The supreme law of the land." Written in 1787 at the constitutional convention in Philadelphia, ratified in 1788, amended 27 times (first 10= bill of rights), creates 3 branches of national government
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution
A group who opposed the ratification of the Constitution in 1787. They opposed a strong central government (tyranny) and supported states' rights.
ways to improve the conditions in cities during industrialization (1) protect social welfare (2) create economic reform (3) promote moral improvement (4) fostering efficiency
The development of industries for the machine production of goods.
The growth of cities
An association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages.
overcrowded apartments where the immigrants crammed into
Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public
The right to vote
A ban on the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages (18th amendment)
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
putting to death a person by the illegal action of a mob
A European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing individual rights, democracy, and abolishment of absolute monarchies
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
Organization founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism, and to gain civil rights for African Americans
Movement of African Americans from the South to the North for jobs, the height of the migration was during WWI
A plan by President Franklin Roosevelt intended to bring economic relief, recovery, and reforms to the country during the Great Depression.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
loans that the government promised to repay with interest that helped pay for WWI and WWII
Gardens planted by American citizens during war to raise vegetables for home use, leaving more food for the troops
Base in Hawaii that was bombed by japan on December 7, 1941, this led to America entering the second world war.
A national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs
A conflict in which the participating countries devote all their resources to the war effort
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe and prevention of communism
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
military alliance formed after WWII between most of Europe and North America
A period of general fear of communists. America had a Red Scare during the 1920s and 1950s.
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Spanish American War
an 1898 conflict between the united states and spain, in which the united states supported cubans' fight for indepedence. started because of yellow journalism (Hearsts NY and Pulitzer's NYW) and the explosion of U.S.S. maine
Treaty of Versailles
Ended WWI and harshly punished Germany for their involvement in the war, the treaty required Germany to greatly reduce its military, pay war reparation to the Allies, take full blame for the war, lose colonies it had conquered in Africa, and was not allowed to join the League of Nations
League of Nations
An organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace.
Wilson's Fourteen Points
A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.Freedom of seas, Abolishing secret treaties, removal of economic barriers, Reduction of armaments, Changing colonial claims to help both colonizers and native people.
Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S.
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
a series of laws enacted in 1935 and 1936 to prevent prevent U.S. arms sales and loans to nations at war
Cash and Carry Policy
Allowed Great Britain and France to acquire any items except arms from the US, as long as they immediately paid for the items and carried them on non-American ships
1941 law that authorized the president to aid any nation whose defense he believed was vital to American security
a declaration of principles between the U.S. and Britain that opposed the Axis Powers
..., The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
HUAC (House Committee on UnAmerican Activities)
a congressional committee that investigated communist influence inside and outside the U.S. government in the years following WWII
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Part of the Red Scare, these were measures to hunt out political radicals and immigrants who were potential threats to American security; led to the arrest of nearly 5,500 people and the deportation of nearly 400.
A procedure for removing a public official from office by a vote of the people.
Procedure whereby the state submits legislation to its voters for approval, allowing citizens to vote directly on issues
A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.
N.O.W. National Organization for Women
campaigned for enforcement of laws banning sex discrimination in work and education, for maternity leaves and for government funding of day care centers
U.F.W. United Farm Workers
Labor union of farm workers that used non violent tactics including a workers strike and a consumer boycott of table grapes to win recognition from growers
amendment to the 1902 Cuban constitution that allowed the United States to intervene in Cuba (created after the Spanish-American War)
Good Neighbor Policy
President Franklin Roosevelt's policy intended to strengthen friendly relations with Latin America
President Taft's policy of building strong economic ties to Latin America
the power struggle between the Soviet Union and the United States after World War II
Yalta and Potsdam Conference
major meetings at the end of WWII to discuss rebuilding Europe and post war issues
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
military alliance of democratic states in Europe and North America to combat communism
Alliance against democracy, supporting communism, Soviet Union was a major superpower in this alliance
Bans gender discrimination in education (including sports)
A written legal agreement signed in 1215 that limited the English monarch's power
United Farm Workers
Mexican American organize for better working conditions under leader Cesar Chavez
1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery.
gives U.S. citizenship to anyone born or naturalized in America, grants equal protection under the law (1868)
This amendment granted black men the right to vote. (1870)
northeastern and midwestern states of US in which heavy industry has declined (Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Pennsylvania)
The South and Southwest regions of the United States. (California, Texas, Arizona)
Immigration Act of 1965
a law that increased the number of immigrants allowed to settle in the US especially from Latin America, Asia, and Africa
Regents of CA v. Bakke
affirmative action is constitutional, but race quotas can not be as strict
a policy designed to give special consideration to those previously discriminated against.
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